Tiiu Kera (born July 21, 1945) is a retired United States Air Force (USAF) major general.
The general was born in a displaced persons camp in Baden-Württemberg, Germany, to Estonian parents who were refugees of the World War II.The family eventually settled in the Rochester, New York in 1949. She is a graduate of Valparaiso and Indiana universities. In 1973, Kera was commissioned as a distinguished graduate of Officer Training School. After assignments at several Air Force bases in the United States and South Korea, she served as a staff officer at Headquarters U.S. Air Force and Tactical Air Command. She then served as chief of the Military Personnel Branch at Langley Air Force Base, as director of personnel management at Headquarters Space Division, and as a strategic planner at the Joint Staff. After a fellowship year at the Harvard Center for International Affairs, she returned to Headquarters U.S. Air Force where she was responsible for security issues in the former Warsaw Pact and for developing military-to-military relations with those countries.
As the first U.S. defense attach to Lithuania, the general represented U.S. defense leadership to the Lithuanian ministry of defense and armed forces, served as the defense adviser to the U.S. ambassador, and managed U.S. security assistance programs. She was director of intelligence for Headquarters U.S. Strategic Command, serving as senior intelligence officer and principal intelligence adviser to the commander in chief.
Maj. Gen. Tiiu Kera was deputy chief, Central Security Service, National Security Agency, Fort George G. Meade, Maryland. As the principal adviser to the agency's director on military cryptology issues, she ensures military service contributions to the NSA/CSS's responsibilities as a national and combat support agency. She oversees the functioning of military cryptology system operations; develops policy and guidance on signals intelligence and information assurance for the military services; manages the partnership of the NSA/CSS and the Service Cryptologic Elements; and oversees military resource management at NSA and CSS.
Kera retired on February 1, 2002. She is married to former United States Air Force military attorney and procurement officer Norm Wolfe.
The National Security Agency (NSA) is a national-level intelligence agency of the United States Department of Defense, under the authority of the Director of National Intelligence (DNI). The NSA is responsible for global monitoring, collection, and processing of information and data for foreign and domestic intelligence and counterintelligence purposes, specializing in a discipline known as signals intelligence (SIGINT). The NSA is also tasked with the protection of U.S. communications networks and information systems. The NSA relies on a variety of measures to accomplish its mission, the majority of which are clandestine. The existence of the NSA was not revealed until 1975. The NSA has roughly 32,000 employees.
Lew Allen Jr. was a United States Air Force four-star general who served as the tenth Chief of Staff of the United States Air Force. As chief of staff, Allen served as the senior uniformed Air Force officer responsible for the organization, training, and equipping of 750,000 active duty Air Force, Air National Guard, Air Force Reserve, and civilian personnel serving in the United States and overseas. As a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, he and the other service chiefs function(ed) as the military advisers to the Secretary of Defense, the National Security Council, and the president.
Fort George G. Meade is a United States Army installation located in Maryland, that includes the Defense Information School, the Defense Media Activity, the United States Army Field Band, and the headquarters of United States Cyber Command, the National Security Agency, the Defense Courier Service, Defense Information Systems Agency headquarters, and the U.S. Navy's Cryptologic Warfare Group Six. It is named for George G. Meade, a Union general from the U.S. Civil War, who served as commander of the Army of the Potomac. The fort's smaller census-designated place includes support facilities such as schools, housing, and the offices of the Military Intelligence Civilian Excepted Career Program (MICECP).
The Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) is the body of the most senior uniformed leaders within the United States Department of Defense, which advises the president of the United States, the secretary of defense, the Homeland Security Council and the National Security Council on military matters. The composition of the Joint Chiefs of Staff is defined by statute and consists of a chairman (CJCS), a vice chairman (VJCS), the chiefs of the Army, Marine Corps, Navy, Air Force, Space Force, and the chief of the National Guard Bureau. Each of the individual service chiefs, outside their JCS obligations, works directly under the secretaries of their respective military departments, e.g. the secretary of the Army, the secretary of the Navy, and the secretary of the Air Force.
Kenneth A. Minihan is a former United States Air Force lieutenant general who served as the director of the National Security Agency and the Defense Intelligence Agency, retiring on May 1, 1999.
