Tick-box culture

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Tick-box culture or in U.S. English check-box culture, is described as bureaucratic and external impositions on professional working conditions, which can be found in many organizations around the world. [1] Another related term is the culture of performativity. [2]

Contents

Origin

According to David Boyle, the tick-box culture emerged with the introduction of targets and key performance indicators in corporate governance and official bureaucracy; it resulted in overzealous focus on rules and regulations rather than issues and people. [3] For Boyd, the tick-box culture is associated with dehumanized decision-making in organizational settings that manifests itself in the growth of management consulting, the pervasiveness of employee monitoring, and identity politics, among others. [1]

Tick-box culture is studied as a contributing factor in a number of fields, such as education, criminal justice, management, and medicine. [4] [5] [6]

Fields

In social work, tick-box culture means there is too much emphasis on following rules instead of actually helping children. [7]

In the US criminal justice system, some performance measures appear to have more influence on outcomes than others, and police targets have led to the criminalization of greater numbers of children, while goals for reduction youth in detention remain unmet. [8] In England, probation officers reportedly spend 75% of their time on red tape, and the tick-box culture was blamed for the growth in bureaucracy. [9] In Europe, crime prevention is thought to have shifted away from reducing opportunities for money laundering towards an emphasis on the demonstration of compliance with systems and procedures (tick-box culture) with the expectation that they will prevent money laundering from occurring. [10]

Tick-box culture in medicine is seen as a system increasingly engineered to medical technicians rather than to professionals. [11] In Scotland, a study found that clinical audit are perceived by practitioners as time-consuming and a managerially driven exercise with no associated professional rewards. [12] For example, a hospital in England was investigated over the death of young woman who was being monitored by hospital staff, the tick-box culture was blamed in part for the woman's death. [13] [14]

Criticism

Darren Mccabe, professor of organization studies at the University of Lancaster, wrote that "the shift towards a 'tick box' culture was a particular source of cynicism because it has created a shadowland where things are not as they seem or as they measured and represented." [15] Other commentators also criticized a tick-the-box approach in the workplace and beyond. [16] [17] [18] [19]

In 2015, Theresa May stated that she wanted to stop the "tick box culture" of policing in England. [20] The Daily Express blamed the tick-box culture for embarrassing incidents in the English health-care. [21]

In England, in an effort to reduce formalistic, tick-box inspections of schools, official on-site examinations were greatly reduced and more emphasis was placed on professional judgement. [22]

See also

Related Research Articles

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Organized crime Groupings of highly centralized criminal enterprises

Organized crime is a category of transnational, national, or local groupings of highly centralized enterprises run by criminals to engage in illegal activity, most commonly for profit. Some criminal organizations, such as terrorist groups, are politically motivated. Sometimes criminal organizations force people to do business with them, such as when a gang extorts money from shopkeepers for "protection". Gangs may often be deemed organized crime groups or, under stricter definitions of organized crime, may become disciplined enough to be considered organized. A criminal organization or gang can also be referred to as a mafia, mob, ring, or syndicate; the network, subculture and community of criminals may be referred to as the underworld. European sociologists define a “mafia” as a type of organized crime group that specializes in the supply of extra-legal protection and quasi-law enforcement. Gambetta's classic work on the original “Mafia”, or the Sicilian Mafia, generates an economic study of the mafia, which exerts great influence on studies of the Russian mafia, the Chinese triads, Hong Kong mafia and the Japanese yakuza.

Blame is the act of censuring, holding responsible, making negative statements about an individual or group that their action or actions are socially or morally irresponsible, the opposite of praise. When someone is morally responsible for doing something wrong, their action is blameworthy. By contrast, when someone is morally responsible for doing something right, we may say that his or her action is praiseworthy. There are other senses of praise and blame that are not ethically relevant. One may praise someone's good dress sense, and blame their own sense of style for their own dress sense.

Probation in criminal law is a period of supervision over an offender, ordered by the court instead of serving time in prison.

National Probation Service

The National Probation Service for England and Wales is a statutory criminal justice service, mainly responsible for the supervision of offenders in the community and the provision of reports to the criminal courts to assist them in their sentencing duties. It was established in its current form by the Criminal Justice and Court Services Act in April 2001, but has existed since 1907 as a set of area-based services interacting at arm's length with central government.

