Tocosh (also known as togosh or tocos) is a traditional Quechua food prepared from fermented potato pulp (maize is less common). It is often prepared for celebration events and has a strong odor and flavor. Tocosh can be used as a natural antibiotic because penicillin is produced during the fermentation process.Medicinally it is used for the common cold, gastric ulcers, pneumonia, and altitude sickness among others. The Incas believed it was a gift from Inti, the sun god, for preservation of the body.
The fermentation process of creating tocosh was discovered by the Incas (or possibly one of the many cultures in their empire). Fermentation is achieved by placing either potato pulp or maize in a mesh bag of grass, covered with stones, and left undisturbed for six to twelve months within a pool of water where there is a current (the pool usually found naturally or dug on the banks of a stream). The current flows through the stones to wash away bacteria during fermentation. Once fermentation has occurred, the tocosh is dried in the sun and stored for future use.
The most common preparation in the Huánuco region of Peru is to make a mazamorra or jelly-like dessert.
The word tocosh derives from the word tuqush, a Quechua word that means 'wrinkled and fermented'.
This section may be a rough translation from Spanish. It may have been generated, in whole or in part, by a computer or by a translator without dual proficiency.(August 2022)
Tocosh can be used as a natural antibiotic because the penicillin is produced during the fermentation processand is also able to protect the gastric mucosa from damage or inflammation. Traditionally this product is used in postpartum, colds, pneumonia, in wound healing, as an antibacterial, hemorrhoid and gastric ulcer healing, to prevent gastrointestinal infections and acute altitude sickness. It could also be an effective and very low-cost antibiotic, energizer, and probiotic.
Corn tocosh is also made under the same process, but does not have the same properties as potato tocosh. The result of the analysis of the chemical composition, fatty acids of the lipid fraction; free amino acids; macro and micro elements; of the vitamins thiamine and riboflavin, lead to considering it as a food that provides essential amino acids in the form of AA. Free.[ clarification needed ] The characteristic of its process allows the nutrients to be found in simpler, easily assimilated fractions. It also increases the linoleic and calcium content, and can be recommended as a complementary food for children.
In Peru, the three traditional tocosh-producing regions are Ancash, Huánuco and Junín.
A hole 1.5 m (4 ft 11 in) deep and 1 m (3 ft 3 in) in diameter is dug in the ground. The bottom and walls are covered with a lot of ichu, a type of grass. Then, the well is filled with potatoes, placing a new layer of grass after every 30 cm (12 in) of potatoes. When the well is full, it is covered with a final blanket of grass and topped with stones. Finally, through a small acequia – a canal – the well is filled with water; water is allowed to run permanently through the well. It is left like this for a period ranging from four months to two years. When a foam with a strong rotten smell rises between the stones and the grass on the surface, it is ready to be collected. The food is then dried in the sun and is ready for consumption.
The potato is a starchy food, a tuber of the plant Solanum tuberosum and is a root vegetable native to the Americas. The plant is a perennial in the nightshade family Solanaceae.
Lactobacillus is a genus of gram-positive, aerotolerant anaerobes or microaerophilic, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacteria. Until 2020, the genus Lactobacillus comprised over 260 phylogenetically, ecologically, and metabolically diverse species; a taxonomic revision of the genus assigned lactobacilli to 25 genera.
Probiotics are live microorganisms promoted with claims that they provide health benefits when consumed, generally by improving or restoring the gut microbiota. Probiotics are considered generally safe to consume, but may cause bacteria-host interactions and unwanted side effects in rare cases. There is some evidence that probiotics are beneficial for some conditions, but there is little evidence for many of the health benefits claimed for them.
Lactobacillus acidophilus is a rod-shaped, Gram-positive, homofermentative, anaerobic microbe first isolated from infant feces in the year 1900. The species is most commonly found in humans, specifically the gastrointestinal tract, oral cavity, and vagina, as well as various fermented foods such as fermented milk or yogurt. The species most readily grows at low pH levels, and has an optimum growth temperature of 37 °C. Certain strains of L. acidophilus show strong probiotic effects, and are commercially used in dairy production. The genome of L. acidophilus has been sequenced.
