Titanoceras is an extinct genus in the nautiloid order Nautilida from the Pennsylvanian and Lower Permian of North America and Western Australia.
The Nautilida constitute a large and diverse order of generally coiled nautiloid cephalopods that began in the mid Paleozoic and continues to the present with a single family, the Nautilidae which includes two genera, Nautilus and Allonautilus, with six species. All told, between 22 and 34 families and 165 to 184 genera have been recognised, making this the largest order of the subclass Nautiloidea.
The Pennsylvanian is, in the ICS geologic timescale, the younger of two subperiods of the Carboniferous Period. It lasted from roughlyto Ma. As with most other geochronologic units, the rock beds that define the Pennsylvanian are well identified, but the exact date of the start and end are uncertain by a few hundred thousand years. The Pennsylvanian is named after the U.S. state of Pennsylvania, where the coal-productive beds of this age are widespread.
The Permian is a geologic period and system which spans 47 million years from the end of the Carboniferous Period 298.9 million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Triassic period 251.902 Mya. It is the last period of the Paleozoic era; the following Triassic period belongs to the Mesozoic era. The concept of the Permian was introduced in 1841 by geologist Sir Roderick Murchison, who named it after the city of Perm.
Titanoceras grew to be fairly large, with a tightly spiraled shell that reached a diameter of about 8 in (20 cm +) with about three volutions. The inner coils are partially enveloped by the next outer, resulting in a channel or impression along the inner rim, the dorsum. Otherwise all whorls are visible. (The descriptive term is evolute). Whorls have a somewhat rectangular cross section that is wider than high; in contrast with the otherwise similar and contemporary Domatoceras . The venter, which forms the outer rim, may be broadly arched. Septa are close spaced making chambers broad but short. Sutures have shallow lobes along the sides and across the venter and short saddles in between, along the ventro-lateral shoulders, but go straight across the dorsum.
Domatoceras is a nautiloid genus and member of the Grypoceratidae from the Pennsylvanian and Permian with a wide spread distribution.
Titanoceras is found is limestone, indicating it lived in shallow-water carbonate banks. It could no doubt swim, but probably was not an active swimmer unlike fish and squid. It most likely spent its time crawling over or just above the sea floor. Titanoceras probably preyed upon crustaceans, bottom fish, and perhaps other cephalopods.
Titanoceras is placed in the Grypoceratidae, a family of similar genera within the Nautilida. Nautilid families that are more similar and have a common ancestor are combined in superfamilies. The Grypoceratidae are part of the Trigonocerataceae.
Grypoceratidae is the longest-lived family of the Trigonocerataceae, or of the near equivalent Centroceratina; members of the Nautilida from the Upper Paleozoic and Triassic.
The Trigonocerataceae are a superfamily within the Nautilida that ranged from the Devonian to the Triassic, thought to have contained the source for the Nautilaceae in which Nautilus is found.
Tetragonoceras is an extinct prehistoric nautiloid genus from the nautilid family Tetragonoceratidae that lived during the Middle Devonian, found in Canada.
Homaloceras is an extinct nautiloid cephalopod from the Middle Devonian with a strongly curved shell, included in the nautilid family Centroceratidae.
Permoceras, the sole member of the family Permoceratidae, is a genus of coiled nautiloids with a smooth, compressed involute shell, whorls higher than wide, earlier whorls hidden from view. The venter is rounded as are the ventral and umbilical shoulders, the flanks flattened. The siphuncle is ventrally subcentral. The suture, which is most characteristic, has a deep, narrow pointed ventral lobe and large, asymmetrical pointed lobes on either side.
Tithonoceras is a genus of nautiloid cephalopod from the Upper Jurassic found in the Crimea, belonging to the nautilacean family Paracenoceratidae.
Valhallites is an extinct genus in the nautiloid order Nautilida which includes the living Nautilus found in the tropical western Pacifiic. Valhalites belongs to the Koninckioceratidae, a family in the Tainoceratacea, a nautilid superfamily.
Tylonautilus is an extinct genus in the nautiloid order Nautilida from the Lower Carboniferous of Europe and Permian of Japan.
The Trigonoceratidae is a family of coiled nautiloid cephalopods that lived during the period from the Early Carboniferous (Mississippian) to the Early Permian.
The Centroceratidae is the ancestral family of the Trigonocerataceae and of the equivalent Centroceratina; extinct shelled cephalopods belonging to the order Nautilida
Tainonautilus is an extinct coiled cephalopod that lived during the Permian and Early Triassic which is included in the nautiloid family Tainoceratidae.
Tainoceratidae is a family of late Paleozoic and Triassic nautiloids that are a part of the order Nautilida, characterized by large, generally evolute shells with quadrate to rectangular whorl sections. Shells may bear ribs or nodes, or both.
Encoiloceras is a genus of Tainoceratids, a nautiloid cephalopod in the order Nautilida that has been found in Upper Triassic (Carnian) sediments in the Alps and Hungary.
The Rhiphaeoceratidae are a small family of nautilids included in the superfamily Tainocerataceae that comprises four very similar genera. These genera are characterized by a perforate umbilicus and little more than a single evolute coil. Whorl sections are oval, subquadrate, or subtrapezoidal. Sutures bend forward on the outer rim, forming wide shallow ventral saddles and dip strongly to the rear on the inner rim, forming deep dorsal lobes.
Halloceras is a gyroconic rotoceratid from the Lower Devonian of North America, with a subtriangular whorl section, narrow dorsum, divergent flanks, and broad, rounded venter, frills at various growth points, suture with shallow ventral and lateral lobes, and a small siphuncle near the venter.
Procymatoceras is a nautiloid cephalopod from the Middle Jurassic with a large, tightly involute, rapidly expanding shell. Early, inner, whorls are round in cross section. Later, outer, whorls, and mature living chamber are flattened on the sides and venter. Surface covered with sinuous ribs. Sutures have shallow ventral and dorsal lobes. Probably gave rise to Cymatonautilus and is the likely ancestor of Cymatoceras and Paracymatoceras. Procymatoceras has its origin in the earliest Nautilidae, in Cenoceras.
Germanonautilus is a cephalopod genus included in the nautilid family Tainoceratidae, found widespread in the Triassic of North America, Europe, Asia, and north Africa. The shell is a moderately involute nautilicone ; whorl section subquadrate to trapezoidal, widest across the umbilical shoulders, flanks flattened and ventrally convergent, venter flat and wide, dorsum narrowly and deeply impressed. The suture is with broad and deep lateral lobes and a shallow ventral lobe. The siphuncle is central and nummuloidal, composed of expanded segments that give a beaded appearance.
Diademoceras is a genus of nautiloid cephalopods from the middle Ordovician of North America, named by Rousseau Flower,1945. The genus is a tainoceratacean included in the nautilid family Rutoceratidae.
Homoadelphoceras is a genus of gyroconic rutoceratid Nautiloid from the Middle Devonian of central Europe. Whorls not in contact, venter and dorsum,, broadly rounded. Dorso-lateral and ventro-lateral flanks more or less flat, meet at an angle.
The Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology published by the Geological Society of America and the University of Kansas Press, is a definitive multi-authored work of some 50 volumes, written by more than 300 paleontologists, and covering every phylum, class, order, family, and genus of fossil and extant invertebrate animals. The prehistoric invertebrates are described as to their taxonomy, morphology, paleoecology, stratigraphic and paleogeographic range. However, genera with no fossil record whatsoever have just a very brief listing.