Tiny Banker Trojan, also called Tinba, is a malware program that targets financial institution websites. It is a modified form of an older form of viruses known as Banker Trojans, yet it is much smaller in size and more powerful. It works by establishing man-in-the-browser attacks and network sniffing. Since its discovery, it has been found to have infected more than two dozen major banking institutions in the United States, including TD Bank, Chase, HSBC, Wells Fargo, PNC, and Bank of America.It is designed to steal users' sensitive data, such as account login information and banking codes.
Tiny Banker was first discovered in 2012 when it was found to have infected thousands of computers in Turkey. After it was discovered, the original source code for the malware was leaked online and began undergoing individual revisions, making the process of detecting it harder for the institutions.It is a highly modified version of the Zeus Trojan, which had a very similar attack method to obtain the same information. Tinba, however, was found to be much smaller in size. The smaller size makes the malware more difficult to detect. At only 20KB, Tinba is much smaller than any other known Trojan. For reference, the median file size of a desktop website is around 1,966KB.
Tinba operates using packet sniffing, a method of reading network traffic, to determine when a user navigates to a banking website. The malware can then launch one of two different actions, depending on the variation. In its most popular form, Tinba will Form grab the webpage causing a man-in-the-middle attack. The Trojan uses Form grabbing to grab keystrokes before they can be encrypted by HTTPS. Tinba then sends the keystrokes to a Command & Control. This process, in turn, causes a user's information to be stolen.
The second method that Tinba has used is to allow the user to log into the webpage. Once the user is in, the malware will use the page information to extract the company's logo and site formatting. It will then create a pop-up page informing the user of updates to the system, and requesting additional information, such as social security numbers.Most banking institutions inform their users that they will never ask for this information as a way to defend against these types of attacks. Tinba has been modified to address this defense, and has begun asking users for the type of information asked as security questions, such as the user's mother's maiden name, in an attempt for the attacker to use this information to reset the password at a later time.
Tinba also injects itself into other system processes, in an attempt to convert the host machine into a zombie, an unwilling member in a botnet. In order to maintain connection in the botnet, Tinba is coded with four domains, so if one goes down or loses communication, the Trojan can look for one of the others immediately.
The Tiny Banker Trojan has been used by international tech support scam call centers as a pretext to connect to a victim's computer and make fraudulent charges.Scammers will claim the victim's bank account has been hacked with the Tiny Banker Trojan and in order to secure the bank funds, the victim will be pressured to purchase gift cards, make a Zelle or bank wire transfer, or purchase bitcoin.
In computing, a Trojan horse is any malware that misleads users of its true intent by disguising itself as a real program. The term is derived from the ancient Greek story of the deceptive Trojan Horse that led to the fall of the city of Troy.
Keystroke logging, often referred to as keylogging or keyboard capturing, is the action of recording (logging) the keys struck on a keyboard, typically covertly, so that a person using the keyboard is unaware that their actions are being monitored. Data can then be retrieved by the person operating the logging program. A keystroke recorder or keylogger can be either software or hardware.
This timeline of computer viruses and worms presents a chronological timeline of noteworthy computer viruses, computer worms, Trojan horses, similar malware, related research and events.
A botnet is a group of Internet-connected devices, each of which runs one or more bots. Botnets can be used to perform Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS) attacks, steal data, send spam, and allow the attacker to access the device and its connection. The owner can control the botnet using command and control (C&C) software. The word "botnet" is a portmanteau of the words "robot" and "network". The term is usually used with a negative or malicious connotation.
Ransomware is a type of malware from cryptovirology that threatens to publish the victim's personal data or permanently block access to it unless a ransom is paid off. While some simple ransomware may lock the system without damaging any files, more advanced malware uses a technique called cryptoviral extortion. It encrypts the victim's files, making them inaccessible, and demands a ransom payment to decrypt them. In a properly implemented cryptoviral extortion attack, recovering the files without the decryption key is an intractable problem – and difficult to trace digital currencies such as paysafecard or Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies are used for the ransoms, making tracing and prosecuting the perpetrators difficult.
Crimeware is a class of malware designed specifically to automate cybercrime.
Voice phishing, or vishing, is the use of telephony to conduct phishing attacks.
Torpig, also known as Anserin or Sinowal is a type of botnet spread through systems compromised by the Mebroot rootkit by a variety of trojan horses for the purpose of collecting sensitive personal and corporate data such as bank account and credit card information. It targets computers that use Microsoft Windows, recruiting a network of zombies for the botnet. Torpig circumvents antivirus software through the use of rootkit technology and scans the infected system for credentials, accounts and passwords as well as potentially allowing attackers full access to the computer. It is also purportedly capable of modifying data on the computer, and can perform man-in-the-browser attacks.
