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Timing is the tracking or planning of the spacing of events in time. It may refer to:
A two-strokeengine is a type of internal combustion engine that completes a power cycle with two strokes of the piston during one power cycle, this power cycle being completed in one revolution of the crankshaft. A four-stroke engine requires four strokes of the piston to complete a power cycle during two crankshaft revolutions. In a two-stroke engine, the end of the combustion stroke and the beginning of the compression stroke happen simultaneously, with the intake and exhaust functions occurring at the same time.
The camshaft is a rotating object— usually made of metal— that contains pointed cams, which converts rotational motion to reciprocal motion. Camshafts are used in internal combustion engines, mechanically controlled ignition systems and early electric motor speed controllers. Camshafts in automobiles are made from steel or cast iron, and are a key factor in determining the RPM range of an engine's power band.
An actuator is a component of a machine that is responsible for moving and controlling a mechanism or system, for example by opening a valve. In simple terms, it is a "mover".
Engine tuning is the adjustment or modification of the internal combustion engine or Engine Control Unit (ECU) to yield optimal performance and increase the engine's power output, economy, or durability. These goals may be mutually exclusive; an engine may be de-tuned with respect to output power in exchange for better economy or longer engine life due to lessened stress on engine components.
In a piston engine, either a timing belt or timing chain or set of timing gears is used to synchronize the rotation of the crankshaft and the camshaft. This synchronisation ensures that the engine's valves open and close at the correct times in relation to the position of the pistons.
In internal combustion engines, variable valve timing (VVT) is the process of altering the timing of a valve lift event, and is often used to improve performance, fuel economy or emissions. It is increasingly being used in combination with variable valve lift systems. There are many ways in which this can be achieved, ranging from mechanical devices to electro-hydraulic and camless systems. Increasingly strict emissions regulations are causing many automotive manufacturers to use VVT systems.
MIVEC is the brand name of a variable valve timing (VVT) engine technology developed by Mitsubishi Motors. MIVEC, as with other similar systems, varies the timing of the intake and exhaust camshafts which increases the power and torque output over a broad engine speed range while also being able to help spool a turbocharger more quickly and accurately.
The GM Ecotec engine, also known by its codename L850, is a family of all-aluminium inline-four engines, displacing between 1.4 and 2.5 litres. While these engines were based on the GM Family II engine, the architecture was substantially re-engineered for the new Ecotec application produced since 2000. This engine family replaced the GM Family II engine, the GM 122 engine, the Saab H engine, and the Quad 4 engine. It is manufactured in multiple locations, to include Spring Hill Manufacturing, in Spring Hill, Tennessee while the engine block and cylinder heads are cast at Saginaw Metal Casting Operations in Saginaw, Michigan.
The Ford Super High Output (SHO) V8 engine was designed and built by Ford Motor Company in conjunction with Yamaha Motor Corporation for use in the 1996 Ford Taurus SHO. It was based on the successful Ford Duratec engine rather than its predecessor, the compact Ford SHO V6 engine developed by Yamaha for the 1989 Taurus SHO. The engine was retired in 1999 when production of the third-generation Taurus SHO ended.
The Honda K-series engine is a line of four-cylinder four-stroke car engine introduced in 2001. The K-series engines are equipped with DOHC valvetrains and use roller rockers on the cylinder head to reduce friction. The engines use a coil-on-plug, distributorless ignition system with a coil for each spark plug. This system forgoes the use of a conventional distributor-based ignition timing system in favor of a computer-controlled system that allows the ECU to control ignition timings based on various sensor inputs. The cylinders have cast iron sleeves similar to the B- and F-series engines, as opposed to the FRM cylinders found in the H- and newer F-series engines found only in the Honda S2000.
An engine control unit (ECU), also commonly called an engine control module (ECM), is a type of electronic control unit that controls a series of actuators on an internal combustion engine to ensure optimal engine performance. It does this by reading values from a multitude of sensors within the engine bay, interpreting the data using multidimensional performance maps, and adjusting the engine actuators. Before ECUs, air–fuel mixture, ignition timing, and idle speed were mechanically set and dynamically controlled by mechanical and pneumatic means.
