Thyrse

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Homookladische Thyrse (inflorescence).svg

A thyrse is a type of inflorescence in which the main axis grows indeterminately, and the subaxes (branches) have determinate growth. [1]

Inflorescence Term used in botany to describe a cluster of flowers

An inflorescence is a group or cluster of flowers arranged on a stem that is composed of a main branch or a complicated arrangement of branches. Morphologically, it is the modified part of the shoot of seed plants where flowers are formed. The modifications can involve the length and the nature of the internodes and the phyllotaxis, as well as variations in the proportions, compressions, swellings, adnations, connations and reduction of main and secondary axes. Inflorescence can also be defined as the reproductive portion of a plant that bears a cluster of flowers in a specific pattern.

Indeterminate growth

In biology and botany, indeterminate growth is growth that is not terminated in contrast to determinate growth that stops once a genetically pre-determined structure has completely formed. Thus, a plant that grows and produces flowers and fruit until killed by frost or some other external factor is called indeterminate. For example, the term is applied to tomato varieties that grow in a rather gangly fashion, producing fruit throughout the growing season, and in contrast to a determinate tomato plant, which grows in a more bushy shape and is most productive for a single, larger harvest, then either tapers off with minimal new growth or fruit, or dies.

<i>Syringa</i> genus of plants

Syringa (lilac) is a genus of 12 currently recognized species of flowering woody plants in the olive family (Oleaceae), native to woodland and scrub from southeastern Europe to eastern Asia, and widely and commonly cultivated in temperate areas elsewhere.

<i>Vitex agnus-castus</i> species of plant

Vitex agnus-castus, also called vitex, chaste tree, chasteberry, Abraham's balm, lilac chastetree, or monk's pepper, is a native of the Mediterranean region. It is one of the few temperate-zone species of Vitex, which is on the whole a genus of tropical and sub-tropical flowering plants. Theophrastus mentioned the shrub several times, as agnos (άγνος) in Enquiry into Plants. It has been long believed to be an anaphrodisiac – leading to its name as chaste tree – but its effectiveness for such action remains unproven.

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Banana edible fruit

A banana is an edible fruit – botanically a berry – produced by several kinds of large herbaceous flowering plants in the genus Musa. In some countries, bananas used for cooking may be called "plantains", distinguishing them from dessert bananas. The fruit is variable in size, color, and firmness, but is usually elongated and curved, with soft flesh rich in starch covered with a rind, which may be green, yellow, red, purple, or brown when ripe. The fruits grow in clusters hanging from the top of the plant. Almost all modern edible seedless (parthenocarp) bananas come from two wild species – Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana. The scientific names of most cultivated bananas are Musa acuminata, Musa balbisiana, and Musa × paradisiaca for the hybrid Musa acuminata × M. balbisiana, depending on their genomic constitution. The old scientific name for this hybrid, Musa sapientum, is no longer used.

Panicle type of inflorescence

A panicle is a much-branched inflorescence. Some authors distinguish it from a compound spike inflorescence, by requiring that the flowers be pedicellate. The branches of a panicle are often racemes. A panicle may have determinate or indeterminate growth.

Raceme unbranched, indeterminate type of inflorescence bearing pedicellate flowers along its axis

A raceme is an unbranched, indeterminate type of inflorescence bearing pedicellate flowers along its axis. In botany, an axis means a shoot, in this case one bearing the flowers. In indeterminate inflorescence-like racemes, the oldest flowers are borne towards the base and new flowers are produced as the shoot grows, with no predetermined growth limit. A plant that flowers on a showy raceme may have this reflected in its scientific name, e.g. Cimicifuga racemosa. A compound raceme, also called a panicle, has a branching main axis. Examples of racemes occur on mustard and radish plants.

Bract modified or specialized leaf, especially one associated with a reproductive structure such as a flower, inflorescence axis or cone scale

In botany, a bract is a modified or specialized leaf, especially one associated with a reproductive structure such as a flower, inflorescence axis or cone scale. Bracts are often different from foliage leaves. They may be smaller, larger, or of a different color, shape, or texture. Typically, they also look different from the parts of the flower, such as the petals or sepals. The state of having bracts is referred to as bracteate or bracteolate, and conversely the state of lacking them is referred to as ebracteate and ebracteolate, without bracts.

<i>Calophyllum</i> genus of plants

Calophyllum is a genus of tropical flowering plants in the family Calophyllaceae. They are mainly distributed in Asia, with some species in Africa, the Americas, Australasia, and the Pacific Islands.

Shirakiopsis is a genus of flowering plants in the family Euphorbiaceae first described as a genus in 1999. There are six known species, 3 native to tropical Asia and 3 to tropical Africa.

