# Toeplitz algebra

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In operator algebras, the Toeplitz algebra is the C*-algebra generated by the unilateral shift on the Hilbert space l2(N). [1] Taking l2(N) to be the Hardy space H2, the Toeplitz algebra consists of elements of the form

C-algebras are subjects of research in functional analysis, a branch of mathematics. A C*-algebra is a complex algebra A of continuous linear operators on a complex Hilbert space with two additional properties:

The mathematical concept of a Hilbert space, named after David Hilbert, generalizes the notion of Euclidean space. It extends the methods of vector algebra and calculus from the two-dimensional Euclidean plane and three-dimensional space to spaces with any finite or infinite number of dimensions. A Hilbert space is an abstract vector space possessing the structure of an inner product that allows length and angle to be measured. Furthermore, Hilbert spaces are complete: there are enough limits in the space to allow the techniques of calculus to be used.

In functional analysis and related areas of mathematics, a sequence space is a vector space whose elements are infinite sequences of real or complex numbers. Equivalently, it is a function space whose elements are functions from the natural numbers to the field K of real or complex numbers. The set of all such functions is naturally identified with the set of all possible infinite sequences with elements in K, and can be turned into a vector space under the operations of pointwise addition of functions and pointwise scalar multiplication. All sequence spaces are linear subspaces of this space. Sequence spaces are typically equipped with a norm, or at least the structure of a topological vector space.

${\displaystyle T_{f}+K\;}$

where Tf is a Toeplitz operator with continuous symbol and K is a compact operator.

In operator theory, a Toeplitz operator is the compression of a multiplication operator on the circle to the Hardy space.

In functional analysis, the concept of a compact operator on Hilbert space is an extension of the concept of a matrix acting on a finite-dimensional vector space; in Hilbert space, compact operators are precisely the closure of finite-rank operators in the topology induced by the operator norm. As such, results from matrix theory can sometimes be extended to compact operators using similar arguments. By contrast, the study of general operators on infinite-dimensional spaces often requires a genuinely different approach.

Toeplitz operators with continuous symbols commute modulo the compact operators. So the Toeplitz algebra can be viewed as the C*-algebra extension of continuous functions on the circle by the compact operators. This extension is called the Toeplitz extension.

By Atkinson's theorem, an element of the Toeplitz algebra Tf + K is a Fredholm operator if and only if the symbol f of Tf is invertible. In that case, the Fredholm index of Tf + K is precisely the winding number of f, the equivalence class of f in the fundamental group of the circle. This is a special case of the Atiyah-Singer index theorem.

In operator theory, Atkinson's theorem gives a characterization of Fredholm operators.

In mathematics, a Fredholm operator is an operator that arises in the Fredholm theory of integral equations. It is named in honour of Erik Ivar Fredholm.

In mathematics, the winding number of a closed curve in the plane around a given point is an integer representing the total number of times that curve travels counterclockwise around the point. The winding number depends on the orientation of the curve, and is negative if the curve travels around the point clockwise.

Wold decomposition characterizes proper isometries acting on a Hilbert space. From this, together with properties of Toeplitz operators, one can conclude that the Toeplitz algebra is the universal C*-algebra generated by a proper isometry; this is Coburn's theorem.

In mathematics, an isometry is a distance-preserving transformation between metric spaces, usually assumed to be bijective.

In mathematics, a universal C*-algebra is a C*-algebra described in terms of generators and relations. In contrast to rings or algebras, where one can consider quotients by free rings to construct universal objects, C*-algebras must be realizable as algebras of bounded operators on a Hilbert space by the Gelfand-Naimark-Segal construction and the relations must prescribe a uniform bound on the norm of each generator. This means that depending on the generators and relations, a universal C*-algebra may not exist. In particular, free C*-algebras do not exist.

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In mathematics, more specifically in functional analysis, a Banach space is a complete normed vector space. Thus, a Banach space is a vector space with a metric that allows the computation of vector length and distance between vectors and is complete in the sense that a Cauchy sequence of vectors always converges to a well defined limit that is within the space.

Functional analysis is a branch of mathematical analysis, the core of which is formed by the study of vector spaces endowed with some kind of limit-related structure and the linear functions defined on these spaces and respecting these structures in a suitable sense. The historical roots of functional analysis lie in the study of spaces of functions and the formulation of properties of transformations of functions such as the Fourier transform as transformations defining continuous, unitary etc. operators between function spaces. This point of view turned out to be particularly useful for the study of differential and integral equations.

