Timeline of Armenian national movement

Last updated

The following is the Timeline of Armenian national movement which is the collection of activities during the Armenian national movement.

















See also

Related Research Articles

Articles related to Armenia include:

Social Democrat Hunchakian Party

The Social Democrat Hunchakian Party (SDHP), is the oldest continuously-operating Armenian political party, founded in 1887 by a group of students in Geneva, Switzerland. It was the first socialist party to operate in the Ottoman Empire and in Iran, then known as Persia. Among its founders were Avetis Nazarbekian, Mariam Vardanian, Gevorg Gharadjian, Ruben Khan-Azat, Christopher Ohanian, Gabriel Kafian and Manuel Manuelian. Its original goal was attaining Armenia's independence from the Ottoman Empire during the Armenian national liberation movement.

Middle Eastern theatre of World War I Scene of action between 29 October 1914, and 30 October 1918

The Middle Eastern theatre of World War I saw action between 29 October 1914 and 30 October 1918. The combatants were, on one side, the Ottoman Empire, with some assistance from the other Central Powers; and on the other side, the British, the Russians and the French from among the Allied Powers. There were five main campaigns: the Sinai and Palestine Campaign, the Mesopotamian Campaign, the Caucasus Campaign, the Persian Campaign, and the Gallipoli Campaign. There were also several minor campaigns: Arab Campaign, and South Arabia Campaign.

Caucasus campaign Armed conflicts between the Russian and Ottoman Empires during WWI

The Caucasus campaign comprised armed conflicts between the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire, later including Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, the Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus, the German Empire, the Central Caspian Dictatorship, and the British Empire, as part of the Middle Eastern theatre during World War I. The Caucasus campaign extended from the South Caucasus to the Armenian Highlands region, reaching as far as Trabzon, Bitlis, Mush and Van. The land warfare was accompanied by naval engagements in the Black Sea.

Russian Armenia

Russian Armenia is the period of Armenian history under Russian rule from 1828, when Eastern Armenia became part of the Russian Empire following Qajar Iran's loss in the Russo-Persian War (1826–1828) and the subsequent ceding of its territories that included Eastern Armenia per the out coming Treaty of Turkmenchay of 1828.

Turkish–Armenian War Conflict during the Turkish War of Independence

The Turkish–Armenian war, known in Turkey as the Eastern Front of the Turkish War of Independence, was a conflict in late 1920 between the First Republic of Armenia and the Turkish National Movement following the collapse of the Treaty of Sèvres. After the provisional government of Ahmet Tevfik Pasha failed to win support for ratification of the treaty, remnants of the Ottoman Army’s XV Corps under the command of Kâzım Karabekir attacked Armenian forces controlling the area surrounding Kars, eventually recapturing all territory previously ceded to the Ottoman Empire by Soviet Russia as part of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk.

Mkrtich Khrimian

Mkrtich Khrimian was an Armenian Apostolic Church leader, educator, and publisher who served as Catholicos of All Armenians from 1893 to 1907. During this period he was known as Mkrtich I of Van.

Occupation of Western Armenia

The occupation of Western Armenia by the Russian Empire during World War I began in 1915 formally ended by the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. It was sometimes referred to as the Republic of Van by Armenians. Aram Manukian of Armenian Revolutionary Federation was the de facto head until July 1915. It was briefly referred to as "Free Vaspurakan". After a setback beginning in August 1915, it was re-established in June 1916. The region was allocated to Russia by the Allies in April 1916 under the Sazonov–Paléologue Agreement.

Armen Garo

Garegin or Karekin Pastermadjian, better known by his nom de guerreArmen Garo or Armen Karo was an Armenian nationalist activist and politician. Armen Karo was a leading member of the Armenian Revolutionary Federation for more than two decades. He was one of the masterminds of the 1896 occupation of the Ottoman Bank in response to the Hamidian massacres and Operation Nemesis, in which several perpetrators of the Armenian genocide were assassinated. Between 1918 and 1920 he served as the first ambassador to the United States from the First Republic of Armenia.

Armenian <i>fedayi</i>

Fedayi, also known as the Armenian irregular units or Armenian militia, were Armenian civilians who voluntarily left their families to form self-defense units and irregular armed bands in reaction to the mass murder of Armenians and the pillage of Armenian villages by criminals, Kurdish gangs and Turkish forces, and Hamidian guards during the reign of Abdul Hamid II in late 19th and early 20th centuries, known as the Hamidian massacres. Their ultimate goal was always to gain Armenian autonomy (Armenakans) or independence depending on their ideology and the degree of oppression visited on Armenians.

