Tiberius Julius Candidus Marius Celsus was a Roman senator who lived during the Flavian dynasty. Contemporary sources, such as the Fasti Ostienses , the Acta Arvalia and a letter of Pliny the Younger (Ep. V.20.5), refer to him as Tiberius Julius Candidus. He was twice consul.
The Roman Empire was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization. Ruled by emperors, it had large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, North Africa, and West Asia. From the constitutional reforms of Augustus to the military anarchy of the third century, the Empire was a principate ruled from the city of Rome. The Roman Empire was then divided between a Western Roman Empire, based in Milan and later Ravenna, and an Eastern Roman Empire, based in Nicomedia and later Constantinople, and it was ruled by multiple emperors.
The Flavian dynasty was a Roman imperial dynasty, which ruled the Roman Empire between 69 AD and 96 AD, encompassing the reigns of Vespasian (69–79), and his two sons Titus (79–81) and Domitian (81–96). The Flavians rose to power during the civil war of 69, known as the Year of the Four Emperors. After Galba and Otho died in quick succession, Vitellius became emperor in mid 69. His claim to the throne was quickly challenged by legions stationed in the Eastern provinces, who declared their commander Vespasian emperor in his place. The Second Battle of Bedriacum tilted the balance decisively in favour of the Flavian forces, who entered Rome on December 20. The following day, the Roman Senate officially declared Vespasian emperor of the Roman Empire, thus commencing the Flavian dynasty. Although the dynasty proved to be short-lived, several significant historic, economic and military events took place during their reign.
The Fasti Ostienses are a calendar of Roman magistrates and significant events from 49 BC to AD 175, found at Ostia, the principal seaport of Rome. Together with similar inscriptions, such as the Fasti Capitolini and Fasti Triumphales at Rome, the Fasti Ostienses form part of a chronology known as the Fasti Consulares, or Consular Fasti.
Ronald Syme argues that Candidus, although said to be from Narbonensis, was in fact from Asia Minor, and the "Tiberius Julius" portion of his name suggests that an ancestor acquired Roman citizenship between AD 4 and 37. "Thus a co-eval of Candidus: Ti. Julius Celsus Polemnus of Sardis, consul suffect in 92."The remainder of Candidus' name, "Marius Celsus", Syme explains as evidence that either he was born as Marius Celsus and adopted by a Julius Candidus, or born a Julius Candidus whose father married into the family of the Marii Celsi; Syme appears to favor the latter explanation. Olli Salomies sets forth the evidence in his monograph on Roman naming practices, but provides no interpretation beyond stating that "it is obvious that Iulius Candidus had something to do with A. Marius Celsus, cos. suff. in 69".
Sir Ronald Syme, was a New Zealand-born historian and classicist. Long associated with Oxford University, he is widely regarded as the 20th century's greatest historian of ancient Rome. His great work was The Roman Revolution (1939), a masterly and controversial analysis of Roman political life in the period following the assassination of Julius Caesar.
Aulus Marius Celsus was a Roman senator who held several offices in the emperor's service during the first century AD, as well as playing a role in the Year of Four Emperors. He was suffect consul of the nundinium of July–August 69 as the colleague of Gnaeus Arrius Antoninus.
The first record of Candidus is as a member of the Arval Brethren, which he may have been made a member in AD 72, or as late as 75, and appears at each ceremony until 81.From his absence from the activities of the Arval Brethren starting in January and May 86, Syme speculates Candidus was in the company of the Emperor Domitian during his military campaigns. Later that year, in the nundinium of May-August he served as suffect consul as the colleague of Sextus Octavius Fronto. Three years later, Candidus was selected to be governor of the important province of Cappadocia-Galatia and completed his term in 92. More recently Peter Weiß has published a military diploma which attests to Candidus' appointment as governor of an undetermined province (most likely one of the Germanies or Dacias) at some point between July 96 and the beginning of January 97. He was appointed consul a second time in 105, as ordinary consul with Gaius Antius Aulus Julius Quadratus, who also enjoyed a second consulship.
In ancient Roman religion, the Arval Brethren or Arval Brothers were a body of priests who offered annual sacrifices to the Lares and gods to guarantee good harvests. Inscriptions provide evidence of their oaths, rituals and sacrifices.
Domitian was Roman emperor from 81 to 96. He was the younger brother of Titus and the son of Vespasian, his two predecessors on the throne, and the last member of the Flavian dynasty. During his reign, the authoritarian nature of his rule put him at sharp odds with the senate, whose powers he drastically curtailed.
Nundinium, a Latin word derived from the word nundinum signifying the cycle of days observed by the Romans, which came to be used under the Empire to indicate a period of consulship. When, under the Empire, several pairs of consuls were created in one year, the period of a single consulship was called a nundinium.
Candidus lived many years after his second consulship. He is mentioned as present in the Acta Arvalia in AD 110 and 111;another inscription attests he was a flamen for the Brethren in 118.
A flamen was a priest of the ancient Roman religion who was assigned to one of fifteen deities with official cults during the Roman Republic. The most important three were the flamines maiores, who served the important Roman gods Jupiter, Mars, and Quirinus. The remaining twelve were the flamines minores. Two of the minores cultivated deities whose names are now unknown; among the others are deities about whom little is known other than the name. During the Imperial era, the cult of a deified emperor (divus) also had a flamen.