In mathematics, a trace class operator is a compact operator for which a trace may be defined, such that the trace is finite and independent of the choice of basis. Trace class operators are essentially the same as nuclear operators, though many authors reserve the term "trace class operator" for the special case of nuclear operators on Hilbert spaces, and reserve "nuclear operator" for usage in more general Banach spaces.

In functional analysis, a branch of mathematics, a unitary operator is a surjective bounded operator on a Hilbert space preserving the inner product. Unitary operators are usually taken as operating on a Hilbert space, but the same notion serves to define the concept of isomorphism between Hilbert spaces.

In mathematics, a von Neumann algebra or W*-algebra is a *-algebra of bounded operators on a Hilbert space that is closed in the weak operator topology and contains the identity operator. It is a special type of C*-algebra.

In mathematics, operator theory is the study of linear operators on function spaces, beginning with differential operators and integral operators. The operators may be presented abstractly by their characteristics, such as bounded linear operators or closed operators, and consideration may be given to nonlinear operators. The study, which depends heavily on the topology of function spaces, is a branch of functional analysis.

In mathematics, the Fredholm alternative, named after Ivar Fredholm, is one of Fredholm's theorems and is a result in Fredholm theory. It may be expressed in several ways, as a theorem of linear algebra, a theorem of integral equations, or as a theorem on Fredholm operators. Part of the result states that a non-zero complex number in the spectrum of a compact operator is an eigenvalue.

In mathematics, Fredholm theory is a theory of integral equations. In the narrowest sense, Fredholm theory concerns itself with the solution of the Fredholm integral equation. In a broader sense, the abstract structure of Fredholm's theory is given in terms of the spectral theory of Fredholm operators and Fredholm kernels on Hilbert space. The theory is named in honour of Erik Ivar Fredholm.

In mathematics, particularly in operator theory, Wold decomposition or Wold–von Neumann decomposition, named after Herman Wold and John von Neumann, is a classification theorem for isometric linear operators on a given Hilbert space. It states that every isometry is a direct sum of copies of the unilateral shift and a unitary operator.

In operator theory, every Banach algebra can be associated with a group called its abstract index group.

In mathematics, the Banach–Stone theorem is a classical result in the theory of continuous functions on topological spaces, named after the mathematicians Stefan Banach and Marshall Stone.

In mathematics, operator K-theory is a noncommutative analogue of topological K-theory for Banach algebras with most applications used for C*-algebras.

In mathematics, a commutation theorem explicitly identifies the commutant of a specific von Neumann algebra acting on a Hilbert space in the presence of a trace. The first such result was proved by F.J. Murray and John von Neumann in the 1930s and applies to the von Neumann algebra generated by a discrete group or by the dynamical system associated with a measurable transformation preserving a probability measure. Another important application is in the theory of unitary representations of unimodular locally compact groups, where the theory has been applied to the regular representation and other closely related representations. In particular this framework led to an abstract version of the Plancherel theorem for unimodular locally compact groups due to Irving Segal and Forrest Stinespring and an abstract Plancherel theorem for spherical functions associated with a Gelfand pair due to Roger Godement. Their work was put in final form in the 1950s by Jacques Dixmier as part of the theory of Hilbert algebras. It was not until the late 1960s, prompted partly by results in algebraic quantum field theory and quantum statistical mechanics due to the school of Rudolf Haag, that the more general non-tracial Tomita–Takesaki theory was developed, heralding a new era in the theory of von Neumann algebras.

In noncommutative geometry and related branches of mathematics and mathematical physics, a spectral triple is a set of data which encodes a geometric phenomenon in an analytic way. The definition typically involves a Hilbert space, an algebra of operators on it and an unbounded self-adjoint operator, endowed with supplemental structures. It was conceived by Alain Connes who was motivated by the Atiyah-Singer index theorem and sought its extension to 'noncommutative' spaces. Some authors refer to this notion as unbounded K-cycles or as unbounded Fredholm modules.

## References

1. William, Arveson, A Short Course in Spectral Theory, Graduate Texts in Mathematics, 209, Springer, ISBN   0387953000