PACE may refer to:

Clinical governance is a systematic approach to maintaining and improving the quality of patient care within the National Health Service (NHS). Clinical governance became important in health care after the Bristol heart scandal in 1995, during which an anaesthetist, Dr Stephen Bolsin, exposed the high mortality rate for paediatric cardiac surgery at the Bristol Royal Infirmary. It was originally elaborated within the United Kingdom National Health Service (NHS), and its most widely cited formal definition describes it as:

A framework through which NHS organisations are accountable for continually improving the quality of their services and safeguarding high standards of care by creating an environment in which excellence in clinical care will flourish.

In general, compliance means conforming to a rule, such as a specification, policy, standard or law. Regulatory compliance describes the goal that organizations aspire to achieve in their efforts to ensure that they are aware of and take steps to comply with relevant laws, policies, and regulations. Due to the increasing number of regulations and need for operational transparency, organizations are increasingly adopting the use of consolidated and harmonized sets of compliance controls. This approach is used to ensure that all necessary governance requirements can be met without the unnecessary duplication of effort and activity from resources.

Probation and Parole Officers are officials appointed to investigate, report on, and supervise the conduct of convicted offenders on probation and or those released to community supervision such as parole. Most probation and parole officers are employed by the government of the jurisdiction in which they operate, although some are employed by private companies that provide contracted services to the government.

The All India Services (AIS) comprises Civil Services of India, namely the Indian Administrative Service, the Indian Forest Service and the Indian Police Service. A common unique feature of the All India Services is that the members of these services are recruited by the centre, but their services are placed under various State cadres, and they have the liability to serve both under the State and under the centre. Due to the federal polity of the country, this is considered one of the tools that makes union government stronger than state governments. Officers of these three services comply to the All India Services Rules relating to pay, conduct, leave, various allowances etc.

Transnational organized crime Organized crime across national borders

Transnational organized crime (TOC) is organized crime coordinated across national borders, involving groups or markets of individuals working in more than one country to plan and execute illegal business ventures. In order to achieve their goals, these criminal groups use systematic violence and corruption. Common transnational organized crimes include conveying drugs, conveying arms, trafficking for sex, toxic waste disposal, materials theft and poaching.

Street-level bureaucracy

Street-level bureaucracy is the subset of a public agency or government institution where the civil servants work who have direct contact with members of the general public. Street-level civil servants carry out and/or enforce the actions required by a government's laws and public policies, in areas ranging from safety and security to education and social services. A few examples include police officers, border guards, social workers and public school teachers. These civil servants have direct contact with members of the general public, in contrast with civil servants who do policy analysis or economic analysis, who do not meet the public. Street-level bureaucrats act as liaisons between government policy-makers and citizens and these civil servants implement policy decisions made by senior officials in the public service and/or by elected officials.

A number of different systems of classification of ethnicity in the United Kingdom exist. These schemata have been the subject of debate, including about the nature of ethnicity, how or whether it can be categorised, and the relationship between ethnicity, race, and nationality.

Catholic University of Colombia

The Catholic University of Colombia is a private institution of higher education. It was founded in Bogotá, Colombia in 1970, notable in its early loyalty to Catholic church doctrine. The institution had more than ten thousand students in September 2019, of which the majority were undergraduates. The university has three campuses in the city of Bogota, a school, a language school, and a university campus in addition to being an office setting for students in Bogotá. It gives technical and technological careers. The three most important sites are in Bogota, Chapinero, and Teusaquillo — characterized by their historical and cultural value. Its entire campus distributed in such sites totals about 77.000m2 with 44.000 m2 of buildings and 33,000 m2 for building.

Target culture is a pejorative term used to refer to the perceived negative effects of rigid adherence to performance targets by businesses and organisations. The term is primarily used to refer to this kind of behaviour within the provision of public services in the United Kingdom. Target culture often stems from not being able to accurately measure a broad social good like health, education or crime prevention: instead, specific target like increasing the number of people passing an examination or the number of arrests made by a police force is used.

Management of domestic violence

The management of domestic violence deals with the treatment of victims of domestic violence and preventing repetitions of such violence. The response to domestic violence in Western countries is typically a combined effort between law enforcement, social services, and health care. The role of each has evolved as domestic violence has been brought more into public view.

