This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations . (August 2020) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
|Throne of Princess Sitamun|
|Material||wood, partially gilt and silvered|
|Created||18th dynasty, New Kingdom|
|Discovered||Tomb of Yuya and Thuya (KV46), Valley of the Kings|
|Present location||Egyptian Museum|
|Identification||JE 5342; CG 51113|
The Throne of Princess Sitamun is an artefact from the Tomb of Yuya and Thuya, which belonged to their granddaughter, Princess Sitamun, the daughter of Pharaoh Amenhotep III and Queen Tiye of the 18th dynasty.
The wooden throne is an example of the subtlety and elegance of Egyptian woodwork in the 18th Dynasty. mm thick veneer of red wood. The legs are shaped like lion's paws. These paws sit atop high bases which are divided by ridges. The legs were originally covered in silver plate - some remains of which survive.It is made from red wood, covered in parts by a 4
The front and rear legs are strengthened by bars under the seat. These bars are whole and were originally silver-plated too. The ends of these cross bars are gilt and shaped like stylised papyrus.
The very well preserved covering of the seat is made of finely woven material in a herringbone pattern. As is common for this period, the high back is inclined to the rear. The back is supported from behind by three vertical struts running in parallel. The two outer struts were supplemented with gilt wood edging. Armrests and seat frame were strengthened by gilt wood edging too and continued from the armrests up to the back of the chair. Gilt bronze nails supplement the wooden tenon joints.
At the front of the armrests there are gilt portrait heads. They are busts of princess, perhaps Sitamun herself. As is usual for this period, she wears a short, round, curly wig and a broad Usekh collar. Crown, face and collar are all gilt.
The backside of the chair's back is covered in silver and decorated with a fine feather pattern. The sides bear gilt decoration. On the front side there is a plaster relief depicting the winged sun above a scene which centres on the princess.
The scene is doubled, showing Sitamun enthroned before a young woman bringing gifts, twice. Her feet sit on a footstool or flat cushion. She wears a short curly wig and the typical sidelock of Egyptian royal youth, set off by a large earring. Her head is crowned by a gazelle diadem and topped by a tall lotus bloom. She wears a broad Usekh collar on her breast, as well as bracelets on her arms. In addition she has a tight-fitting garment of closely pleated linen, stretching down to her ankles. In her hands she holds a sistrum and menat - typical attributes of princesses and singers in the cult of Hathor. Both of the women bearing gifts are identical in appearance and costume, wearing half length wigs with an angular cut, headbands, foliage crowns, bracelets, earrings and usekh collars. They present a wide golden Usekh collar to the princess on a tray. This doubled scene is topped by a frieze of lotus blooms.
The image includes the titles and names of Sitamun and the presentation of the collar is captioned "Bringing in the gold of the southern countries."
The inner sides of the armrests show a procession of four women bringing gifts, crowned with tall headdresses of lotus flowers which are shown alternately in side and top view. The women bear stacks of gold rings. Their ornaments and the shape of their long dresses vary from one another, otherwise their appearance mimicks that of the main scene on the back of the chair.
The outside of the right armrest shows the goddess Taweret with two figures of the god Bes. Taweret is depicted in the form of a hippopotamus with sagging breasts, a crocodile's back and a lion's paws. All figures have randomly dotted fur. One of the figures of Bes swings a knife, the other plays the tambourine. The left armrest shows Bes three times. The gods Taweret and Bes served as defense from evil forces, guaranteeing health and long life. Taweret was a goddess of fertility, pregnancy and birth. Both deities were regularly depicted on beds, headrests and chairs in the 18th dynasty.
Given the wear of the gold leaf on the backrest, the moulding of the armrests and the ornamental portrait heads, it is thought that the chair was used on a day-to-day basis. But in addition it was also a piece of ceremonial furniture. The scenes depicting a gift of gold probably refer to the first Nehebkau festival of Amenhotep III.
Neferneferuaten Nefertiti was an Egyptian queen and the Great Royal Wife of Akhenaten, an Egyptian Pharaoh. Nefertiti and her husband were known for a religious revolution, in which they worshipped one god only, Aten, or the sun disc. With her husband, she reigned at what was arguably the wealthiest period of Ancient Egyptian history. Some scholars believe that Nefertiti ruled briefly as Neferneferuaten after her husband's death and before the accession of Tutankhamun, although this identification is a matter of ongoing debate. If Nefertiti did rule as Pharaoh, her reign was marked by the fall of Amarna and relocation of the capital back to the traditional city of Thebes.
Tiye was the daughter of Yuya and Tjuyu. She became the Great Royal Wife of the Egyptian pharaoh Amenhotep III. She was the mother of Akhenaten and grandmother of Tutankhamun. In 2010, DNA analysis confirmed her as the mummy known as "The Elder Lady" found in the tomb of Amenhotep II (KV35) in 1898.
