Timothy A Stewart (born 30 September 1952) is a molecular biologist. He graduated from the University of Otago (BScHons, PhD.)
Stewart was born in Christchurch, New Zealand. He was a pioneer in the technique of transferring recombinant genes to mice (transgenic mice) and in 1988 he and Philip Leder were granted a patent on a genetically engineered mammal. This "oncomouse" patent was the first to be issued covering a higher life form.
From 1984 to 2003 Stewart was a scientist at Genentech where he developed the concept that the type I interferons might be a significant component in the initiation or progression of type I diabetes.
He has published 61 peer reviewed papers listed in Scopus; the most highly cited has 1013 citations to it,and he has 31 papers with 34 citations or more.
Interferons are a group of signaling proteins made and released by host cells in response to the presence of several viruses. In a typical scenario, a virus-infected cell will release interferons causing nearby cells to heighten their anti-viral defenses.
The OncoMouse or Harvard mouse is a type of laboratory mouse that has been genetically modified using modifications designed by Philip Leder and Timothy A Stewart of Harvard University to carry a specific gene called an activated oncogene. The activated oncogene significantly increases the mouse's susceptibility to cancer, and thus makes the mouse a suitable model for cancer research.
Interleukin 10 (IL-10), also known as human cytokine synthesis inhibitory factor (CSIF), is an anti-inflammatory cytokine. In humans, interleukin 10 is encoded by the IL10 gene. IL-10 signals through a receptor complex consisting of two IL-10 receptor-1 and two IL-10 receptor-2 proteins. Consequently, the functional receptor consists of four IL-10 receptor molecules. IL-10 binding induces STAT3 signalling via the phosphorylation of the cytoplasmic tails of IL-10 receptor 1 + IL-10 receptor 2 by JAK1 and Tyk2 respectively.
Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) is a dimerized soluble cytokine that is the only member of the type II class of interferons. The existence of this interferon, which early in its history was known as immune interferon, was described by E. F. Wheelock as a product of human leukocytes stimulated with phytohemagglutinin, and by others as a product of antigen-stimulated lymphocytes. It was also shown to be produced in human lymphocytes. or tuberculin-sensitized mouse peritoneal lymphocytes challenged with Mantoux test (PPD); the resulting supernatants were shown to inhibit growth of vesicular stomatitis virus. Those reports also contained the basic observation underlying the now widely employed IFN-γ release assay used to test for tuberculosis. In humans, the IFN-γ protein is encoded by the IFNG gene.
Interferon tau is a Type I interferon made of a single chain of amino acids. IFN-τ was first discovered in ruminants as the signal for the maternal recognition of pregnancy and originally named ovine trophoblast protein-1 (oTP-1). It has many physiological functions in the mammalian uterus, and also has anti-inflammatory effect that aids in the protection of the semi-allogeneic conceptus trophectoderm from the maternal immune system.
Interleukin-29 (IL-29) is a cytokine and it belongs to type III interferons group, also termed interferons λ (IFN-λ). IL-29 plays an important role in the immune response against pathogenes and especially against viruses by mechanisms similar to type I interferons, but targeting primarily cells of epithelial origin and hepatocytes.
The type-I interferons (IFN) are cytokines which play essential roles in inflammation, immunoregulation, tumor cells recognition, and T-cell responses. In the human genome, a cluster of thirteen functional IFN genes is located at the 9p21.3 cytoband over approximately 400 kb including coding genes for IFNα, IFNω (IFNW1), IFNɛ (IFNE), IFNк (IFNK) and IFNβ (IFNB1), plus 11 IFN pseudogenes.
The type III interferon group is a group of anti-viral cytokines, that consists of four IFN-λ (lambda) molecules called IFN-λ1, IFN-λ2, IFN-λ3, and IFN-λ4. They were discovered in 2003. Their function is similar to that of type I interferons, but is less intense and serves mostly as a first-line defense against viruses in the epithelium.
Signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) is a transcription factor which in humans is encoded by the STAT1 gene. It is a member of the STAT protein family.
Non-receptor tyrosine-protein kinase TYK2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the TYK2 gene.
Signal transducer and activator of transcription 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the STAT2 gene. It is a member of the STAT protein family. This protein is critical to the biological response of type I interferons (IFNs). STAT2 sequence identity between mouse and human is only 68%.
Interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) is a 17 kDA secreted protein that in humans is encoded by the ISG15 gene. ISG15 is induced by type I interferon (IFN) and serves many functions, acting both as an extracellular cytokine and an intracellular protein modifier. The precise functions are diverse and vary among species but include potentiation of Interferon gamma (IFN-II) production in lymphocytes, ubiquitin-like conjugation to newly-synthesized proteins and negative regulation of the IFN-I response.
Interferon regulatory factor 8 (IRF8) also known as interferon consensus sequence-binding protein (ICSBP), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IRF8 gene. IRF8 is a transcription factor that plays critical roles in the regulation of lineage commitment and in myeloid cell maturation including the decision for a common myeloid progenitor (CMP) to differentiate into a monocyte precursor cell.
Interferon alpha-7 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IFNA7 gene.
Cord factor, or trehalose dimycolate (TDM), is a glycolipid molecule found in the cell wall of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and similar species. It is the primary lipid found on the exterior of M. tuberculosis cells. Cord factor influences the arrangement of M. tuberculosis cells into long and slender formations, giving its name. Cord factor is virulent towards mammalian cells and critical for survival of M. tuberculosis in hosts, but not outside of hosts. Cord factor has been observed to influence immune responses, induce the formation of granulomas, and inhibit tumor growth. The antimycobacterial drug SQ109 is thought to inhibit TDM production levels and in this way disrupts its cell wall assembly.
Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS-1), is a subtype of autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome. It causes the dysfunction of multiple endocrine glands due to autoimmunity. It is a genetic disorder, inherited in autosomal recessive fashion due to a defect in the AIRE gene , which is located on chromosome 21 and normally confers immune tolerance.
Adolfo García-Sastre,(born in Burgos, 10 October 1964) is a Spanish professor of Medicine and Microbiology and co-director of the Global Health & Emerging Pathogens Institute at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai in New York City. His research into the biology of influenza viruses has been at the forefront of medical advances in epidemiology.
Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) is a single-stranded RNA murine cardiovirus from the family Picornaviridae. It has been used as a mouse model for studying virally induced paralysis, as well as encephalomyelitis comparable to multiple sclerosis. Depending on the mouse and viral strain, viral pathogenesis can range from negligible, to chronic or acute encephalomyelitis.
Stimulator of interferon genes (STING), also known as transmembrane protein 173 (TMEM173) and MPYS/MITA/ERIS is a protein that in humans is encoded by the STING1 gene.
STING-associated vasculopathy with onset in infancy (SAVI) is a rare autoinflammatory vasculopathy associated with the stimulator of interferon genes (STING) protein and characterised by severe skin lesions and interstitial lung disease.