Thuingaleng Muivah

Last updated

Thuingaleng Muivah
Born
Thuingaleng Muivah

(1934-03-03) March 3, 1934 (age 86)
Somdal (Shongran), Manipur
Occupation Politician
Organization1964-1980 NNC, 1980-1988 undivided NSCN, 1988-present NSCN (IM)
Spouse(s)Pakahao Muivah
Parent(s)Shangkathan Muivah, Luimala Muivah

Thuingaleng Muivah (born 3 March 1934) is the present General Secretary of the National Socialist Council of Nagalim (NSCN). [1]

Contents

Early life

Muivah was born in Shongran (Somdal), and did his early schooling at his village and in Ukhrul. Muivah is a Tangkhul (Manipur Naga) from Manipur state. He then joined the Naga National Council (NNC), an armed group campaigning for secession of Nagaland from India. [2] He subsequently became the General Secretary of NNC. When a group of NNC leaders signed the Shillong Accord of 1975 with the Government of India, Muviah and some others denounced them as traitors. [3]

NNC to NSCN

In 1980, a faction led by Isak Chishi Swu, Muivah and S. S. Khaplang broke away from NNC to form the National Socialist Council of Nagalim (NSCN). [4] The NSCN was formed as a result of discontentment with the Shillong Accord, and continued secessionist activities abandoned by the NNC. The group later split into NSCN (IM) led by Swu and Muivah, and NSCN (K) led by Khaplang due to major disagreements.

Peace talks

NSCN (IM) under the leadership of Thuingaleng Muivah and Isak Chishi Swu signed a ceasefire agreement with the Government of India in August 1997 after decades of engaging in hostile fighting with Indian security forces. The major breakthrough of the peace talk happened on 3 August 2015 [5] with the signing of a peace accord between Indian Government. [6]

Related Research Articles

Insurgency in Northeast India insurgency

Insurgency in Northeast India involves multiple armed separatist factions operating in India's northeastern states, which are connected to the rest of India by the Siliguri Corridor, a strip of land as narrow as 14.29 miles (23.00 km) wide. Most factions favour a separate nation while others seek regional autonomy. Some groups demand complete independence. Others wanted religious law.

Ethnic conflict in Nagaland

The ethnic conflict in Nagaland, in northeastern India, is an ongoing conflict fought between the ethnic Nagas and the governments of India and Myanmar. Nagaland inhabited by the Nagas is located at the tri-junction border of India on the West and South, north and Myanmar on the East.

National Socialist Council of Nagaland

The National Socialist Council of Nagaland is a Maoist Naga nationalist separatist group operating mainly in Northeast India, with minor activities in northwest Myanmar (Burma) until 2012. The main goal of the organisation is to establish a sovereign Naga state, "Nagalim", which would consist of all the areas inhabited by the Naga people in Northeast India and Northwest Myanmar. NSCN slogan is Nagaland for Christ. The group is currently fighting for independence of Nagaland from India.

The Naga National Council (NNC) was a political organization of Naga people, active from the late 1940s to the early 1950s. It evolved out the Naga Hills District Tribal Council, an organization established in 1945 by the Deputy Commissioner of the Naga Hills district. The group was reorganized to form NNC in 1946 at Sanis, with Eno T. Aliba Imti Ao as the President, and other democratically elected Naga representatives as its members. Later, under the leadership of Phizo, the NNC unsuccessfully campaigned for the secession of the Naga territory from India and creation for a sovereign Naga state.

Zomi Revolutionary Army Zomi nationalist group active mainly in India & Myanmar(Burma)

The Zomi Revolutionary Army is an armed Zomi nationalist insurgent group formed in 1997, following an increase in ethnic tensions between the Kuki people and the Paites tribe in Churachandpur district of Manipur, India. Its parent organisation, the Zomi Revolutionary Organisation, was founded on April 1993.

Hynniewtrep National Liberation Council

The Hynniewtrep National Liberation Council is a militant organization operating in Meghalaya, India. It claims to represent the Khasi-Jaintia tribal people, and its aim is to free Meghalaya from the alleged domination of the Garos and the outsiders from the Indian mainland. It was proscribed in India on 16 November 2000, but the ban was later lifted, before banning it again in 2019.

Longri Ao (1906–1981), also known by name Longritangchetha, was an indigenenous missionary from the North-Eastern state of India, Nagaland. He was a missionary to the Konyak people and a peacemaker. He is known to have risked his life to restore peace in Nagaland, and to negotiate a Ceasefire agreement between Government of India and underground leaders fighting for Nagaland secession from India.

