|Part of a series on
Uthman, also spelled Osman, was the third Rashidun caliph, ruling from November 644 until his assassination. He ruled for twelve years, the longest of all Rashidun caliphs, and during his reign, the Rashidun Caliphate reached its greatest extent. He is known for having ordered the compilation of the first standard version of the Quran.
Marwan ibn al-Hakam ibn Abi al-As ibn Umayya, commonly known as Marwan I, was the fourth Umayyad caliph, ruling for less than a year in 684–685. He founded the Marwanid ruling house of the Umayyad dynasty, which replaced the Sufyanid house after its collapse in the Second Muslim Civil War and remained in power until 750.
The Rashidun Caliphs, often simply called the Rashidun, are the first four caliphs who led the Muslim community following the death of the Islamic prophet Muhammad: Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, and Ali. The reign of these caliphs, called the Rashidun Caliphate (632–661), is considered in Sunni Islam to have been 'rightly guided'.
Kufa, also spelled Kufah, is a city in Iraq, about 170 kilometres (110 mi) south of Baghdad, and 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) northeast of Najaf. It is located on the banks of the Euphrates River. The estimated population in 2003 was 110,000. Currently, Kufa and Najaf are joined into a single urban area that is mostly commonly known to the outside world as 'Najaf'.
This is a timeline of major events in the Muslim world from 601 AD to 700 AD.
Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr ibn Abi Quhafa al-Taymi, was a Rashidun military general and the governor of Egypt under the fourth caliph Ali.
Ṭalḥa ibn ʿUbayd Allāh al-Taymī was a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. In Sunni Islam, he is mostly known for being among the ten to whom Paradise was promised. He is best known for his roles in the Battle of Uhud and the Battle of the Camel, in which he died. According to Sunnis, he was given the title "The Generous" by Muhammad.
Malik al-Ashtar, also known as Mālik bin al-Ḥārith al-Nakhaʿīy al-Maḏḥijīy, was one of the loyal companions of Ali ibn Abi Talib, cousin of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. He remained an avid and loyal supporter of Muhammad's progeny and the Hashemite clan. He rose to a position of prominence during the caliphate of Ali and participated in several battles, such as the Battle of Jamal and Siffin against Muawiyah. His title "al-Ashtar" signifies an eyelid injury he received during the Battle of Yarmouk.
Ali was the cousin and son-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, and a member of the Ahl al-Bayt. According to Shias, Ali was the first Imam who is believed to be the rightful successor to Muhammad, divinely appointed successors of Muhammad who are claimed by the Shias. Although Ali was regarded, during the lifetime of Muhammad, as his initial successor, it would be 25 years before he was recognized with the title of Caliph (successor). According to the status of Ali (AS) it is believed he is infallible and sinless and is one of The Fourteen Infallibles of the household of Muhammed.
Miqdad ibn Amr al-Bahrani, better known as al-Miqdad ibn al-Aswad al-Kindi or simply Miqdad, was one of the companions of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. His kunya was Abu Ma'bad. Miqdad was born in Eastern Arabia. He became fugitive in his hometown and ran to Mecca, where he served Aswad al-Kindi. Miqdad managed to gain favor of his master, who in turn adopted him as his son.
Muhammad ibn Maslamah was a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. He was known as "The Knight of Allah's Prophet". His kunya was Abu Abdullah or Abu Abd al Rahman. Ibn Maslamah embraced Islam before the Hegira of Prophet Muhammad and his followers. Ibn Maslamah witnessed all the battles except for the expedition of Tabuk, as he was appointed as deputy governor of Medina during the campaign.
Abd al-Rahman ibn Muljam was an Arab soldier of the Kharijites who killed the fourth Rashidun caliph Ali ibn Abi Talib in January 661. He belonged to Banu Murad.
Abu Abd Allah al-Mughira ibn Shu'ba ibn Abi Amir ibn Mas'ud al-Thaqafi ; c. 600–671), was a prominent companion of Muhammad and was known as one of the four 'shrewds of the Arabs'. He belonged to the tribe of Thaqif of Ta'if, who were part of the early Islamic elite. He served as governor of Kufa, one of the two principal Arab garrisons and administrative centers of Iraq, under Caliph Umar in 642–645. In his old age, al-Mughira was again made governor of Kufa, serving under the Umayyad caliph Mu'awiya I from 661 until his death in 671. During his second governorship, he ruled with virtual independence from the caliph.
Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyya (Arabic: محمد بن الحنفية, romanized: Muḥammad ibn al-Hanafīyya; c. 637–February 700, was an Alid political and religious leader. He was the third son of the fourth Rashidun caliph Ali. Following his half-brother Husayn's death in 680, Ibn al-Hanafiyya was subsequently recognized as the head of the nascent Alid community.
Ali ibn Abi Talib took part in all the battles of the Islamic prophet Muhammad's time, except the Expedition of Tabuk, as standard bearer. He also led parties of warriors on raids into enemy lands, and was an ambassador. Ali's fame grew with every battle that he was in, due to his courage, valour, and chivalry, as well as the fact that he single-handedly, destroyed many of Arabia's most famous and feared warriors. Muhammad acknowledged him as the greatest warrior of all time.
The Rashidun Caliphate was the first caliphate to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad. It was ruled by the first four successive caliphs (successors) of Muhammad after his death in 632 CE. These caliphs are collectively known in Sunni Islam as the Rashidun, or "Rightly Guided" caliphs. This term is not used in Shia Islam, as Shia Muslims do not consider the rule of the first three caliphs legitimate.
Sakhr ibn Harb ibn Umayya ibn Abd Shams, better known by his kunyaAbu Sufyan, was a prominent opponent turned companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. He was the father of Mu'awiya I and thus the forefather of all the Ummayid Caliphs. One of Abu Sufyan's daughters, Ramlah, was married to Muhammad, but this happened before Abu Sufyan's conversion and without his consent.
The Umayyad dynasty or Umayyads were the ruling family of the Caliphate between 661 and 750 and later of Al-Andalus between 756 and 1031. In the pre-Islamic period, they were a prominent clan of the Meccan tribe of Quraysh, descended from Umayya ibn Abd Shams. Despite staunch opposition to the Islamic prophet Muhammad, the Umayyads embraced Islam before the latter's death in 632. Uthman, an early companion of Muhammad from the Umayyad clan, was the third Rashidun caliph, ruling in 644–656, while other members held various governorships. One of these governors, Mu'awiya I of Syria, opposed Caliph Ali in the First Muslim Civil War (656–661) and afterward founded the Umayyad Caliphate with its capital in Damascus. This marked the beginning of the Umayyad dynasty, the first hereditary dynasty in the history of Islam, and the only one to rule over the entire Islamic world of its time.
Ali ibn Abi Talib, the fourth Rashidun Caliph and first shia Imam, was assassinated on 26 January 661 by a Kharijite named Abd al-Rahman ibn 'Amr ibn Muljam al-Muradi at the Great Mosque of Kufa, located in present-day Iraq. Ali died from his wounds two days after Abd al-Rahman struck him over his head with a poison-coated sword. He was 62 or 63 years of age at the time of his death on 21 Ramadan 40 AH, equivalent to 28 January 661 CE.
Abu Musa Abd Allah ibn Qays al-Ash'ari, better known as Abu Musa al-Ash'ari was a companion of Muhammad and an important figure in early Islamic history. He was at various times governor of Basra and Kufa and was involved in the early Muslim conquest of Persia.