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A three roll mill or triple roll millis a machine that uses shear force created by three horizontally positioned rolls rotating in opposite directions and different speeds relative to each other, in order to mix, refine, disperse, or homogenize viscous materials fed into it.
The three-roll mill has proven to be the most successful of the range of roll mills which saw extensive development in the 19th century. These included the single-roll mill and the five-roll mill. The single-roll mill works by material passing between the roll and a fixed bar pressing against the roll. The five-roll mill incorporates four successively smaller in-running nips and hence, compared to the three-roll mill, allows the use of larger agglomerates as part of the input material- but is correspondingly more complicated and expensive.
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The three adjacent rolls of a three roll mill (called the feed roll, centre roll and apron roll) rotate at progressively higher speeds. Material, usually in the form of paste, is fed between the feed roll and the center roll. Due to the narrowing space between the rolls, most of the paste initially remains in the feed region. The part that makes it through the first in-running nip experiences very high shear force due to the different rotation speeds of the two rolls. Upon exiting, the material that remains on the center roll moves through the second nip between the center roll and apron roll. This subjects it to an even higher shear force, due to the higher speed of the apron roll and typically, a smaller gap than between the feed and centre rolls. A knife blade then scrapes the processed material off the apron roll and the paste rolls down the apron. This milling cycle can be repeated several times to maximize dispersion.
The gaps between the rolls can be mechanically or hydraulically adjusted and maintained. Typically, the gap distance is far greater than the particle size. In some operations, the gap distance is gradually decreased to achieve the desired level of dispersion. The rollers are normally internally water-cooled.
Three roll mills are widely used to mix printing inks, electronic thick film inks, high performance ceramics, cosmetics, plastisols, carbon/graphite, paints, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, glass coatings, dental composites, pigment, coatings, adhesives, sealants, and foods. With the recent development in technology, they are also utilized in the production of cable cover, electronics, soap, and artificial plastics.
Small bench models are used for bench-top development work, laboratory work, and low volume production. Larger bench and floor models are built to meet different production needs from pilot plants to large volume productions.
Particular advantages of this process are that it allows high-viscosity pastes to be milled, and that the high surface contact with the cooled rollers allow the temperature to remain low despite the high amount of dispersion work being put in. A notable disadvantage is that the large open area of paste on the rollers causes loss of volatiles.
In printing, anilox is a method used to provide a measured amount of ink to a flexographic (flexo) printing plate. An anilox roll is a hard cylinder, usually constructed of a steel or aluminum core which is coated by an industrial ceramic whose surface contains millions of very fine dimples, known as cells. During printing, the anilox roll is coated in ink which it then transfers onto the flexo printing plate. The number, size, and geometry of the anilox cells determines the amount of ink that the anilox roll delivers to the plate.
A paper machine is an industrial machine which is used in the pulp and paper industry to create paper in large quantities at high speed. Modern paper-making machines are based on the principles of the Fourdrinier Machine, which uses a moving woven mesh to create a continuous paper web by filtering out the fibres held in a paper stock and producing a continuously moving wet mat of fibre. This is dried in the machine to produce a strong paper web.
Offset printing is a commonly used printing technique in which the inked image is transferred from a plate to a rubber blanket, then to the printing surface. When used in combination with the lithographic process, which is based on the repulsion of oil and water, the offset technique employs a flat (planographic) image carrier. Ink rollers transfer ink to the image areas of the image carrier, while a water roller applies a water-based film to the non-image areas.
Rotogravure is a type of intaglio printing process, which involves engraving the image onto an image carrier. In gravure printing, the image is engraved onto a cylinder because, like offset printing and flexography, it uses a rotary printing press. Once a staple of newspaper photo features, the rotogravure process is still used for commercial printing of magazines, postcards, and corrugated (cardboard) and other product packaging.
A bandsaw is a power saw with a long, sharp blade consisting of a continuous band of toothed metal stretched between two or more wheels to cut material. They are used principally in woodworking, metalworking, and lumbering, but may cut a variety of materials. Advantages include uniform cutting action as a result of an evenly distributed tooth load, and the ability to cut irregular or curved shapes like a jigsaw. The minimum radius of a curve is determined by the width of the band and its kerf. Most bandsaws have two wheels rotating in the same plane, one of which is powered, although some may have three or four to distribute the load. The blade itself can come in a variety of sizes and tooth pitches, which enables the machine to be highly versatile and able to cut a wide variety of materials including wood, metal and plastic.
A calender is a series of hard pressure rollers used to finish or smooth a sheet of material such as paper, textiles, or plastics. Calender rolls are also used to form some types of plastic films and to apply coatings. Some calender rolls are heated or cooled as needed. Calenders are sometimes mis-spelled calendars.
Corona treatment is a surface modification technique that uses a low temperature corona discharge plasma to impart changes in the properties of a surface. The corona plasma is generated by the application of high voltage to an electrode that has a sharp tip. The plasma forms at the tip. A linear array of electrodes is often used to create a curtain of corona plasma. Materials such as plastics, cloth, or paper may be passed through the corona plasma curtain in order to change the surface energy of the material. All materials have an inherent surface energy. Surface treatment systems are available for virtually any surface format including dimensional objects, sheets and roll goods that are handled in a web format. Corona treatment is a widely used surface treatment method in the plastic film, extrusion, and converting industries.