Nefertari, also known as Nefertari Meritmut, was an Egyptian queen and the first of the Great Royal Wives of Ramesses the Great. Nefertari means 'beautiful companion' and Meritmut means 'Beloved of [the goddess] Mut'. She is one of the best known Egyptian queens, among such women as Cleopatra, Nefertiti, and Hatshepsut. She was highly educated and able to both read and write hieroglyphs, a very rare skill at the time. She used these skills in her diplomatic work, corresponding with other prominent royals of the time. Her lavishly decorated tomb, QV66, is one of the largest and most spectacular in the Valley of the Queens. Ramesses also constructed a temple for her at Abu Simbel next to his colossal monument there.
Amenhotep III, also known as Amenhotep the Magnificent, was the ninth pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty. According to different authors, he ruled Egypt from June 1386 to 1349 BC, or from June 1388 BC to December 1351 BC/1350 BC, after his father Thutmose IV died. Amenhotep III was Thutmose's son by a minor wife, Mutemwiya.
Tadukhipa, in the Hurrian language Tadu-Hepa, was the daughter of Tushratta, king of Mitanni and his queen Juni, and niece of Artashumara. Tadukhipa's aunt Gilukhipa had married Pharaoh Amenhotep III in his 10th regnal year. Tadukhipa was to marry Amenhotep III more than two decades later.
Tey was the wife of Kheperkheprure Ay, Ay, who was the penultimate pharaoh of Ancient Egypt's eighteenth dynasty. She also had been the wet nurse of Nefertiti.
In Ancient Egyptian religion, Taweret is the protective ancient Egyptian goddess of childbirth and fertility. The name "Taweret" (Tȝ-wrt) means "she who is great" or simply "great one", a common pacificatory address to dangerous deities. The deity is typically depicted as a bipedal female hippopotamus with feline attributes, pendulous female human breasts, the limbs and paws of a lion, and the back and tail of a Nile crocodile. She commonly bears the epithets "Lady of Heaven", "Mistress of the Horizon", "She Who Removes Water", "Mistress of Pure Water", and "Lady of the Birth House".
Ahmose-Nefertari of ancient Egypt was the first queen of the 18th Dynasty. She was a daughter of Seqenenre Tao and Ahhotep I, and royal sister and the great royal wife of Ahmose I. She was the mother of king Amenhotep I and may have served as his regent when he was young. Ahmose-Nefertari was deified after her death.
Tomb KV46 in the Valley of the Kings is the tomb of Yuya and his wife Tjuyu, the parents of Queen Tiye, Anen, and possibly Ay. It was discovered in February 1905 by James E. Quibell under the sponsorship of Theodore M. Davis.
Sitamun, also Sitamen,Satamun; Ancient Egyptian: sꜣ.t-imn, "daughter of Amun" was an ancient Egyptian princess and queen consort during the 18th Dynasty.
Nebettawy(nb.t-t3.wỉ; “Lady of the Two Lands”) was an ancient Egyptian princess and queen, the fifth daughter and one of the eight Great Royal Wives of Pharaoh Ramesses II.
Amarna Tomb 1 is a sepulchre near Amarna, Upper Egypt. It contains the tomb of the ancient Egyptian noble Huya, which is located in the cluster of tombs known collectively as the Northern tombs.
The Theban Tomb TT57 is located in Sheikh Abd el-Qurna. It forms part of the Theban Necropolis, situated on the west bank of the Nile opposite Luxor. The tomb is the burial place of the ancient Egyptian official, Khaemhat who was royal scribe and overseer of double granary, during the reign Amenhotep III. The relief decoration of the tomb is regarded as the best of New Kingdom art.
Articles related to ancient Egypt include:
The Finding of Moses is a 1904 painting by the Anglo-Dutch artist Lawrence Alma-Tadema. It was one of his last major works before his death in 1912, but quickly fell out of favour; according to rumour, it was sold in the 1950s for its frame. After appreciation of Victorian painting was renewed towards the end of the 20th century, it was described in an auction catalogue in 1995 as "the undisputed masterpiece of [Alma-Tadema's] last decade, as well as a late flowering of the nineteenth-century's love-affair with Egypt". It was sold to a private collector at auction in 2010 for nearly US$36 million.
The Tomb of Panehsy is a sepulchre in Amarna, Upper Egypt. It was erected for the First servant of the Aten in the house of Aten in Akhet-Aten, Second prophet of the Lord of the Two Lands Neferkheprure-Waenre (Akhenaten), the sealbearer of the King of Lower Egypt, Overseer of the storehouse of the Aten in Akhetaten, Overseer of cattle of the Aten in Akhet-Aten.
QV60 is the tomb of Nebettawy, the daughter and Great Wife of Ramesses II, in Egypt's Valley of the Queens. It was mentioned by Champollion and Lepsius, and later excavated by Ernesto Schiaparelli.
The Sekhmet statues, dating back to the New Kingdom of Egypt during the 18th dynasty and later dynasties, are statues of the Egyptian goddess Sekhmet.
The colossal statue of Amenhotep III and Tiye is a monolith group statue of Egyptian pharaoh Amenhotep III of the eighteenth dynasty, his Great Royal Wife Tiye, and three of their daughters. It is the largest known dyad ever carved. The statue originally stood in Medinet Habu, Western Thebes; today it is the centerpiece of the main hall of the Egyptian Museum in Cairo.