Production of antibiotics is a naturally occurring event, that thanks to advances in science can now be replicated and improved upon in laboratory settings. Due to the discovery of penicillin by Alexander Fleming, and the efforts of Florey and Chain in 1938, large-scale, pharmaceutical production of antibiotics has been made possible. As with the initial discovery of penicillin, most antibiotics have been discovered as a result of happenstance. Antibiotic production can be grouped into three methods: natural fermentation, semi-synthetic, and synthetic. As more and more bacteria continue to develop resistance to currently produced antibiotics, research and development of new antibiotics continues to be important. In addition to research and development into the production of new antibiotics, repackaging delivery systems is important to improving efficacy of the antibiotics that are currently produced. Improvements to this field have seen the ability to add antibiotics directly into implanted devices, aerosolization of antibiotics for direct delivery, and combination of antibiotics with non antibiotics to improve outcomes. The increase of antibiotic resistant strains of pathogenic bacteria has led to an increased urgency for the funding of research and development of antibiotics and a desire for production of new and better acting antibiotics.
Lacticaseibacillus caseiis an organism that belongs to the largest genus in the family Lactobacillaceae, a lactic acid bacteria (LAB), that was previously classified as Lactobacillus casei-01. This bacteria has been identified as facultatively anaerobic or microaerophilic, acid-tolerant, non-spore-forming bacteria. The taxonomy of this group has been debated for several years because researchers struggled to differentiate between the strains of L. casei and L. paracasei. It has recently been accepted as a single species with five subspecies: L. casei subsp. rhamnosus, L. casei subsp. alactosus, L. casei subsp. casei, L. casei subsp. tolerans, and L. casei subsp. pseudoplantarum. The taxonomy of this genus was determined according to the phenotypic, physiological, and biochemical similarities.
Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus is a bacterium that originally was considered to be a subspecies of L. casei, but genetic research found it to be a separate species in the L. casei clade, which also includes L. paracasei and L. zeae. It is a short Gram-positive homofermentative facultative anaerobic non-spore-forming rod that often appears in chains. Some strains of L. rhamnosus bacteria are being used as probiotics, and are particularly useful in treating infections of the female urogenital tract, most particularly very difficult to treat cases of bacterial vaginosis. The species Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus and Limosilactobacillus reuteri are commonly found in the healthy female genito-urinary tract and are helpful to regain control of dysbiotic bacterial overgrowth during an active infection. L. rhamnosus sometimes is used in dairy products such as fermented milk and as non-starter-lactic acid bacterium (NSLAB) in long-ripened cheese. While frequently considered a beneficial organism, L. rhamnosus may not be as beneficial to certain subsets of the population; in rare circumstances, especially those primarily involving weakened immune system or infants, it may cause endocarditis. Despite the rare infections caused by L. rhamnosus, the species is included in the list of bacterial species with qualified presumed safety (QPS) status of the European Food Safety Agency.
Lactobacillales are an order of gram-positive, low-GC, acid-tolerant, generally nonsporulating, nonrespiring, either rod-shaped (bacilli) or spherical (cocci) bacteria that share common metabolic and physiological characteristics. These bacteria, usually found in decomposing plants and milk products, produce lactic acid as the major metabolic end product of carbohydrate fermentation, giving them the common name lactic acid bacteria (LAB).
Limosilactobacillus reuteri is a lactic acid bacterium found in a variety of natural environments, including the gastrointestinal tract of humans and other animals. It does not appear to be pathogenic and may have health effects.
Levilactobacillus brevis is a gram-positive, rod shaped species of lactic acid bacteria which is heterofermentative, creating CO2, lactic acid and acetic acid or ethanol during fermentation. L. brevis is the type species of the genus Levilactobacillus (previously L. brevis group), which comprises 24 species (http://www.lactobacillus.ualberta.ca/, http://www.lactobacillus.uantwerpen.be/). It can be found in many different environments, such as fermented foods, and as normal microbiota. L.brevis is found in food such as sauerkraut and pickles. It is also one of the most common causes of beer spoilage. Ingestion has been shown to improve human immune function, and it has been patented several times. Normal gut microbiota L.brevis is found in human intestines, vagina, and feces.