In metalworking, rolling is a metal forming process in which metal stock is passed through one or more pairs of rolls to reduce the thickness and to make the thickness uniform. The concept is similar to the rolling of dough. Rolling is classified according to the temperature of the metal rolled. If the temperature of the metal is above its recrystallization temperature, then the process is known as hot rolling. If the temperature of the metal is below its recrystallization temperature, the process is known as cold rolling. In terms of usage, hot rolling processes more tonnage than any other manufacturing process, and cold rolling processes the most tonnage out of all cold working processes. Roll stands holding pairs of rolls are grouped together into rolling mills that can quickly process metal, typically steel, into products such as structural steel, bar stock, and rails. Most steel mills have rolling mill divisions that convert the semi-finished casting products into finished products.
Pneumatic tires are manufactured according to relatively standardized processes and machinery, in around 455 tire factories in the world. With over 1 billion tires manufactured worldwide annually, the tire industry is the major consumer of natural rubber. Tire factories start with bulk raw materials such as synthetic rubber, carbon black, and chemicals and produce numerous specialized components that are assembled and cured. This article describes the components assembled to make a tire, the various materials used, the manufacturing processes and machinery, and the overall business model.
Converting companies are companies that specialize in combining raw materials such as polyesters, adhesives, silicone, adhesive tapes, foams, plastics, felts, rubbers, liners and metals, as well as other materials, to create new products.
A high-shear mixer disperses, or transports, one phase or ingredient into a main continuous phase (liquid), with which it would normally be immiscible. A rotor or impeller, together with a stationary component known as a stator, or an array of rotors and stators, is used either in a tank containing the solution to be mixed, or in a pipe through which the solution passes, to create shear. A high-shear mixer can be used to create emulsions, suspensions, lyosols, and granular products. It is used in the adhesives, chemical, cosmetic, food, pharmaceutical, and plastics industries for emulsification, homogenization, particle size reduction, and dispersion.
Roll slitting is a shearing operation that cuts a large roll of material into narrower rolls. There are two types of slitting: log slitting and rewind slitting. In log slitting the roll of material is treated as a whole and one or more slices are taken from it without an unrolling/re-reeling process. In rewind slitting the web is unwound and run through the machine, passing through knives or lasers, before being rewound on one or more shafts to form narrower rolls. The multiple narrower strips of material may be known as mults or pancakes if their diameter is much more than their width. For rewind slitting the machine used is called a slitter rewinder, a slitter or a slitting machine – these names are used interchangeably for the same machines. For particularly narrow and thin products, the pancakes become unstable, and then the rewind may be onto a bobbin-wound reel: the rewind bobbins are much wider than the slit width and the web oscillates across the reel as it is rewound. Apart from the stability benefit it is also then possible to put very long lengths,, onto one bobbin.
Extrusion coating is the coating of a molten web of synthetic resin onto a substrate material. It is a versatile coating technique used for the economic application of various plastics, notably polyethylene, onto paperboard, corrugated fiberboard, paper, aluminium foils, cellulose, Non-wovens, or plastic films.
Roller mills are mills that use cylindrical rollers, either in opposing pairs or against flat plates, to crush or grind various materials, such as grain, ore, gravel, plastic, and others. Roller grain mills are an alternative to traditional millstone arrangements in gristmills. Roller mills for rock complement other types of mills, such as ball mills and hammermills, in such industries as the mining and processing of ore and construction aggregate; cement milling; and recycling.
Web-guiding systems are used in the converting industry to position flat materials, known as webs, before processing. They are typically positioned just before a critical stage on a converting machine. Each type of web guiding system uses a sensor to monitor the web position for lateral tracking, and each has an actuator to shift the running web mechanically back on course whenever the sensor detects movement away from the set path. Actuators may be pneumatic or hydraulic cylinders, or some kind of electromechanical device. Because the web may be fragile — particularly at its edge — non-contact sensors are used. These sensors may be pneumatic, photoelectric, ultrasonic, or infrared. The system’s controls must put the output signals from the sensors in to a form that can drive the actuator.
Tableting is a method of pressing medicine or candy into tablets. Confectionery manufacture shares many similarities with pharmaceutical production.
A Film Blowing Machine is used to make polyethylene into plastic film. This may be laminating film, packing film, agricultural covering film, bags or film for textiles and clothing, and other packing material.
Reverse roll coating is a roll-to-roll coating method for wet coatings. It is distinguished from other roll coating methods by having two reverse-running nips. The metering roll and the applicator roll contra-rotate, with an accurate gap between them. The surface of the applicator roll is loaded with an excess of coating prior to the metering nip, so its surface emerges from the metering nip with a precise thickness of coating equal to the gap. At the application nip, the applicator roll transfers all of this coating to the substrate, by running in the opposite direction to the movement of the substrate, wiping the coating onto the substrate.
To process livestock feed from grain, farmers often use a type of agricultural machine called a grinder-mixer. A grinder-mixer is a portable mill that combines the mixing and grinding operations.