Armenian national liberation movement

The Armenian national liberation movement included social, cultural, but primarily political and military movements that reached their height during World War I and the following years, initially seeking improved status for Armenians in the Ottoman and Russian Empires but eventually attempting to achieve an Armenian state.

Armenian resistance during the Armenian genocide

The Armenian resistance is a name given to the military and political activities of the Armenians under the Armenian political parties of Henchak, Armenakan, Dashnaktsutiun against the Ottoman Empire during World War I, considered a struggle for freedom and resistance to the Armenian genocide by the Armenian combatants, but high treason by the Ottoman Empire. These Armenian national organizations established Armenian fedayeen generally referred to as Armenian irregular units and the Russian Empire formed Armenian volunteer units, which recruited Ottoman Armenians from behind the Ottoman lines. During this period the Siege of Van on April 20, 1915, and consequent establishment of the Administration for Western Armenia were significant events. The Ottoman Minister of Interior Mehmed Talat Pasha considered the Armenian population a fifth column within the Empire, blaming the rise of the Armenian national liberation movement for the overall unrest inside the Empire in his order on April 24, 1915 that ended with arrests and murders of Armenian scholars, men in government leadership and scholars.

Armenian question

The Armenian Question was the debate following the Congress of Berlin in 1878 as to how the Armenians in the Ottoman Empire should be treated. The term became commonplace among diplomatic circles and in the popular press. In specific terms, the Armenian question refers to the protection and the freedoms of Armenians from their neighboring communities. The "Armenian Question" explains the 40 years of Armenian-Ottoman history in the context of English, German, and Russian politics between 1877–1914. In 1915, the leadership of the Committee of Union and Progress, which controlled the Ottoman government, decided to end the Armenian Question permanently by killing and expelling most Armenians from the empire in the Armenian genocide.

1904 Sasun uprising 1904 uprising by Armenian militia against the Ottoman Empire

The Sasun uprising or Sasun rebellion of 1904 was an uprising by Armenian militia against the Ottoman Empire in Turkey's Sason region in 1904. The empire wanted to prevent the formation of another semi-autonomous Armenian region in the eastern vilayets after its defeat in the First Zeitun Rebellion. In Sason, the Armenian national liberation movement recruited young Armenians.

Persian Campaign Military campaign in World War I

The Persian Campaign or Invasion of Iran was a series of engagements in the Iranian Azerbaijan region involving the forces of the Ottoman Empire against those of the British Empire and Russian Empire, beginning in December 1914 and ending with the Armistice of Mudros on October 30, 1918, as part of Middle Eastern theatre of World War I. The fighting also involved local Persian units, who fought against both the Entente and Ottoman forces in Iran. Collectively, the conflict proved to be a devastating experience for Persia. Over 2 million Persian civilians died in the conflict, mostly due to the Ottoman-perpetrated genocide and famine of 1917-1919. The Qajar government's inability to maintain the country's sovereignty during and immediately after the First World War led to a coup d'état in 1921 and Reza Shah's establishment of the Pahlavi dynasty.

The Zeitun rebellion or Second Zeitun Resistance took place in the winter of 1895–1896, during the Hamidian massacres, when the Armenians of Zeitun, fearing the prospect of massacre, took up arms to defend themselves from Ottoman troops.

Sebastatsi Murad

Murad of Sebastia was a well-known Armenian fedayee during the Armenian national liberation movement in the Ottoman empire. He was born in the Armenian village of Govdun (Կովտուն), about 20 km east of the town of Sivas to a poor rural family that had recently moved to the village. After working as a shepherd and farm labourer during his childhood, he moved as a teenager to Constantinople, where he worked for meagre earnings as a carrier. He joined the Social Democrat Hunchakian Party and in the 1890s participated in Armenian demonstrations protesting against the second-class treatment of Armenians within the Ottoman Empire.

Ruben Ter Minasian

Ruben Ter Minasian was an Armenian politician and revolutionary of the Armenian Revolutionary Federation (ARF) who played an important role in the Armenian national liberation movement and later in the First Republic of Armenia.

Matthew II Izmirlian

Matthew II Izmirlian was the Catholicos of All Armenians of the Armenian Apostolic Church at the Mother See of Holy Etchmiadzin in 1908–1910. He succeeded Mkrtich I Khrimian, who reigned as Catholicos from 1892 to 1907.