The Storm botnet or Storm worm botnet was a remotely controlled network of "zombie" computers that had been linked by the Storm Worm, a Trojan horse spread through e-mail spam. At its height in September 2007, the Storm botnet was running on anywhere from 1 million to 50 million computer systems, and accounted for 8% of all malware on Microsoft Windows computers. It was first identified around January 2007, having been distributed by email with subjects such as "230 dead as storm batters Europe," giving it its well-known name. The botnet began to decline in late 2007, and by mid-2008 had been reduced to infecting about 85,000 computers, far less than it had infected a year earlier.
Man-in-the-browser, a form of Internet threat related to man-in-the-middle (MITM), is a proxy Trojan horse that infects a web browser by taking advantage of vulnerabilities in browser security to modify web pages, modify transaction content or insert additional transactions, all in a covert fashion invisible to both the user and host web application. A MitB attack will be successful irrespective of whether security mechanisms such as SSL/PKI and/or two- or three-factor authentication solutions are in place. A MitB attack may be countered by using out-of-band transaction verification, although SMS verification can be defeated by man-in-the-mobile (MitMo) malware infection on the mobile phone. Trojans may be detected and removed by antivirus software;, but a 2011 report concluded that additional measures on top of antivirus software were needed.
Mebroot is a master boot record based rootkit used by botnets including Torpig. It is a sophisticated Trojan horse that uses stealth techniques to hide itself from the user. The Trojan opens a back door on the victim's computer which allows the attacker complete control over the computer.
Koobface is a network worm that attacks Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux platforms. This worm originally targeted users of networking websites like Facebook, Skype, Yahoo Messenger, and email websites such as GMail, Yahoo Mail, and AOL Mail. It also targets other networking websites, such as MySpace, Twitter, and it can infect other devices on the same local network. Technical support scammers also fraudulently claim to their intended victims that they have a Koobface infection on their computer by using fake popups and using built-in Windows programs.
Form grabbing is a form of malware that works by retrieving authorization and log-in credentials from a web data form before it is passed over the Internet to a secure server. This allows the malware to avoid HTTPS encryption. This method is more effective than keylogger software because it will acquire the user’s credentials even if they are input using virtual keyboard, auto-fill, or copy and paste. It can then sort the information based on its variable names, such as email, account name, and password. Additionally, the form grabber will log the URL and title of the website the data was gathered from.
Clampi is a strain of computer malware which infects Windows computers. More specifically, as a man-in-the-browser banking trojan designed to transmit financial and personal information from a compromised computer to a third party for potential financial gain as well as report on computer configuration, communicate with a central server, and act as downloader for other malware. Clampi was first observed in 2007 affecting computers running the Microsoft Windows operating system.
Zeus, ZeuS, or Zbot is a Trojan horse malware package that runs on versions of Microsoft Windows. While it can be used to carry out many malicious and criminal tasks, it is often used to steal banking information by man-in-the-browser keystroke logging and form grabbing. It is also used to install the CryptoLocker ransomware. Zeus is spread mainly through drive-by downloads and phishing schemes. First identified in July 2007 when it was used to steal information from the United States Department of Transportation, it became more widespread in March 2009. In June 2009 security company Prevx discovered that Zeus had compromised over 74,000 FTP accounts on websites of such companies as the Bank of America, NASA, Monster.com, ABC, Oracle, Play.com, Cisco, Amazon, and BusinessWeek. Similarly to Koobface, Zeus has also been used to trick victims of technical support scams into giving the scam artists money through pop-up messages that claim the user has a virus, when in reality they might have no viruses at all. The scammers may use programs such as Command prompt or Event viewer to make the user believe that their computer is infected.
Avalanche was a criminal syndicate involved in phishing attacks, online bank fraud, and ransomware. The name also refers to the network of owned, rented, and compromised systems used to carry out that activity. Avalanche only infected computers running the Microsoft Windows operating system.
A technical support scam, or tech support scam, is a type of fraud in which a scammer claims to offer a legitimate technical support service. Victims contact scammers in a variety of ways, often through fake pop-ups resembling error messages or via fake "help lines" advertised on websites owned by the scammers. Technical support scammers use social engineering and a variety of confidence tricks to persuade their victim of the presence of problems on their computer or mobile device, such as a malware infection, when there are no issues with the victim's device. The scammer will then persuade the victim to pay to fix the fictitious "problems" that they claim to have found. Payment is made to the scammer through ways which are hard to trace and have fewer consumer protections in place which could allow the victim to claim their money back, usually through gift cards.
GameOverZeus is a peer-to-peer botnet based on components from the earlier ZeuS trojan. The malware was created by Russian hacker Evgeniy Mikhailovich Bogachev. It is believed to have been spread through use of the Cutwail botnet.
Dridex also known as Bugat and Cridex is a form of malware that specializes in stealing bank credentials via a system that utilizes macros from Microsoft Word.
SpyEye is a malware program that attacks users running Google Chrome, Opera, Firefox and Internet Explorer on Microsoft Windows operating systems. This malware uses keystroke logging and form grabbing to steal user credentials for malicious use. SpyEye allows hackers to steal money from online bank accounts and initiate transactions even while valid users are logged into their bank account.