Time in Namibia

Last updated
Time zones of Africa:

-01:00
Cape Verde Time
+-00:00
Greenwich Mean Time
+01:00
Central European Time
West Africa Time
+02:00
Central Africa Time
Eastern European Time
Egypt Standard Time
South African Standard Time
+03:00
East Africa Time
+04:00
Mauritius Time
Seychelles Time
.mw-parser-output .citation{word-wrap:break-word}.mw-parser-output .citation:target{background-color:rgba(0,127,255,0.133)}
The islands of Cape Verde are to the west of the African mainland.

Mauritius and the Seychelles are to the east and north-east of Madagascar respectively. TimeZones-Africa.svg
Time zones of Africa:
  -01:00   Cape Verde Time
  ±00:00   Greenwich Mean Time
  +01:00  
  +02:00  
  +03:00   East Africa Time
  +04:00  
The islands of Cape Verde are to the west of the African mainland.
Mauritius and the Seychelles are to the east and north-east of Madagascar respectively.

Namibia since September 2017 is in the Central Africa Time zone at UTC+02:00, congruous with South African Standard Time.

Contents

The country kept the time regulations of South Africa when it gained independence in 1990. Triggered by fears for children walking to school before sunrise, in 1993 the Namibian Time Bill was passed, stipulating the switch to Winter time as one of only a few countries in the world. Only the Zambezi Region in the far north-east remained at UTC+02:00. In the 2010s criticism of Namibian time regulations arose, mainly due to incompatibilities with South Africa, Namibia's main trading partner, and the hassle of different time regulations in the Caprivi Strip.

After public consultations the Namibian Time Bill 2017 was tabled in the National Assembly in February 2017 and passed by National Council in August.

History

Until 1994

Upon Namibian independence the country used a single time zone, keeping time regulation as previously prescribed by the occupying nation, South Africa. Triggered by fears for school children walking to school before sunrise, discussions in the National Assembly started in 1992, [1] and on 10 November 1993 the Namibian Time Bill (#39 of 1993) was proposed. This bill defined the Namibian Standard Time. [2]

1994–2017

From 1994 until 2017 Namibia used Winter time, the practice of setting clocks back during winter months by one hour. In this period Namibian Standard Time was at UTC+02:00 (derived from South African Standard Time) in summer, and UTC+01:00 (equivalent to West Africa Time) in winter. [3] Winter time began on the first Sunday in April at 03:00, and lasted until the first Sunday in September, 02:00 hours. In the Zambezi Region in the far north-east of Namibia clocks were not changed and remained on Central Africa Time all year round so that during winter time, Namibia spanned two time zones. [1]

Namibia was one of only a few countries in the world to implement winter time instead of daylight saving time. Ireland still adjusts clocks in Winter since 1971 [4] [5] while Czechoslovakia used the practice only in 1946 and never repeated it. [6] In a regular daylight saving time scheme, the "normal" time is observed in the winter, and clocks are turned forward during the summer. In winter time, normal time is observed in the summer, and clocks are turned back by one hour in the winter. In timekeeping, then, it is equivalent to daylight saving time, differing only in which season is considered the regular time. However, the purpose was not to utilise additional hours of daylight in the evening, but to prevent children from walking to school in darkness in the morning, to decrease the risk of injuries and assaults. [1]

If expressed as summer times, these would have been equivalent to West Africa Summer Time and West Africa Standard Time, however Namibia was the only state in Africa to use the combination of UTC+01:00 and UTC+02:00. Central European Time also uses UTC+01:00 and UTC+02:00, but the northern seasons are opposite to the southern hemisphere.

Since 2017

In the 2010s repeated calls from businesses and private individuals were made to abolish winter time, citing incompatibilities with South Africa, Namibia's main trading partner, as well as a "loss of productivity". [1]

This resulted in an official investigation by the Ministry of Home Affairs and Immigration. During the polls, 97% of the 3,507 questioned people were in favour of the +2 difference to Greenwich Mean Time, and about 88% wanted to abolish winter time. After the Cabinet was likewise against changing clocks in autumn and spring, minister Pendukeni Iivula-Ithana proposed a new bill to that effect in February 2017. [7] The Home Affairs ministry stated that winter time would proceed in 2017, as discussions were still ongoing. [8]

The National Council passed the Namibian Time Bill 2017 in August 2017 and repealed the 1993 act. [9]

Related Research Articles

Daylight saving time Adjustment of clocks twice a year

Daylight saving time (DST), also known as daylight savings time or daylight time, and summer time, is the practice of advancing clocks during warmer months so that darkness falls at a later clock time. The typical implementation of DST is to set clocks forward by one hour in the spring and set clocks back by one hour in autumn to return to standard time. As a result, there is one 23-hour day in late winter or early spring and one 25-hour day in the autumn.

