Time-series segmentation

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Time-series segmentation is a method of time-series analysis in which an input time-series is divided into a sequence of discrete segments in order to reveal the underlying properties of its source. A typical application of time-series segmentation is in speaker diarization, in which an audio signal is partitioned into several pieces according to who is speaking at what times. Algorithms based on change-point detection include sliding windows, bottom-up, and top-down methods. [1] Probabilistic methods based on hidden Markov models have also proved useful in solving this problem. [2]

Speaker diarisation is the process of partitioning an input audio stream into homogeneous segments according to the speaker identity. It can enhance the readability of an automatic speech transcription by structuring the audio stream into speaker turns and, when used together with speaker recognition systems, by providing the speaker’s true identity. It is used to answer the question "who spoke when?" Speaker diarisation is a combination of speaker segmentation and speaker clustering. The first aims at finding speaker change points in an audio stream. The second aims at grouping together speech segments on the basis of speaker characteristics.

In statistical analysis, change detection or change point detection tries to identify times when the probability distribution of a stochastic process or time series changes. In general the problem concerns both detecting whether or not a change has occurred, or whether several changes might have occurred, and identifying the times of any such changes.

Hidden Markov model statistical Markov model

Hidden Markov Model (HMM) is a statistical Markov model in which the system being modeled is assumed to be a Markov process with unobserved states.


Overview of the segmentation problem

It is often the case that a time-series can be represented as a sequence of discrete segments of finite length. For example, the trajectory of a stock market could be partitioned into regions that lie in between important world events, the input to a handwriting recognition application could be segmented into the various words or letters that it was believed to consist of, or the audio recording of a conference could be divided according to who was speaking when. In the latter two cases, one may take advantage of the fact that the label assignments of individual segments may repeat themselves (for example, if a person speaks at several separate occasions during a conference) by attempting to cluster the segments according to their distinguishing properties (such as the spectral content of each speaker's voice). There are two general approaches to this problem. The first involves looking for change points in the time-series: for example, one may assign a segment boundary whenever there is a large jump in the average value of the signal. The second approach involves assuming that each segment in the time-series is generated by a system with distinct parameters, and then inferring the most probable segment locations and the system parameters that describe them. While the first approach tends to only look for changes in a short window of time, the second approach generally takes into account the entire time-series when deciding which label to assign to a given point.

Time series Sequence of data over time

A time series is a series of data points indexed in time order. Most commonly, a time series is a sequence taken at successive equally spaced points in time. Thus it is a sequence of discrete-time data. Examples of time series are heights of ocean tides, counts of sunspots, and the daily closing value of the Dow Jones Industrial Average.

Stock market public entity for the trading of company stocks and shares

A stock market, equity market or share market is the aggregation of buyers and sellers of stocks, which represent ownership claims on businesses; these may include securities listed on a public stock exchange, as well as stock that is only traded privately. Examples of the latter include shares of private companies which are sold to investors through equity crowdfunding platforms. Stock exchanges list shares of common equity as well as other security types, e.g. corporate bonds and convertible bonds.

Handwriting recognition the ability of a computer to receive and interpret intelligible handwritten input

Handwriting recognition (HWR) is the ability of a computer to receive and interpret intelligible handwritten input from sources such as paper documents, photographs, touch-screens and other devices. The image of the written text may be sensed "off line" from a piece of paper by optical scanning or intelligent word recognition. Alternatively, the movements of the pen tip may be sensed "on line", for example by a pen-based computer screen surface, a generally easier task as there are more clues available.

Segmentation algorithms

Hidden Markov Models

Under the hidden Markov model, the time-series is assumed to have been generated as the system transitions among a set of discrete, hidden states . At each time , a sample is drawn from an observation (or emission) distribution indexed by the current hidden state, i.e., . The goal of the segmentation problem is to infer the hidden state at each time, as well as the parameters describing the emission distribution associated with each hidden state. Hidden state sequence and emission distribution parameters can be learned using the Baum-Welch algorithm, which is a variant of expectation maximization applied to HMMs. Typically in the segmentation problem self-transition probabilities among states are assumed to be high, such that the system remains in each state for nonnegligible time. More robust parameter-learning methods involve placing hierarchical Dirichlet process priors over the HMM transition matrix. [3]

In statistics and machine learning, the hierarchical Dirichlet process (HDP) is a nonparametric Bayesian approach to clustering grouped data. It uses a Dirichlet process for each group of data, with the Dirichlet processes for all groups sharing a base distribution which is itself drawn from a Dirichlet process. This method allows groups to share statistical strength via sharing of clusters across groups. The base distribution being drawn from a Dirichlet process is important, because draws from a Dirichlet process are atomic probability measures, and the atoms will appear in all group-level Dirichlet processes. Since each atom corresponds to a cluster, clusters are shared across all groups. It was developed by Yee Whye Teh, Michael I. Jordan, Matthew J. Beal and David Blei and published in the Journal of the American Statistical Association in 2006, as a formalization and generalization of the infinite hidden Markov model published in 2002.

See also

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  1. Keogh, Eamonn, et al. "Segmenting time series: A survey and novel approach." Data mining in time series databases 57 (2004): 1-22.
  2. Fox, Emily B., et al. "An HDP-HMM for systems with state persistence." Proceedings of the 25th international conference on Machine learning. ACM, 2008.
  3. Teh, Yee Whye, et al. "Hierarchical dirichlet processes." Journal of the American Statistical Association 101.476 (2006).