The Shillong Accord of 1975 was an agreement signed between the Government of India, also referred to as the Federal government, or Union government, or Central government of India, and Nagaland's underground government, also referred to as the Naga Federal government, or Naga guerillas, or Naga rebels, to accept the supremacy of Constitution of India without condition, surrender their arms and renounce their demand for the secession of Nagaland from India.

Insurgency in Manipur

The Insurgency in Manipur is an ongoing armed conflict between India and a number of separatist rebel groups, taking place in the region of Manipur. The Insurgency in Manipur is part of the wider Insurgency in Northeast India; it combines elements of a national liberation war as well as an ethnic conflict.

Nagaland Peace Accord is the accord signed-in on 3 August 2015 by the Government of India and the National Socialist Council of Nagaland (NSCN) to end the insurgency. Government’s Interlocutor for Naga Peace Talks R. N. Ravi signed it on behalf of the Government of India whereas Lt. Isak Chishi Swu, Chairman and Thuingaleng Muivah, General Secretary signed on behalf of the NSCN in presence of the Prime Minister Narendra Modi.

On 9 June 2015, India announced that it had conducted a cross-border operation against insurgents belonging to NSCN-K. According to India, the operation took place in Myanmar and it was in response to ambush of Indian Army convoy of 6 Dogra Regiment in Chandel district of Manipur. Indian officials said that they had crossed the border and inflicted significant casualties against the NSCN-K. According to Indian media reports, around 38 insurgents belonging to NSCN-K were killed during the operation. The operation lasted around 40 minutes.

Isak Chishi Swu was the chairman of the Nationalist Socialist Council of Nagaland (NSCN). He along with Thuingaleng Muivah and S. S. Khaplang were instrumental in the creation of NSCN on 31 January 1980 after opposing the ‘Shillong Accord’ signed by the then Naga National Council (NNC) with the Indian government. He was unable to attend the historic Naga Framework Agreement signed on 4 August 2015 due to health conditions.

S. S. Khaplang

Shangwang Shangyung Khaplang was a Burmese leader of National Socialist Council of Nagaland, an insurgent group that operates to establish Greater Nagaland, a sovereign state bringing all Naga-inhabited areas of Myanmar and India under one administrative setup.

The Naga Mothers' Association (NMA) is a prominent civil society organisation formed by women in Nagaland. The organisation has consistently tried to address problems of conflict, peace building and substance abuse by creating a platform for dialogue that brings together disparate voices. Ever since its formation, through the 80s and 90s, NMA have consistently voiced their opinion against fratricidal killings, violence between different Naga outfits such as NSCN(I-M) and NSCN(K), and the Indian security forces.

This is a timeline of the Insurgency in Northeast India, an ongoing armed conflict between the separatist rebels and the Indian government.

Hill tribes of Northeast India

The hill tribes of Northeast India are hill people, mostly classified as Scheduled Tribes (STs), who live in the Northeast India region. This region has the largest proportion of scheduled tribes in the country.

The 2010 Mao Gate incident was a public-led demonstration held in Mao Gate, Manipur, India, on 6 May 2010. The protest was started after the Government of Manipur denied the entry of Thuingaleng Muivah into the state. The protest quickly escalated to police firing when the Government of Manipur declared martial law and sent its commando to occupy the town.

History of the Nagas

Apart from cultural contacts with the neighboring Ahoms, the ruler of Assam from 1228, the Nagas had little or no contact with the outside world, including that of greater India, until British colonization and rule of the area in the nineteenth century.

Chishi is a Sumi Naga surname. Notable people with the surname include:

References

  1. Horam, Chonmipem (12 August 2010). "Who is Thuingaleng Muivah?". Zeenews.com. Retrieved 28 June 2015.
  2. "A brief bio of Th. Muivah". Zee News. Retrieved 5 August 2015.
  3. A. S. Atai Shimray (1 January 2005). Let Freedom Ring?: Story of Naga Nationalism. Bibliophile South Asia. pp. 103–104. ISBN   978-81-85002-61-3.
  4. Professor Ranabir Samaddar (28 May 2015). Government of Peace: Social Governance, Security and the Problematic of Peace. Ashgate Publishing Limited. p. 139. ISBN   978-1-4724-3493-7.
  5. "Peace Accord with India". New Indian Express. Retrieved 5 August 2015.
  6. "On Th Muivah". Zee News. Retrieved 5 August 2015.