Criminal justice reform addresses structural issues in criminal justice systems such as racial profiling, overcriminalization, mass incarceration, and recidivism. Criminal justice reform can take place at any point where the criminal justice system intervenes in citizens’ lives, including lawmaking, policing, and sentencing.

Jonathan P Shepherd is a Welsh surgeon, criminologist and professor at Cardiff University's Crime and Security Research Institute which he co-founded in 2015. He also founded the University's Violence Research Group. He has initiated UK public service reforms and other measures to strengthen the evidence foundations on which these services are based.

Anti-corruption (anticorruption) comprise activities that oppose or inhibit corruption. Just as corruption takes many forms, anti-corruption efforts vary in scope and in strategy. A general distinction between preventive and reactive measures is sometimes drawn. In such framework, investigative authorities and their attempts to unveil corrupt practices would be considered reactive, while education on the negative impact of corruption, or firm-internal compliance programs are classified as the former.

References

  1. 1 2 Steven Poole. Tickbox by David Boyle review – thinking inside the box: From call centres to management consultancy to government, decision-making is being dehumanised. We need to take a stand against the culture of targets, The Guardian, 16 January 2020
  2. Ball, S. J. (2003). The teacher’s soul and the terrors of performativity, Journal of Education Policy, 18(2), 215-228.
  3. Boyle, David. Tickbox. Little, Brown Book Group Limited, 2020
  4. Marshall, Bethan. "A crisis for efficacy?." Education Review 20, no. 1 (2007).
  5. Ball, Stephen J (2003). "The teacher's soul and the terrors of performativity". Journal of Education Policy. 18 (2): 215–228. doi:10.1080/0268093022000043065.
  6. André Spicer. Stupefied: How organisations enshrine collective stupidity and employees are rewarded for checking their brains at the office door, Aeon, September 27, 2016
  7. "'Tick box culture' for social workers needs to come to an end". 10 May 2011.
  8. Bateman, Tim. "‘Target practice’: sanction detection and the criminalisation of children: Tim Bateman sets out how police targets have led to the criminalisation of greater numbers of children and dispels the myth of a girl crime wave." Criminal justice matters 73, no. 1 (2008): 2-4.
  9. Travis, Alan; editor, home affairs (26 July 2011). "Probation officers spend 75% of time not dealing with offenders, report finds" via The Guardian.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  10. Harvey, Jackie. "Controlling the flow of money or satisfying the regulators." The organised crime economy (2005): 43-64.
  11. Gannon, Craig (2005). "Will the lead clinician please stand up?". BMJ (Clinical Research Ed.). 330 (7493): 737. doi:10.1136/bmj.330.7493.737. PMC   555652 .
  12. Bowie, Paul; Bradley, Nicholas A.; Rushmer, Rosemary (2012). "Clinical audit and quality improvement–time for a rethink?". Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice. 18 (1): 42–48. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2753.2010.01523.x. PMID   21087366.
  13. "Hospital tick-box culture contributed to death of girl, 18".
  14. Cleland, Jennifer; Reeve, Joanne; Rosenthal, Joe; Johnston, Peter (2014). "Resisting the tick box culture: refocusing medical education and training". The British Journal of General Practice. 64 (625): 422–423. doi:10.3399/bjgp14X681169. ISSN   0960-1643. PMC   4111334 . PMID   25071054.
  15. McCabe, Darren. Changing Change Management: Strategy, Power and Resistance, Routledge, 2020. ISBN   9780367140656
  16. A tick the box approach to governance can be dangerous
  17. Box ticking is bad for corporate governance
  18. Are You Working In a Checkbox Culture?
  19. Nicole Anand. ‘Checkbox Diversity’ Must Be Left Behind for DEI Efforts to Succeed, Stanford Social Innovations Review, May 21, 2019
  20. May Tells Police Officers: Stop Crying Wolf: Theresa May tells police officers to stop "scaremongering" over cuts and promises an end to "tick box" targets.
  21. Nick Ferrari. The Ashya King case shows the tick-box culture is ruining our country, The Daily Express, September 7, 2014
  22. Baxter, Jacqueline, and John Clarke. "Farewell to the tick box inspector? Ofsted and the changing regime of school inspection in England." Oxford Review of Education 39, no. 5 (2013): 702-718.

Further reading