The Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum (CIL) is a comprehensive collection of ancient Latin inscriptions. It forms an authoritative source for documenting the surviving epigraphy of classical antiquity. Public and personal inscriptions throw light on all aspects of Roman life and history. The Corpus continues to be updated in new editions and supplements.
CIL also refers to the organization within the Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences and Humanities responsible for collecting data on and publishing the Latin inscriptions. It was founded in 1853 by Theodor Mommsen and is the first and major organization aiming at a comprehensive survey.
The CIL collects all Latin inscriptions from the whole territory of the Roman Empire, ordering them geographically and systematically. The earlier volumes collected and published authoritative versions of all inscriptions known at the time—most of these had been previously published in a wide range of publications. The descriptions include images of the original inscription if available, drawings showing the letters in their original size and position, and an interpretation reconstructing abbreviations and missing words, along with discussion of issues and problems. The language of the CIL is Latin.
In 1847 a committee was created in Berlin with the aim of publishing an organized collection of Latin inscriptions, which had previously been described piecemeal by hundreds of scholars over the preceding centuries. The leading figure of this committee was Theodor Mommsen(who wrote several of the volumes covering Italy). Much of the work involved personal inspections of sites and monuments in an attempt to replicate the original as much as possible. In those cases where a previously cited inscription could no longer be found, the authors tried to get an accurate reading by comparing the versions of the published inscription in the works of previous authors who had seen the original. The first volume appeared in 1853.
The CIL presently consists of 17 volumes in about 70 parts, recording approximately 180,000 inscriptions. Thirteen supplementary volumes have plates and special indices.The first volume, in two sections, covered the oldest inscriptions, to the end of the Roman Republic; volumes II to XIV are divided geographically, according to the regions where the inscriptions were found. The other volumes cover other topics. Volume XVII, for instance, is entirely devoted to milestones. A volume XVIII is planned, which will contain the Carmina Latina Epigraphica (Latin verse inscriptions). A two-volume "Index of Numbers", correlating inscription numbers with volume numbers, was published in 2003.
The Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften continues to update and reprint the CIL.
List of volume with the date of first publication.
Giovanni Battista (Carlo) de Rossi was an Italian archaeologist, famous even outside his field for rediscovering early Christian catacombs.
Heinrich Dressel was a German archaeologist.
Hermann Dessau was a German ancient historian and epigrapher. He is noted for a key work of textual criticism published in 1889 on the Historia Augusta, which uncovered reasons to believe that this surviving text of ancient Roman imperial history had been written under circumstances very different from those previously believed.
Otto Hirschfeld was a German epigraphist and professor of ancient history who was a native of Königsberg.
Inscriptiones Latinae Selectae, standard abbreviation ILS, is a three-volume selection of Latin inscriptions edited by Hermann Dessau. The work was published in five parts serially from 1892 to 1916, with numerous reprints. Supporting material and notes are all written in Latin. Inscriptions are organized within chapters (capita, singular caput) by topic, such as funerary inscriptions, or inscriptions pertaining to collegia. Each inscription has an identifying number. Scholars citing a Latin inscription will often provide the ILS number in addition to a reference for the more comprehensive Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum (CIL); for example, CIL 12.2.774—ILS 39. A concordance with CIL was published in 1950 (Rome) and 1955 (Berlin).
The gens Numonia, occasionally written Nummonia, was a minor plebeian family at Rome. Members of this gens are first mentioned in the early years of the Empire. Few if any of the Numonii held any Roman magistracies.
The gens Oclatinia was a minor Roman family of imperial times. It is best known from a single individual, Marcus Oclatinius Adventus, consul for the second time in AD 218, together with the emperor Macrinus. From various sources, we know that he was procurator Augustorum under Septimius Severus in AD 202, and governor of Britain between 205 and 207.
The gens Octavena was an obscure plebeian family at Rome. The gens is known primarily from a single individual, the jurist Octavenus, cited by a number of later authorities, although several other Octaveni are known from inscriptions.
The gens Ofania was a minor plebeian family at Rome. Members of this gens known almost entirely from inscriptions.
The gens Oscia was an obscure plebeian family at Rome. Members of this gens are first mentioned in imperial times, when a few of them appear among the Roman aristocracy. None of them are known to have held any magistracies, but an Oscia Modesta was the wife of a Roman consul during the time of Severus Alexander. A number of Oscii appear in inscriptions.
The gens Reginia was an obscure plebeian family at ancient Rome. Few members of this gens are mentioned in history, but several are known from inscriptions.
The gens Sabucia was a minor plebeian family at ancient Rome. Members of this gens are first mentioned in imperial times. The most illustrious of the family was Gaius Sabucius Major Caecilianus, who obtained the consulship in AD 186. Other Sabucii are known from inscriptions.
The gens Sanquinia was a minor plebeian family at ancient Rome, which rose out of obscurity in imperial times to attain the highest offices of the Roman state. Members of this gens are first mentioned in the time of Augustus, and Quintus Sanquinius Maximus held the consulship under Tiberius and Caligula. The family vanishes from history in the time of Claudius.
The gens Scutaria was an obscure plebeian family at ancient Rome. Few members of this gens are mentioned in history, but others are known from inscriptions.
The gens Iasdia was an obscure plebeian family at ancient Rome. Hardly any members of this gens appear in history, but a few are known from inscriptions. They were briefly prominent during the first half of the third century.
The gens Ituria was an obscure plebeian family at ancient Rome. Almost no members of this gens are mentioned by historians, but several are known from inscriptions.
The gens Sinicia was an obscure plebeian family at ancient Rome. No members of this gens are mentioned by ancient writers, but a few are known from inscriptions, mostly from Numidia, where they were locally prominent. Lucius Sinicius Reginus followed the cursus honorum at Rome, reaching the rank of praetor.
The gens Sotidia was an obscure plebeian family at ancient Rome. Hardly any members of this gens occur in history, but a few are known from inscriptions, dating to the first century of the Empire.
The gens Splattia or Splatia was an obscure plebeian family at ancient Rome. Almost no members of this gens appear in history, but a few are known from inscriptions. The most illustrious of the Splattii was Gaius Splattius, praetor in AD 29, during the reign of Tiberius.
The gens Stlaccia was a minor plebeian family at ancient Rome. Hardly any members of this gens are mentioned in history, but a number are known from inscriptions. By the second century, some of the Sltaccii had reached senatorial rank.
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