Ti-6Al-7Nb

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Ti-6Al-7Nb (UNS designation R56700) is an alpha-beta titanium alloy first synthesized in 1977 containing 6% aluminum and 7% niobium. It features high strength and has similar properties as the cytotoxic vanadium containing alloy Ti-6Al-4V. Ti-6Al-7Nb is used as a material for hip prostheses. [1]

Contents

Ti―6Al―7Nb is one of the titanium alloys that built of hexagonal α phase (stabilised with aluminium) and regular body-centred phase β (stabilised with niobium). The alloy is characterized by added advantageous mechanical properties, it has higher corrosion resistance and biotolerance in relation to Ti-6Al-4V alloys. [2] [3] [4]

Physical properties

Physical properties of the alloy are mostly dependent on the morphology and the fractions volume of the phases presence from the parameters obtained from the manufacturing process. [5] [6]

PropertyMinimum ValueMaximum ValueUnit
Density4.514.53g/cm3
Hardness27002900Mpa
Melting point18001860K
Specific heat540560J/kg*K
Elastic limit895905MPa
Energy content7501250MJ/kg
Latent heat of fusion360370kJ/kg

[7]

As shown in the above table, alloying is one of the effective methods to improve the mechanical properties and since Niobium belongs to the same group of Vanadium in the periodic table it is of course acts as α –β stabilizing elements (similar to Ti-6Al-4V alloy), however the strength of Nb alloy is little less than that of Ti-6Al-4V .The main difference between Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6Al-7Nb is related to different factors such as solid-solution strengthening, the structure-refining strengthening provided by the refined two-phase structure and the difference in the microstructure between the two alloys. [8]

Production

Ti-6Al-7Nb is produced by powder metallurgy methods. The most common methods are hot pressing, metal injection mouldering and blending and pressing. In the production of Ti-6Al-7Nb a sintering temperature between 900-1400o C usually are used. Altering the sintering temperature gives the Ti-6Al-7Nb different properties such as different porosity and microstructure. It also gives a different composition between alpha, beta and alpha+beta phases. In the recent years Ti-6Al-7Nb alloys could also be made by different 3D-printer technique such as SLM and EBM. [9] [10]

Heat treatment

Heat treatment of titanium is demonstrated to have significant influences on reducing the residual stresses, improving the mechanical properties (i.e. tensile strength or fatigue strength by solution treatment and ageing). Moreover, heat treatment provides an ideal combination of ductility, machinability and structural stability due to the differences in microstructure and cooling rates between α and β phases. [11]

The cooling rate have an impact of the morphology . When the cooling rate is reduced for example from air cool to slow cooling, the morphology of the transformed α increases in thickness and length and is contained within fewer, larger α colonies. [12] The α colony size is the most important microstructural properties due to its influences the fatigue properties and deformation mechanics of β processed α+ β alloys. [13]

Applications

Biocompatibility

Ti-6Al-7Nb has a high biocompatibility. The oxides from Ti-6Al-7Nb is saturated in the body and are not transported in vivo or are a bioburden. The alloy will not create adverse tissue tolerance reactions and creates fewer giant cell nucleis. Ti-6Al-7Nb also shows a high compatibility to ingrowth to the human body. [16]

Specification

Designations for Ti-6Al-7Nb in other naming conventions include: [17]

Related Research Articles

Niobium Chemical element with atomic number 41

Niobium, also known as columbium, is a chemical element with the symbol Nb and atomic number 41. Niobium is a light grey, crystalline, and ductile transition metal. Pure niobium has a Mohs hardness rating similar to that of pure titanium, and it has similar ductility to iron. Niobium oxidizes in the earth's atmosphere very slowly, hence its application in jewelry as a hypoallergenic alternative to nickel. Niobium is often found in the minerals pyrochlore and columbite, hence the former name "columbium". Its name comes from Greek mythology, specifically Niobe, who was the daughter of Tantalus, the namesake of tantalum. The name reflects the great similarity between the two elements in their physical and chemical properties, making them difficult to distinguish.

Titanium Chemical element with atomic number 22

Titanium is a chemical element with the symbol Ti and atomic number 22. It is a lustrous transition metal with a silver color, low density, and high strength. Titanium is resistant to corrosion in sea water, aqua regia, and chlorine.

Amorphous metal Solid metallic material with disordered atomic-scale structure

An amorphous metal is a solid metallic material, usually an alloy, with disordered atomic-scale structure. Most metals are crystalline in their solid state, which means they have a highly ordered arrangement of atoms. Amorphous metals are non-crystalline, and have a glass-like structure. But unlike common glasses, such as window glass, which are typically electrical insulators, amorphous metals have good electrical conductivity and they also display superconductivity at low temperatures.

In modern Western body piercing, a wide variety of materials are used. Some cannot be autoclaved, and others may induce allergic reactions, or harbour bacteria. Certain countries, such as those belonging to the EU, have legal regulations specifying which materials can be used in new piercings.

Titanium nitride

Titanium nitride is an extremely hard ceramic material, often used as a coating on titanium alloys, steel, carbide, and aluminium components to improve the substrate's surface properties.

Titanium alloys are alloys that contain a mixture of titanium and other chemical elements. Such alloys have very high tensile strength and toughness. They are light in weight, have extraordinary corrosion resistance and the ability to withstand extreme temperatures. However, the high cost of both raw materials and processing limit their use to military applications, aircraft, spacecraft, bicycles, medical devices, jewelry, highly stressed components such as connecting rods on expensive sports cars and some premium sports equipment and consumer electronics.

Superalloy

A superalloy, or high-performance alloy, is an alloy with the ability to operate at a high fraction of its melting point. Several key characteristics of a superalloy are excellent mechanical strength, resistance to thermal creep deformation, good surface stability, and resistance to corrosion or oxidation.

Microstructure Very small scale structure of material

Microstructure is the very small scale structure of a material, defined as the structure of a prepared surface of material as revealed by an optical microscope above 25× magnification. The microstructure of a material can strongly influence physical properties such as strength, toughness, ductility, hardness, corrosion resistance, high/low temperature behaviour or wear resistance. These properties in turn govern the application of these materials in industrial practice.

Orthodontic archwire

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Nickel titanium

Nickel titanium, also known as Nitinol, is a metal alloy of nickel and titanium, where the two elements are present in roughly equal atomic percentages. Different alloys are named according to the weight percentage of nickel, e.g. Nitinol 55 and Nitinol 60. It exhibits the shape memory effect and superelasticity at different temperatures.

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MAX phases

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References

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