Time in Namibia

Last updated
Time zones of Africa:

-01:00
Cape Verde Time
+-00:00
Greenwich Mean Time
+01:00
West Africa Time
+02:00
Central Africa Time
Egypt Standard Time
South African Standard Time
+03:00
East Africa Time
+04:00
Mauritius Time
Seychelles Time
The islands of Cape Verde are to the west of the African mainland.
Mauritius and the Seychelles are to the east and north-east of Madagascar respectively. TimeZones-Africa.svg
Time zones of Africa:
  -01:00   Cape Verde Time
  ±00:00   Greenwich Mean Time
  +01:00   West Africa Time
  +02:00  
  +03:00   East Africa Time
  +04:00  
The islands of Cape Verde are to the west of the African mainland.
Mauritius and the Seychelles are to the east and north-east of Madagascar respectively.

Namibia since September 2017 is in the Central Africa Time zone at UTC+02:00, congruous with South African Standard Time.

Contents

The country kept the time regulations of South Africa when it gained independence in 1990. Triggered by fears for children walking to school before sunrise, in 1993 the Namibian Time Bill was passed, stipulating the switch to Winter time as one of only a few countries in the world. Only the Zambezi Region in the far north-east remained at UTC+02:00. In the 2010s criticism of Namibian time regulations arose, mainly due to incompatibilities with South Africa, Namibia's main trading partner, and the hassle of different time regulations in the Caprivi Strip.

After public consultations the Namibian Time Bill 2017 was tabled in the National Assembly in February 2017 and passed by National Council in August.

History

Until 1994

Upon Namibian independence the country used a single time zone, keeping time regulation as previously prescribed by the occupying nation, South Africa. Triggered by fears for school children walking to school before sunrise, discussions in the National Assembly started in 1992, [1] and on 10 November 1993 the Namibian Time Bill (#39 of 1993) was proposed. This bill defined the Namibian Standard Time. [2]

1994–2017

From 1994 until 2017 Namibia used Winter time, the practice of setting clocks back during winter months by one hour. In this period Namibian Standard Time was at UTC+02:00 Central Africa Time in summer, and UTC+01:00 (West Africa Time) in winter. Winter time began on the first Sunday in April at 03:00, and lasted until the first Sunday in September, 02:00 hours. In the Zambezi Region in the far north-east of Namibia clocks were not changed and remained on Central Africa Time all year round so that during winter time, Namibia spanned two time zones. [1] The Namibian Standard Time was thus UTC+02:00 (derived from South African Standard Time) in summer, and UTC+01:00 (equivalent to West Africa Time) in winter. [3]

Namibia was one of only a few countries in the world to implement winter time instead of daylight saving time. Ireland still adjusts clocks in Winter since 1971 [4] [5] while Czechoslovakia used the practice only in 1946 and never repeated it. [6] In a regular daylight saving time scheme, the "normal" time is observed in the winter, and clocks are turned forward during the summer. In winter time, normal time is observed in the summer, and clocks are turned back by one hour in the winter. In timekeeping, then, it is equivalent to daylight saving time, differing only in which season is considered the regular time. However, the purpose was not to utilise additional hours of daylight in the evening, but to prevent children from walking to school in darkness in the morning, to decrease the risk of injuries and assaults. [1]

If expressed as summer times, these would have been equivalent to West Africa Summer Time and West Africa Standard Time, however Namibia was the only state in Africa to use the combination of UTC+01:00 and UTC+02:00. Central European Time also uses UTC+01:00 and UTC+02:00, but the northern seasons are opposite to the southern hemisphere.

Since 2017

In the 2010s repeated calls from businesses and private individuals were made to abolish winter time, citing incompatibilities with South Africa, Namibia's main trading partner, as well as a "loss of productivity". [1]

This resulted in an official investigation by the Ministry of Home Affairs and Immigration. During the polls, 97% of the 3,507 questioned people were in favour of the +2 difference to Greenwich Mean Time, and about 88% wanted to abolish winter time. After the Cabinet was likewise against changing clocks in autumn and spring, minister Pendukeni Iivula-Ithana proposed a new bill to that effect in February 2017. [7] The Home Affairs ministry stated that winter time would proceed in 2017, as discussions were still ongoing. [8]

The National Council passed the Namibian Time Bill 2017 in August 2017 and repealed the 1993 act. [9]

Related Research Articles

Daylight saving time Time adjustment practice

Daylight saving time (DST), also daylight savings time or daylight time and summer time, is the practice of advancing clocks during warmer months so that darkness falls later each day according to the clock. The typical implementation of DST is to set clocks forward by one hour in the spring and set clocks back by one hour in autumn to return to standard time. As a result, there is one 23-hour day in late winter or early spring and one 25-hour day in the autumn.

Western European Summer Time

Western European Summer Time is a summer daylight saving time scheme, 1 hour ahead of Greenwich Mean Time and Coordinated Universal Time. It is used in:

Central Time Zone Time zone in North America

The North American Central Time Zone (CT) is a time zone in parts of Canada, the United States, Mexico, Central America, some Caribbean Islands, and part of the Eastern Pacific Ocean.

Eastern Time Zone Time zone observing UTC−05:00 during standard time and UTC−04:00 during daylight saving time

The Eastern Time Zone (ET) is a time zone encompassing part or all of 23 states in the eastern part of the United States, parts of eastern Canada, the state of Quintana Roo in Mexico, Panama in Central America, and Colombia, mainland Ecuador, Peru, and a small portion of westernmost Brazil in South America, along with certain Caribbean and Atlantic islands.