The Volvo B21 is a slant straight-four engine first used in the Volvo 200 series, meant to replace the B20. The B21 and all derived engines are often referred to as red block engines for the red paint applied to the block. The primary differences when compared to the B20 was the switch to a SOHC in place of the older pushrod configuration, and an aluminum crossflow cylinder head versus the iron head of the B20.
In a piston engine, the valve timing is the precise timing of the opening and closing of the valves. In an internal combustion engine those are usually poppet valves and in a steam engine they are usually slide valves or piston valves.
Cylinder head porting refers to the process of modifying the intake and exhaust ports of an internal combustion engine to improve their air flow. Cylinder heads, as manufactured, are usually suboptimal for racing applications due to being designed for maximum durability. Ports can be modified for maximum power, minimum fuel consumption, or a combination of the two, and the power delivery characteristics can be changed to suit a particular application.
The Mitsubishi 4B1 engine is a range of all-alloy straight-4 piston engines built at Mitsubishi's Japanese "World Engine" powertrain plant in Shiga on the basis of the Global Engine Manufacturing Alliance (GEMA). Although the basic designs of the various engines are the same, their exact specifications are individually tailored for each partner. The cylinder block and other basic structural parts of the engine were jointly developed by the GEMA companies, but the intake and exhaust manifolds, the cylinder head's intake and exhaust ports, and other elements related to engine tuning were independently developed by Mitsubishi.
In a spark ignition internal combustion engine, Ignition timing refers to the timing, relative to the current piston position and crankshaft angle, of the release of a spark in the combustion chamber near the end of the compression stroke.
The Digifant engine management system is an electronic engine control unit (ECU), which monitors and controls the fuel injection and ignition systems in petrol engines, designed by Volkswagen Group, in cooperation with Robert Bosch GmbH.
An interference engine is a type of 4-stroke internal combustion piston engine in which one or more valves in the fully open position extends into any area through which the piston may travel. By contrast, in a non-interference engine, the piston does not travel into any area into which the valves open. Interference engines rely on timing gears, chains, or belts to prevent the piston from striking the valves by ensuring that the valves are closed when the piston is near top dead center. Interference engines are prevalent among modern production automobiles and many other four-stroke engine applications; the main advantage is that it allows engine designers to maximize the engine's compression ratio. However, such engines risk major internal damage if a piston strikes a valve due to failure of camshaft drive belts, drive chains, or drive gears.
An internal combustion engine is a heat engine in which the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit. In an internal combustion engine, the expansion of the high-temperature and high-pressure gases produced by combustion applies direct force to some component of the engine. The force is typically applied to pistons, turbine blades, a rotor, or a nozzle. This force moves the component over a distance, transforming chemical energy into kinetic energy which is used to propel, move or power whatever the engine is attached to. This replaced the external combustion engine for applications where the weight or size of an engine was more important.
Manifold injection is a mixture formation system for internal combustion engines with external mixture formation. It is commonly used in engines with spark ignition that use petrol as fuel, such as the Otto engine, and the Wankel engine. In a manifold-injected engine, the fuel is injected into the intake manifold, where it begins forming a combustible air-fuel mixture with the air. As soon as the intake valve opens, the piston starts sucking in the still forming mixture. Usually, this mixture is relatively homogeneous, and, at least in production engines for passenger cars, approximately stoichiometric; this means that there is an even distribution of fuel and air across the combustion chamber, and enough, but not more air present than what is required for the fuel's complete combustion. The injection timing and measuring of the fuel amount can be controlled either mechanically, or electronically. Since the 1970s and 1980s, manifold injection has been replacing carburettors in passenger cars. However, since the late 1990s, car manufacturers have started using petrol direct injection, which caused a decline in manifold injection installation in newly produced cars.