Western European Summer Time Time zone (UTC+01:00)

Western European Summer Time is a summer daylight saving time scheme, 1 hour ahead of Greenwich Mean Time and Coordinated Universal Time. It is used in:

Eastern Time Zone North American time zone (UTC−5 and UTC−4)

The Eastern Time Zone (ET) is a time zone encompassing part or all of 23 states in the eastern part of the United States, parts of eastern Canada, the state of Quintana Roo in Mexico, Panama and Colombia, mainland Ecuador, Peru, and a small portion of westernmost Brazil in South America, along with certain Caribbean and Atlantic islands.

Alaska Time Zone Time zone in Alaska

The Alaska Time Zone observes standard time by subtracting nine hours from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC−09:00). During daylight saving time its time offset is eight hours (UTC−08:00). The clock time in this zone is based on mean solar time at the 135th meridian west of the Greenwich Observatory.

Central European Time Standard time (UTC+01:00)

Central European Time (CET) is a standard time which is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). The time offset from UTC can be written as UTC+01:00. It is used in most parts of Europe and in a few North African countries. CET is also known as Middle European Time and by colloquial names such as Amsterdam Time, Berlin Time, Brussels Time, Madrid Time, Paris Time, Rome Time, and Warsaw Time.

Summer time in Europe Variation of standard clock time

Summer time in Europe is the variation of standard clock time that is applied in most European countries in the period between spring and autumn, during which clocks are advanced by one hour from the time observed in the rest of the year, with a view to making the most efficient use of seasonal daylight. It corresponds to the notion and practice of daylight saving time (DST) to be found in many other parts of the world.

Central European Summer Time Time zone (UTC+2)

Central European Summer Time (CEST), sometimes referred to as Central European Daylight Time (CEDT), is the standard clock time observed during the period of summer daylight-saving in those European countries which observe Central European Time during the other part of the year. It corresponds to UTC+02:00, which makes it the same as Eastern European Time, Central Africa Time, South African Standard Time, Egypt Standard Time and Kaliningrad Time in Russia.

Time in New Zealand is divided by law into two standard time zones. The main islands use New Zealand Standard Time (NZST), 12 hours in advance of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) / military M (Mike), while the outlying Chatham Islands use Chatham Standard Time (CHAST), 12 hours 45 minutes in advance of UTC / military M^ (Mike-Three).

Atlantic Time Zone Time zone (UTC−04:00)

The Atlantic Time Zone is a geographical region that keeps standard time—called Atlantic Standard Time (AST)—by subtracting four hours from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), resulting in UTC−04:00. AST is observed in parts of North America, some Caribbean islands, and parts of South America. During part of the year, some portions of the zone observe daylight saving time, referred to as Atlantic Daylight Time (ADT), by moving their clocks forward one hour to result in UTC−03:00. The clock time in this zone is based on the mean solar time of the 60th meridian west of the Greenwich Observatory.

Moscow Time Time zone in western Russia (UTC+3)

Moscow Time is the time zone for the city of Moscow, Russia, and most of western Russia, including Saint Petersburg. It is the second-westernmost of the eleven time zones of Russia. It has been set to UTC+03:00 without DST since 26 October 2014; before that date it had been set to UTC+04:00 year-round on 27 March 2011.

British Summer Time Identifier for a time offset from UTC of +1

During British Summer Time (BST), civil time in the United Kingdom is advanced one hour forward of Greenwich Mean Time (GMT), in effect changing the time zone from UTC+00:00 to UTC+01:00, so that mornings have one hour less daylight, and evenings one hour more.

