Tigrino Sabatini, (8 March 1900 – 3 May 1944) was a communist and a leader of the Italian Resistance, executed for his activities as a zone-commander of the Movimento Comunista d'Italia, also known as Bandiera Rossa.
Born in the province of Siena, the young Sabatini was an early member of the Communist Party of Italy, and militarily resisted the initial rise of Fascism in the ranks of the Arditi del Popolo.[ citation needed ] Having worked in Rome's Snia tram factory, Sabatini joined the Scintilla group in 1940, in the attempt to re-create the Communist Party after its long repression under Benito Mussolini's rule.[ citation needed ]
Joining the dissident MCd'I/Bandiera Rossa upon its creation in August 1943, Sabatini advocated a strategy for the partisan struggle, and criticised the moderation of official Communist Party leaders: in the tramworker's view 'Lenin turned war into revolution. Stalin, Togliatti and [the Rome PCI’s Mario] Alicata send militants to fight the war'. [ citation needed ]He quickly became a popular commander of the MCd'I's 'Second Zone', which included his home district of Torpignattara, organising numerous armed actions against Occupation forces as well as distributing food among the population.
Arrested on 23 January 1944, Sabatini was imprisoned at the Via Tasso SS prison and subsequently Regina Coeli. Twice put on trial, he was sentenced to death on 14 April 1944 and executed on 3 May, less than five weeks before the Anglo-Americans liberated Rome.[ citation needed ]
Sabatini's final words are on display at the Fosse Ardeatine's 'Monument to the Martyrs', though he did not in fact die in the Nazi massacre at these caves to the south of Rome. A thin strip of paper at the memorial presents his last plea to future generations, 'Don't forget why we died, don't exploit our death'. This statement came to prominence in Italian media in 2008, as 'post-Fascist' mayor of Rome Gianni Alemanno visited the Monument in an effort to burnish his democratic credentials, in what was widely characterised as a cynical attempt to use Resistance commemorations for political gain.
A biography of Sabatini appears on the ANPI veterans' association website.In 1979 he was posthumously awarded a Silver Medal of the Resistance, and in 2015 a square near the site of his arrest was named in his honour.
Erich Priebke was a German mid-level SS commander in the SS police force (SiPo) of Nazi Germany. In 1996, he was convicted of war crimes in Italy, for commanding the unit which was responsible for the Ardeatine massacre in Rome on 24 March 1944 in which 335 Italian civilians were killed in retaliation for a partisan attack that killed 33 men of the German SS Police Regiment Bozen. Priebke was one of the men held responsible for this mass execution. After the defeat of Nazi Germany, he fled to Argentina where he lived for almost 50 years.
The Ardeatine massacre, or Fosse Ardeatine massacre, was a mass killing of 335 civilians and political prisoners carried out in Rome on 24 March 1944 by German occupation troops during the Second World War as a reprisal for the Via Rasella attack in central Rome against the SS Police Regiment Bozen the previous day.
The Italian resistance movement is an umbrella term for the Italian resistance groups who fought the occupying forces of Nazi Germany and the fascist collaborationists of the Italian Social Republic during the final phase of the Second World War in Italy from 1943 to 1945. As an anti-fascist movement and organisation, La Resistenza opposed Nazi Germany, as well as Nazi Germany's Italian puppet state regime, the Italian Social Republic, which was created by the Germans following the Nazi German invasion and military occupation of Italy by the Wehrmacht and the Waffen-SS from September 1943 until April 1945.
Bandiera Rossa, often also called Avanti Popolo after its opening words is one of the most famous songs of the Italian labour movement. It glorifies the red flag, symbol of the socialist and communist movement. The text was written by Carlo Tuzzi in 1908; the melody is taken from two Lombard folk songs.
"Fischia il vento" is an Italian popular song whose text was written in late 1943, at the inception of the Resistenza. Along with Bella ciao it is one of the most famous songs celebrating the Italian resistance.
Associazione Nazionale Partigiani d'Italia is an association founded by participants of the Italian resistance against the Italian Fascist regime and the subsequent Nazi occupation during World War II. ANPI was founded in Rome in 1944 while the war continued in northern Italy. It was constituted as a charitable foundation on 5 April 1945. It persists due to the activity of its antifascist members.
Regina Coeli is the best known prison in the city of Rome. Previously a Catholic convent, it was built in 1654 in the rione of Trastevere. It started to serve as a prison in 1881.
Livio Maitan was an Italian Trotskyist, a leader of Associazione Bandiera Rossa and of the Fourth International. He was born in Venice.
Scintilla was a communist circle created in Rome in 1940, as one of a number of attempts to refound the Communist Party of Italy (PCd'I) banned since 1926. Most of its leaders would later contribute to creating the dissident-communist Movimento Comunista d'Italia, largest formation of the Italian Resistance in Rome.
The Movimento Comunista d'Italia (MCd'I), best-known after its newspaper Bandiera Rossa, was a revolutionary partisan brigade, and the largest single formation of the 1943-44 Italian Resistance in Rome.
Irma Bandiera (1915–1944) was a member of the seventh Gruppo di azione patriottica. In 1944 she was captured, blinded, and killed. Enrico Berlinguer, of the Italian Communist Party, held her in high esteem. A street in her native Bologna is named for her and the song Mimma e Balella relates to her.
Maurizio Giglio was an Italian soldier and policeman. In September 1943, during World War II, the Italian government concluded an armistice with the Allies. He thereafter transmitted military intelligence by radio from Rome about the Nazi forces there to the Allied forces advancing through southern Italy. In March 1944, he was captured, and was executed by the Nazis. He was posthumously awarded the Gold Medal of Military Valour, a decoration which acknowledges deeds of outstanding gallantry. Places have been named, and memorials dedicated, in his honour.
Luigi Pintor was an Italian left-wing politician and journalist.
The Women's Defense Groups were a women's support organization active during the Italian Resistance. The groups were created in Milan in November 1943, on the initiative of the Italian Communist Party. The full original name of the groups was "Women's Defense Groups for Assistance to Freedom Fighters".
Rosario Bentivegna was an Italian partisan and doctor. During the Second World War, while studying medicine at university, Bentivegna joined the Italian Communist Party and became an active member of the guerilla groups organized by the Roman resistance following the occupation of Italy by Nazi Germany. Under the codename "Paolo", he was one of the principle actors of the Via Rasella attack that killed 32 soldiers of the SS Police Regiment Bozen. After the war, Bentivegna remained a member of the Communist Party and married fellow Italian partisan Carla Capponi, who together promoted their party and the actions of the Italian resistance movement.
Raffaele Aversa was an Italian soldier and Resistance member, most notable for having carried out the arrest of Benito Mussolini after his dismissal as Prime Minister of Italy on 25 July 1943.
Vito Artale was an Italian general during World War II.
Giovanni Frignani was an Italian soldier and Resistance member, most notable for his role in the arrest of Benito Mussolini after his dismissal as Prime Minister of Italy on 25 July 1943, in the arrest and death of Ettore Muti, and in the Roman Resistance after the Armistice of Cassibile.
Sabato Martelli Castaldi was an Italian Air Force general and a member of the Italian Resistance during World War II.
Simone Simoni was an Italian general and Resistance member during World War II.