According to Syme, Candidus married the daughter of a Caecilius Simplex and they had at least three sons together:
Achaea or Achaia, was a province of the Roman Empire, consisting of the Peloponnese, Attica, Boeotia, Euboea, the Cyclades and parts of Phthiotis, Aetolia-Acarnania and Phocis. In the north, it bordered on the provinces of Epirus vetus and Macedonia. The region was annexed by the Roman Republic in 146 BC following the sack of Corinth by the Roman general Lucius Mummius, who was awarded the cognomen "Achaicus". It became part of the Roman province of Macedonia, which included the whole of mainland Greece.
Tiberius Julius Candidus Celsus was a Roman senator, who was active during the reign of the emperors Hadrian and Antonius Pius. Coins of the town of Harpasa bear the image of the young Marcus Aurelius on the obverse, and the name "Candidus Celsus" on the reverse, attesting that Celsus was proconsular governor of the public province of Asia in the reign of Marcus. Ronald Syme dated his tenure as governor more narrowly to AD 144/145, which would date his suffect consulate to a nundinium around the year 129.
Quintus Pompeius Falco was a Roman senator and general of the early 2nd century AD. He was governor of several provinces, most notably Roman Britain, where he hosted a visit to the province by the Emperor Hadrian in the last year. Falco achieved the rank of suffect consul for the nundinium of September-December 108 with Marcus Titius Lustricus Bruttianus as his colleague.
Gaius Salvius Liberalis Nonius Bassus was a Roman senator and general, who held civil office in Britain and was a member of the Arval Brethren.
Gaius Antius Aulus Julius Quadratus was a Roman senator who was appointed consul twice, in AD 94 and then in AD 105.
Lucius Antistius Rusticus was a Roman senator active in the later part of the first century AD. He was suffect consul for March–April 90, with Lucius Julius Ursus Servianus as his colleague.
Titus Junius Montanus was a Roman of the first century and suffect consul in AD 81 with Lucius Julius Vettius Paullus as his colleague. An inscription found in Alexandria Troas indicates that was his hometown, making Montanus the first person from the Greek portion of the Roman Empire admitted to the Roman senate.
Titus Prifernius Geminus was a Roman senator who lived in the second century. He is best known as a friend and correspondent of Pliny the Younger, who addresses him as Geminus; he served as quaestor to Pliny for the latter's consulship in AD 100, and five letters Pliny wrote to Geminus have survived. Although the letters convey a genuine friendship between the two, the first one appears only in the latter books of Pliny's collection; Ronald Syme explains this may be due to the fact that he, like Quintus Corellius Rufus and Calestrius Tiro, were living in Rome at the same time as him.
Lucius Venuleius Montanus Apronianus was a Roman senator of the first century. He was suffect consul for the nundinium of January-April AD 92 with Qunintus Volusius Saturninus, replacing the emperor Domitian.
Gaius Catellius Celer was a Roman senator who flourished during the Flavian dynasty. He served as suffect consul with Marcus Arruntius Aquila in late AD 77.
Lucius Julius Marinus Caecilius Simplex was a Roman senator who held several posts in the emperor's service. Simplex was then appointed suffect consul in late 101, with Lucius Arruntius Stella as his colleague. His career is primarily known through inscriptions.
Lucius Neratius Priscus was a Roman Senator and leading jurist, serving for a time as the head of the Proculian school. He was suffect consul in the nundinium of May-June 97 as the colleague of Marcus Annius Verus.
Lucius Varius Ambibulus, full name Quintus Planius Sardus Varius Ambibulus was a Roman senator of the 2nd century AD who occupied a number of offices in the imperial service, as well as serving as suffect consul in either 132 or 133.
Lucius Venuleius Apronianus Octavius Priscus was a Roman senator of the second century. He was ordinary consul as the colleague of Quintus Articuleius Paetinus in 123. Subsequent to his consulate, Priscus was proconsular governor of Asia in 138-139. He is known primarily through inscriptions.
Lucius Neratius Priscus was a Roman senator who held several posts in the emperor's service. He was suffect consul for the nundinium September–December AD 87 as the colleague of Gaius Cilnius Proculus. Priscus is known almost entirely from inscriptions recovered from Saepinum.
Lucius Valerius Propinquus was a Roman senator active in the second century AD. He was suffect consul who replaced the ordinary consul Marcus Annius Verus and was the colleague of the other ordinary consul, Gaius Eggius Ambibulus, for the remainder of the first nundinium of 126.
Sextus Octavius Fronto was a Roman senator and a military figure, who held a number of offices in the emperor's service. He was suffect consul in the nundinium of May-August 86 with Tiberius Julius Candidus Marius Celsus as his colleague. Martial addressed one of his epigrams to Fronto, wherein he describes Fronto as "an ornament of military and civil life".
Julianus is the cognomen of a Roman senator whose tenure as suffect consul with one Castus as his colleague, is known from a number of brick stamps. A number of experts have surmised he is to be identified with a proconsul of Asia mentioned in the writings of the sophist Aelius Aristides.
Tiberius Claudius Sacerdos Julianus was a Roman senator of the second century. He was suffect consul in the nundinium of November-December AD 100 with Lucius Roscius Aelianus Maecius Celer as his colleague. Julianus is primarily known from inscriptions.
Quintus Vibius Secundus
as Suffect consuls
| Suffect consul of the Roman Empire |
with Sextus Octavius Fronto
Aulus Bucius Lappius Maximus,
and Gaius Octavius Tidius Tossianus Lucius Javolenus Priscus
as Suffect consuls
Sextus Attius Suburanus Aemilianus II,
and Marcus Asinius Marcellus
as Ordinary consuls
| Consul of the Roman Empire |
with Gaius Antius Aulus Julius Quadratus II
Gaius Julius Quadratus Bassus,
and Gnaeus Afranius Dexter
as Suffect consuls