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Scientific classification

Thysanaspidini is a tribe of armored scale insects. [1] [2]

Diaspididae family of insects

Diaspididae is the largest family of scale insects with over 2650 described species in around 400 genera. As with all scale insects, the female produces a waxy protective scale beneath which it feeds on its host plant. Diaspidid scales are far more substantial than those of most other families, incorporating the exuviae from the first two nymphal instars and sometimes faecal matter and fragments of the host plant. These can be complex and extremely waterproof structures rather resembling a suit of armor. For this reason these insects are commonly referred to as armored scale insects. As it is so robust and firmly attached to the host plant, the scale often persists long after the insect has died.


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Anostostomatidae family of insects

Anostostomatidae is a family of insects in the order Orthoptera, widely distributed in the southern hemisphere. It is named Mimnermidae or Henicidae in some taxonomies, and common names include king crickets in South Africa and weta in New Zealand. Prominent members include the Parktown prawn of South Africa, and the giant weta of New Zealand. The distribution of this family reflects a common ancestry before the fragmenting of Gondwana.

Scale insect superfamily of insects

The scale insects are small insects of the order Hemiptera, suborder Sternorrhyncha. They comprise the superfamily Coccoidea, previously placed in the now obsolete group called "Homoptera". There are about 8,000 described species of scale insects.

Satyrinae subfamily of insects

The Satyrinae, the satyrines or satyrids, commonly known as the browns, are a subfamily of the Nymphalidae. They were formerly considered a distinct family, Satyridae. This group contains nearly half of the known diversity of brush-footed butterflies. The true number of the Satyrinae species is estimated to exceed 2400.

Chamaemyiidae family of insects

The Chamaemyiidae are a small family of acalyptrate flies with less than 200 species described worldwide. The larvae of these small flies are active and predatory and are often used for biological control of aphids, scale insects, and similar pests. Chamaemyiid fossils are poorly represented in amber deposits, but a few examples are known from the Eocene epoch onwards.

Margarodidae family of insects

The Margarodidae or ground pearls are a family of scale insects within the superfamily Coccoidea. Members of the family include the Polish cochineal and Armenian cochineal and the original ground pearl genus, Margarodes. Beginning in 1880, a number of distinct subfamilies were recognized, with the giant coccis being the first. Although Maskell proposed a new family, many continued to regard the monophlebids as a mere subfamily for many years, and the Margarodidae classification continued to be polyphyletic through the 20th Century. Since then, taking the advice of Koteja several subfamilies and tribes have been elevated into their own families such as Matsucoccidae and Xylococcidae. The pared-down family of Margarodidae is monophyletic.

Diaspidinae subfamily of insects

Diaspidinae is the largest subfamily of armored scale insects, with 252 genera.

Aspidiotinae subfamily of insects

Aspidiotinae is a large subfamily of armored scale insects, with 193 genera.

Ancepaspidini is a tribe of armored scale insects.

Aspidiotini tribe of insects

Aspidiotini is a tribe of armored scale insects.

Odonaspidini is a tribe of armored scale insects.

Parlatoriini is a tribe of armored scale insects. Takagi (2002) indicated that the Parlatoriini appear to be phylogenetically related to the Smilacicola and the Odonaspidini. Takagi went on to say about the tropical east Asian Parlatoriini that, The current classification of their genera may be largely tentative because the adult females are simple-featured and much modified owing to the pupillarial mode of life, and also because the second instar nymphs are generally similar among parlatoriines, whether the adult females are pupillarial or not. Andersen found that separating out pupillarial forms into a separate subtribe, Gymnaspidina, was counterproductive, as being non-dispositive.

Pseudaonidiini is a tribe of armored scale insects.

Smilacicolini is a tribe of armored scale insects.

Antakaspidini is a tribe of armored scale insects.

Lepidosaphidini tribe of insects

Lepidosaphidini is a tribe of armored scale insects.

Phenacaspidina is a subtribe of armored scale insects.

Rugaspidiotina is an obsolete subtribe of armored scale insects. It was established by Balachowsky in 1949 to accept those Diaspidinae which had rugaspidiotine characteristics as exemplified by genus Rugaspidiotus MacGillivray, species Rugaspidiotus arizonicus, and was moved from the Odonaspidini to the Diaspidini by Borchsenius. It was raised to tribe status as Rugaspidiotini. However, close examination of species assigned to the Rugaspidiotini showed that the rugaspidiotine characteristics convergently evolved in different groups of diaspidids. Rugaspidiotini and Rugaspidiotina are now regarded as obsolete groupings.

Mempelaspidina is a subtribe of armored scale insects.

Mogoplistidae family of insects

Mogoplistidae is a family of scaly crickets within the superfamily Grylloidea. Considered to be monophyletic, a sister taxon to the Gryllidae crickets. This family consists of 30 genera and 364 species worldwide; 20 species in 4 genera occur in North America and this family includes the scaly crickets of Europe.


  1. Borkhsenius, N.S. (1966). A catalogue of the armoured scale insects (Diaspidoidea) of the world. Akademiia nauk SSSR. Zoologicheskii Institut, Moscow.
  2. Takagi, Sadao (2002). "One new subfamily and two new tribes of the Diaspididae (Homoptera: Coccoidea)". Insecta Matsumurana. 59: 55–100.