Limosilactobacillus fermentum is a Gram-positive species in the heterofermentative genus Limosilactobacillus. It is associated with active dental caries lesions. It is also commonly found in fermenting animal and plant material including sourdough and cocoa fermentation. A few strains are considered probiotic or "friendly" bacteria in animals and at least one strain has been applied to treat urogenital infections in women. Some strains of lactobacilli formerly mistakenly classified as L. fermentum have since been reclassified as Limosilactobacillus reuteri. Commercialized strains of L. fermentum used as probiotics include PCC, ME-3 and CECT5716
Kefir is a fermented milk drink similar to a thin yogurt or ayran that is made from kefir grains, a specific type of mesophilic symbiotic culture. It is prepared by inoculating the milk of cows, goats, or sheep with kefir grains.
Lacticaseibacillus paracasei (commonly abbreviated as Lc. paracasei) is a gram-positive, homofermentative species of lactic acid bacteria that are commonly used in dairy product fermentation and as probiotic cultures. Lc. paracasei is a bacterium that operates by commensalism. It is commonly found in many human habitats such as human intestinal tracts and mouths as well as sewages, silages, and previously mentioned dairy products. The name includes morphology, a rod-shaped bacterium with a width of 2.0 to 4.0μm and length of 0.8 to 1.0μm.
Limosilactobacillus pontis is a rod-shaped, Gram-positive facultatively anaerobic bacterium. Along with other Lactobacillus species, it is capable of converting sugars, such as lactose, into lactic acid. Limosilactobacillus pontis is classified under the phylum Bacillota, class Bacilli, and is a member of the family Lactobacillaceae and is found to be responsible for the fermentation of sourdough, along with many other Lactobacillus species. This microorganism produces lactic acid during the process of fermentation, which gives sourdough bread its characteristic sour taste.
Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus is a bacterial subspecies traditionally isolated from European yogurts. Lactobacillus bulgaricusGLB44 differs from the rest of the L. bulgaricus strains because it was isolated from the leaves of Galanthus nivalis in Bulgaria.
Muisca cuisine describes the food and preparation the Muisca elaborated. The Muisca were an advanced civilization inhabiting the central highlands of the Colombian Andes before the Spanish conquest of the Muisca in the 1530s. Their diet and cuisine consisted of many endemic flora and fauna of Colombia.
The Muisca agriculture describes the agriculture of the Muisca, the advanced civilisation that was present in the times before the Spanish conquest on the high plateau in the Colombian Andes; the Altiplano Cundiboyacense. The Muisca were a predominantly agricultural society with small-scale farmfields, part of more extensive terrains. To diversify their diet, they traded mantles, gold, emeralds and salt for fruits, vegetables, coca, yopo and cotton cultivated in lower altitude warmer terrains populated by their neighbours, the Muzo, Panche, Guane, Guayupe, Lache, Sutagao and U'wa. Trade of products grown farther away happened with the Calima, Pijao and Caribbean coastal communities around the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta.
The Peruvian agrarian strike of 2018 was a series of initially peaceful protests that took place from January 9 to February 11 in a large part of the Peruvian territory. The strike was performed by medium and small independent farmers who demanded that the government declare the agricultural sector in state of emergency due to serious deficiencies in production and trade, especially in the potato sector. On January 30, 2018 the demonstrations turned violent and expanded to departments that at first did not comply with the strike, until now the clashes between the National Police of Peru and the demonstrators left two people dead and serious material damage in the entire area.
The potato is a starchy tuber that has been grown and eaten for more than 8,000 years. In the 16th century, Spanish explorers in the Americas found Peruvians cultivating potatoes and introduced them to Europe. The potato, an easily grown source of carbohydrates, proteins and vitamin C, spread to many other areas and became a staple food of many cultures. In the 20th century potatoes are eaten on all continents; the method of preparation, however, can modify its nutritional value.
Viral diseases of potato are a group of diseases caused by different types of viruses that affect potato crops worldwide and, although they do not affect human or animal health since they are viruses that only infect vegetables, they are a source of great economic losses annually. About 28 viruses have been reported infecting potato crops. However, potato virus X (PVX), potato virus Y (PVY), and potato leafroll virus (PLRV) are the most important viruses worldwide. Some others are of economic importance only in some regions. Such is the case of potato virus M (PVM) in some Asian and European countries.