Time in Australia Time zones in Australia

Australia uses three main time zones: Australian Western Standard Time, Australian Central Standard Time, and Australian Eastern Standard Time. Time is regulated by the individual state governments, some of which observe daylight saving time (DST). Australia's external territories observe different time zones.

Central Africa Time Time zone

Central Africa Time or CAT, is a time zone used in central and southern Africa. Central Africa Time is two hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC+02:00), which is the same as the adjacent South Africa Standard Time, Egypt Standard Time, Eastern European Time, Kaliningrad Time and Central European Summer Time.

Uzbekistan time is the standard time in Uzbekistan; it is 5 hours ahead of UTC, UTC+05:00. The standard time uses no daylight saving time, though there has been constant debate whether to adopt it in order to increase leisure time.

Time in the Czech Republic

Time in the Czech Republic is given by Central European Time and Central European Summer Time. Daylight saving time is observed from the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in October. The Czech Republic has observed Central European Time since 1979. Until 1993 when Czechoslovakia was separated into the Czech Republic and Slovakia, they also had Central European Time and Central European Summer Time. After the summer months, time in the Czech Republic is shifted back by one hour to Central European Time. Like most states in Europe, Summer time is observed in the Czech Republic, when time is shifted forward by one hour, two hours ahead of Greenwich Mean Time.

Daylight saving time in Africa

The only African country and regions that use daylight saving time are:

Daylight saving time by country Wikimedia list article

Daylight saving time (DST), also known as summer time, is the practice of advancing clocks during part of the year, typically by one hour around spring and summer, so that daylight ends at a later time of the day. As of 2021, DST is observed in most of Europe, most of North America and parts of Asia around the Northern Hemisphere summer, and in parts of South America and Oceania around the Southern Hemisphere summer. It was also formerly observed in other areas.

Winter time (clock lag) Aspect of daylight saving time

Winter time is the practice of shifting the clock back during winter months, usually −1 hour. It is a form of daylight saving time which is the opposite compensation to the summer time. However, while summer time is widely applied, use of winter time has been and is very rare.

Time in Finland Time zones used in Finland

Time in Finland, including the Åland Islands, is denoted by Eastern European Time (EET) during the winter as standard time, which is two hours ahead of coordinated universal time (UTC+02:00), and Eastern European Summer Time (EEST) during the summer as daylight saving time, which is three hours ahead of coordinated universal time (UTC+03:00). Finland adopted EET on 30 April 1921, and has observed daylight saving time since 1981. Since 1983 – in-line the EU directive – daylight saving time has been observed by advancing the clock forward one hour at 03:00 EET on the last Sunday in March and back at 04:00 EET on the last Sunday in October. Public opinion in Finland has been keen to end the practice of daylight saving time, with a 2018 survey conducted by the Ministry of Justice revealing a small majority in favour of observing permanent winter time. A year earlier, the Finnish parliament voted in favour of proposals calling on the European Union to reconsider daylight saving time.

Time in Poland Time zones used in Poland

Time in Poland is given by Central European Time. Daylight saving time, which moves an hour ahead, is observed from the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in October. This is shared with several other EU member states.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 "GRN evaluates winter time change". New Era . 24 March 2016. p. 1.
  2. Dierks, Klaus. "Chronology of Namibian History, 136". klausdierks.com. Retrieved 27 February 2017.
  3. Immanuel, Shinovene (23 February 2017). "Time change divides lawmakers". The Namibian . p. 1.
  4. Standard Time (Amendment) Act, 1971
  5. Standard Time Act, 1968
  6. Kušová, Tereza (14 April 2011). "Letní čas vymyslel Angličan, zaveden byl ve Švédsku, Rusko ho ruší a Česko se několik desetiletí přizpůsobuje" (in Czech). Novinky.cz. To byla jediná doba, kdy byl u nás zaveden zimní čas, je to nejspíš i světový unikát, poté se měnil už pouze v ten letní.
  7. Konstantinus, Esme (23 February 2017). "Namibia's winter time might be repealed". New Era . p. 1.
  8. Shapwanale, Ndapewoshali (2017-03-30). "Time change continues". The Namibian. Archived from the original on 2017-04-26.
  9. Nakale, Albertina (9 August 2017). "National Council passes Time Bill in favour of summer time". New Era . p. 1.