Multiple fruit fruiting bodies formed from a cluster of fruiting flowers (infloresence)

Multiple fruits, also called collective fruits, are fruiting bodies formed from a cluster of fruiting flowers, the inflorescence. Each flower in the inflorescence produces a fruit, but these mature into a single mass in which each flower has produced a true fruit. After flowering the mass is called an infructescence. Examples are the fig, pineapple, mulberry, osage-orange, and breadfruit.

Scape (botany) botanical term

In botany, a scape is a long internode that forms the basal part or the whole of a peduncle. Typically it takes the form of a long, leafless flowering stem rising directly from a bulb, rhizome, or similar subterranean or underwater structure.

<i>Kalanchoe thyrsiflora</i> species of plant

Kalanchoe thyrsiflora is a species of flowering plant native to Botswana, Lesotho, South Africa and Swaziland.

<i>Tricyrtis</i> genus of plants

Tricyrtis is a genus of Asian flowering plants in the lily family, with approximately 20 known species. The species are commonly known in English as toad lilies. The genus has a native range from the Himalayas to eastern Asia, including China, Japan, Philippines and Taiwan, and a few species are cultivated for their ornamental qualities in other parts of the world.

Pedicel (botany) A structure connecting flowers or fruit to the main stem of a plant

A pedicel is a stem that attaches a single flower to the inflorescence. Such inflorescences are described as pedicellate.

<i>Crassula tetragona</i> species of plant

Crassula tetragona is a succulent plant native to Southern Africa. It is widely distributed from the Orange River boundary of Namaqualand to beyond the Kei River in the Eastern Cape. "Tetragona" comes from the phyllotaxy of the leaves. It is popularly named the "miniature pine tree" among ornamental plant enthusiasts, for its popular use as a "pine tree" in Bonsai.

<i>Musa balbisiana</i> species of plant

Musa balbisiana is a wild-type species of banana native to eastern South Asia, northern Southeast Asia, and southern China. It is one of the ancestors of modern cultivated bananas, along with Musa acuminata. It was first scientifically described in 1820 by the Italian botanist Luigi Aloysius Colla. It grows lush leaves in clumps with a more upright habit than most cultivated bananas. Flowers grow in inflorescences coloured red to maroon. The fruit are between blue and green. They are considered inedible because of the seeds they contain. It may be assumed that wild bananas were cooked and eaten or agriculturalists would not have developed the cultivated banana. Seeded Musa balbisiana fruit are called butuhan in the Philippines, and kluai tani (กล้วยตานี) in Thailand, where its leaves are used for packaging and crafts. Natural parthenocarpic clones occur through polyploidy and produce edible bananas, examples of which are wild saba bananas.

<i>Macbridea alba</i> species of plant

Macbridea alba is a rare species of flowering plant in the mint family known by the common name white birds-in-a-nest. It is endemic to Florida in the United States, where it is found in four counties in the Florida Panhandle. It is threatened by the loss and degradation of its habitat, and it is federally listed as a threatened species of the United States.

Zanha golungensis is a species of fruit plants from the family Sapindaceae that can be found in Cameroon and Zimbabwe. The species reaches 18 metres (59 ft) in height, and has leaflets that come in 3–7 pairs. While young, the leaves are pubescent, and by maternity, they might become elliptically oblong. The plant's apex is often acuminated and obtuse, the base of which is cuneate. Their inflorescence is 1.5–2.0 centimetres (0.59–0.79 in) in diameter, which ends with a congested subspherical thyrse. The sepals are 2.0–2.5 millimetres (0.079–0.098 in) with petals ranging up to 2 × 1.5 cm. The fruit that the plant gives is either pink or yellow, and is both spherical and ellipsoid.

Agouticarpa is a genus of flowering plants in the family Rubiaceae. It was described by Claes Persson in 2003. The genus is found from Costa Rica to Bolivia.

True plantains

"True" plantains are a group of cultivars of the genus Musa placed in the Plantain subgroup of the AAB genome group. The term "plantain" can refer to all the banana cultivars which are normally eaten after cooking, rather than raw, or it can refer to members of other subgroups of Musa cultivars, such as the Pacific plantains. True plantains are divided into four groups based on their bunch type: French, French Horn, False Horn and Horn plantains.

<i>Graptopetalum macdougallii</i> species of plant

Graptopetalum macdougallii is a plant belonging to the succulent genus Graptopetalum. It is native to Mexico. It grows on shady rocks, or rarely as an epiphyte, at an altitude of 1200 – 2100 meters, geographically isolated from all other Graptopetalum species.

<i>Crassula pubescens</i> Species of plant

Crassula pubescens is a succulent plant, common and widespread in the southern Karoo regions of South Africa.

References

  1. Hickey, M.; King, C. (2001). The Cambridge Illustrated Glossary of Botanical Terms. Cambridge University Press.