Alaska Time Zone Time zone in Alaska

The Alaska Time Zone observes standard time by subtracting nine hours from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC−09:00). During daylight saving time its time offset is eight hours (UTC−08:00). The clock time in this zone is based on mean solar time at the 135th meridian west of the Greenwich Observatory.

Central European Time Standard time (UTC+01:00)

Central European Time (CET), used in most parts of Europe and a few North African countries, is a standard time which is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). The time offset from UTC can be written as UTC+01:00. The same standard time, UTC+01:00, is also known as Middle European Time and under other names like Berlin Time, Warsaw Time, Paris Time or Rome Time.

Summer time in Europe

Summer time in Europe is the variation of standard clock time that is applied in most European countries in the period between spring and autumn, during which clocks are advanced by one hour from the time observed in the rest of the year, with a view to making the most efficient use of seasonal daylight. It corresponds to the notion and practice of daylight saving time (DST) to be found in many other parts of the world.

Time in New Zealand Overview of the time zones used in New Zealand

Time in New Zealand is divided by law into two standard time zones. The main islands use New Zealand Standard Time (NZST), 12 hours in advance of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) / military M (Mike), while the outlying Chatham Islands use Chatham Standard Time (CHAST), 12 hours 45 minutes in advance of UTC / military M^ (Mike-Three).

Atlantic Time Zone Time zone (UTC−04:00)

The Atlantic Time Zone is a geographical region that keeps standard time—called Atlantic Standard Time (AST)—by subtracting four hours from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), resulting in UTC−04:00. During part of the year, some portions of the zone observe daylight saving time, referred to as Atlantic Daylight Time (ADT), by moving their clocks forward one hour to result in UTC−03:00. The clock time in this zone is based on the mean solar time of the 60th meridian west of the Greenwich Observatory.

Moscow Time Time zone in western Russia

Moscow Time is the time zone for the city of Moscow, Russia, and most of western Russia, including Saint Petersburg. It is the second-westernmost of the eleven time zones of Russia. It has been set to UTC+03:00 without DST since 26 October 2014; before that date it had been set to UTC+04:00 year-round on 27 March 2011.

UTC+03:00

UTC+03:00 is an identifier for a time offset from UTC of +03:00. In areas using this time offset, the time is three hours later than the Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). Following the ISO 8601 standard, a time with this offset would be written as, for example, 2019-02-08T23:36:06+03:00.

British Summer Time Identifier for a time offset from UTC of +1

During British Summer Time (BST), civil time in the United Kingdom is advanced one hour forward of Greenwich Mean Time (GMT), so that mornings have one hour less daylight, and evenings one hour more.

Time in Australia Time zones in Australia

Australia uses three main time zones: Australian Western Standard Time, Australian Central Standard Time, and Australian Eastern Standard Time. Time is regulated by the individual state governments, some of which observe daylight saving time (DST). Australia's external territories observe different time zones.

Further-eastern European Time

Further-eastern European Time (FET) is a time zone defined as three hours ahead of UTC (UTC+03:00) without daylight saving time, the zone immediately higher than the Eastern European Time. The time zone used in Belarus between 2011-2014.

Central Africa Time Time zone

Central Africa Time, or CAT, is a time zone used in central and southern Africa. Central Africa Time is two hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC+02:00), which is the same as the adjacent South Africa Standard Time, Egypt Standard Time, Eastern European Time, Kaliningrad Time and Central European Summer Time.

West Africa Time Time zone

West Africa Time, or WAT, is a time zone used in west-central Africa. West Africa Time is one hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC+01:00), which makes it the same as Central European Time (CET) during winter, or Western European Summer Time (WEST) / British Summer Time (BST) during the summer.

Uzbekistan time is the standard time in Uzbekistan; it is 5 hours ahead of UTC, UTC+05:00. The standard time uses no daylight saving time, though there has been constant debate whether to adopt it in order to increase leisure time.

Time in the Republic of Ireland

Ireland uses Irish Standard Time in the summer months and Greenwich Mean Time in the winter period..

Daylight saving time in Africa

The only African countries and regions that use daylight saving time are:

Winter time (clock lag)

Winter time is the practice of shifting the clock back during winter months, usually −1 hour. It is a form of daylight saving time which is the opposite compensation to the summer time. However, while summer time is widely applied, use of winter time has been and is very rare.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 "GRN evaluates winter time change". New Era . 24 March 2016. p. 1.
  2. Dierks, Klaus. "Chronology of Namibian History, 136". klausdierks.com. Retrieved 27 February 2017.
  3. Immanuel, Shinovene (23 February 2017). "Time change divides lawmakers". The Namibian . p. 1.
  4. Standard Time (Amendment) Act, 1971
  5. Standard Time Act, 1968
  6. Kušová, Tereza (14 April 2011). "Letní čas vymyslel Angličan, zaveden byl ve Švédsku, Rusko ho ruší a Česko se několik desetiletí přizpůsobuje" (in Czech). Novinky.cz. To byla jediná doba, kdy byl u nás zaveden zimní čas, je to nejspíš i světový unikát, poté se měnil už pouze v ten letní.
  7. Konstantinus, Esme (23 February 2017). "Namibia's winter time might be repealed". New Era . p. 1.
  8. Shapwanale, Ndapewoshali (2017-03-30). "Time change continues". The Namibian. Archived from the original on 2017-04-26.
  9. Nakale, Albertina (9 August 2017). "National Council passes Time Bill in favour of summer time". New Era . p. 1.