Royal Air Force Menwith Hill is a Royal Air Force station near Harrogate, North Yorkshire, England, which provides communications and intelligence support services to the United Kingdom and the United States. The site contains an extensive satellite ground station and is a communications intercept and missile warning site. It has been described as the largest electronic monitoring station in the world.
The Central Security Service (CSS) is a combat support agency of the United States Department of Defense which was established in 1972 to integrate the National Security Agency (NSA) and the Service Cryptologic Components (SCC) of the United States Armed Forces in the field of signals intelligence, cryptology, and information assurance at the tactical level. In 2002, the CSS had approximately 25,000 uniformed members. It is part of the United States Intelligence Community.
The United States Army Security Agency (ASA) was the United States Army's signals intelligence branch from 1945 to 1976. The Latin motto of the Army Security Agency was Semper Vigilis, which echoes the declaration, often mistakenly attributed to Thomas Jefferson, that "The price of liberty is eternal vigilance."
The United States Army Intelligence and Security Command (INSCOM) is a direct reporting unit that conducts intelligence, security, and information operations for United States Army commanders, partners in the Intelligence Community, and national decision-makers. INSCOM is headquartered at Fort Belvoir, Virginia.
James Robert Clapper Jr. is a retired lieutenant general in the United States Air Force and former Director of National Intelligence. Clapper has held several key positions within the United States Intelligence Community. He served as director of the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) from 1992 until 1995. He was the first director of defense intelligence within the Office of the Director of National Intelligence and simultaneously the Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence. He served as the director of the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) from September 2001 until June 2006.
Major General John M. Custer III was a United States Army officer. He was the Commanding General, United States Army Intelligence Center and Fort Huachuca.
After the end of World War II, all the Western allies began a rapid drawdown of military forces, including those of signals intelligence. At the time, the US still had a COMINT organization split between the Army and Navy. A 1946 plan listed Russia, China, and a [redacted] country as high-priority targets.
United States Cyber Command (USCYBERCOM) is one of the eleven unified combatant commands of the United States Department of Defense (DoD). It unifies the direction of cyberspace operations, strengthens DoD cyberspace capabilities, and integrates and bolsters DoD's cyber expertise.
The United States National Vigilance Park (NVP) was a memorial to the military servicemen who participated in aerial reconnaissance during the Cold War. Dedicated on September 2, 1997, NVP was located just one block from the National Security Agency (NSA) headquarters at Fort George G. Meade, Maryland. It was previously open 24 hours a day for viewing. Military events connected with the Intelligence Community and/or personnel stationed at Ft. Meade or working at NSA were formerly scheduled through the National Cryptologic Museum (NCM), which is just one block west of the former park.
The Marine Cryptologic Support Battalion (MCSB) is a Marine Corps Intelligence battalion of the United States Marine Corps. The battalion headquarters are located in Fort George G. Meade, Maryland.
Brigadier General Bernard Ardisana was the assistant deputy director for operations at the National Security Agency at Fort George G. Meade. During his tenure with the US Military he also commanded the USAF Security Service's 6924th Security Squadron and went on to become the Vice Commander of the USAF Security Service. He died on January 14, 1978, from a heart attack at Kimbrough Army Hospital at Ft. Meade.
The Georgia Cryptologic Center (GCC) or NSA Georgia is a U.S. National Security Agency (NSA) and Central Security Service (CSS) facility located within Fort Gordon, located outside of Augusta, Georgia. The 604,000 sq ft (56,100 m2) facility opened on March 5, 2012, at a cost of $286 million. The GCC's facilities has capacity to employ up to 4,000 personnel. Its primary focus is on signals intelligence intercepts from Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa. The facility is known by the codename "Sweet Tea".
James C. King is a retired United States Army Lieutenant General. A career Military Intelligence officer, he served on active duty from 1968 to 2001. At the time of his retirement he was serving as the Director of the National Imagery and Mapping Agency, one of the intelligence agencies of the United States Intelligence Community.
Shannon Mary Kent was a United States Navy Senior Chief Petty Officer and Cryptologic Technician, who was deployed to Syria and killed in the 2019 Manbij bombing.