Toimo(Manchu :ᡨᠣᡳᠮᠣ, Möllendorff : toimo ;?–?)The ancestors of the Qing dynasty.He is the second son of Cungšan, Nurhaci's great-great-great-granduncle. His family name is Aisin Gioro (愛新覺羅).
The leader of the Jianzhou Nüzhen (建州女真) in the Ming dynasty, He was Tolo's brother, the older brother of Sibeoci Fiyanggū, Sibeoci Fiyanggū was Nurhaci's great-great-grandfather.In the time of birth and death due righteousness is unknown, about life in Chenghua (成化) years, died without an heir.
Oboi was a prominent Manchu military commander and courtier who served in various military and administrative posts under three successive emperors of the early Qing dynasty. Born to the Guwalgiya clan, Oboi was one of four regents nominated by the Shunzhi Emperor to oversee the government during the minority of the Kangxi Emperor. Oboi reversed the benevolent policies of the Shunzhi Emperor, and vigorously pushed for clear reassertion of Manchu power over the Han Chinese. Eventually deposed and imprisoned by the new emperor for having amassed too much power, he was posthumously rehabilitated.
Emperor He of Southern Qi ( 齊和帝), personal name Xiao Baorong (蕭寶融), courtesy name Zhizhao (智昭), was the last emperor of the Chinese Southern Qi dynasty. He was put on the throne by the generals Xiao Yingzhou (蕭穎冑) and Xiao Yan in 501 as a competing candidate for the throne to his violent and arbitrary older brother Xiao Baojuan. In 502, with Xiao Baojuan having been defeated and killed and Xiao Yingzhou dead, Xiao Yan seized the throne from Emperor He and took the throne himself, ending the Southern Qi dynasty and starting the Liang dynasty. Soon, Xiao Yan had the 14-year-old former Emperor He put to death.
Taksi or posthumously titled as Emperor Xuan was a Jurchen chieftain and father of Nurhaci, founder of the Later Jin dynasty, and the fourth son of Giocangga. A member of the House of Aisin-Gioro, he was killed in an attack on Gure by a rival Jurchen chieftain Nikan Wailan in 1583.
Fuman was Chieftain of the Jianzhou Jurchens and an ancestor of the future Qing dynasty emperors. His father was Sibeoci Fiyanggū. His family name was Aisin Gioro (愛新覺羅).
Cungšan was a chieftain of the Jurchen Jianzhou Left Guard. Cungšan was the great-great-great-grandfather of Nurhaci, the founder of the Later Jin dynasty of China. His posthumous name was Emperor Chun. His father was Mengtemu.
Chen Li was the second and the last emperor of the Chinese Chen Han dynasty. Chen Li ruled from 1363–64.
Nurhaci, also known by his temple name as the Emperor Taizu of Qing, was a Jurchen chieftain who rose to prominence in the late 16th century in Manchuria. A member of the House of Aisin-Gioro, he reigned as the founding khan of the Later Jin dynasty of China from 1616 to 1626.
Lê Hy Tông was the 21st emperor of Vietnamese Later Lê dynasty.
Cheng Zhijie, courtesy name Yizhen, better known by his original name Cheng Yaojin, was a Chinese general who served under the emperors Gaozu, Taizong and Gaozong in the early Tang dynasty. His portrait was on display in Lingyan Pavilion along with those of another 23 officials who rendered meritorious service to the Tang Empire during the reign of Emperor Taizong.
Lady Saso is said to be the mother of Hyeokgeose of Silla. Also known as the Sacred Mother of Mt. Seondo (Hangul:선도산), legends say she was a princess from the Chinese royal family. Having coming from China and settling upon the Jinhan Confederacy, she gave birth to Hyeokgeose of Silla. Later, she was honored as great king by King Gyeongmyeong.
Samseong mythology is a mythology originated in the Tamna, present-day Jeju island, which is different from Dangun mythology in Korean peninsula. There are following descriptions in Yeong Ju Ji, Goryeosa, Nasanok. Also in Goryeosa, Nasanok, and Tamnaraji, Byeoknangguk was explained as Japan and a girl who come from that country.
Shujishi which means "All good men of virtue" is a scholastic title during the Ming and Qing dynasty of China. It can be used to denote a group of people who hold this title as well as individuals who possess the title.
Cuyan(Manchu: ᠴᡠᠶᠠᠨ, Möllendorff: cuyan;?–?)The leader of Jianzhou Nüzhen(建州女真) in the Ming Dynasty. His family name is Aisin Gioro(愛新覺羅), his name was translated as Cheuk Yan(綽顏). He was born in Hetuala(赫圖阿拉).Nurhaci's fifth generation grand uncle.
Fancha was the ancestor of Nurhaci. His family name is Aisin Gioro (愛新覺羅).
Nikan Wailan was a Jurchen leader affiliated with the Ming dynasty and a rival of Nurhaci.
Aisin Gioro Yoto was a Qing dynasty imperial prince and Nurhaci's grandson. Yoto became the first bearer of the Prince Keqin peerage as Prince Cheng of the First Rank. He was demoted two ranks for committing a grave offence and posthumously granted a title of Prince Keqin of the Second Rank. After his death, the peerage was twice renamed until 1778, when the peerage was granted iron-cap status, which meant that each successive bearer of the title would hold undiminished title vis-a-vis his predecessor.
The Qing dynasty developed a complicated system of ranks and titles. Princess's consort was granted a title of efu, meaning "imperial charioter". However, the title was not granted to the spouses of clanswoman. An efu retained his title and privileges as long as the princess remained his primary spouse – even after her death. However, if an efu remarried or promoted another consort to be his primary spouse, he lost all rights obtained from his marriage to the princess.
The debate on the "Chineseness" of Yuan and Qing dynasties is concerned with whether the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty (1271–1368) and the Manchu-led Qing dynasty (1636–1912) can be considered "Chinese dynasties", and whether they were representative of "China" during the respective historical periods. The debate, albeit historiographical in nature, has political implications. Mainstream academia and successive governments of China, including the imperial governments of the Yuan and Qing dynasties, have maintained the view that they were "Chinese" and representative of "China". In short, the cause of the controversy stems from the dispute in interpreting the relationship between the two concepts "Han Chinese" and "China", because although the Chinese government recognizes 56 ethnic groups in China and the Han have a more open view of the Yuan and Qing dynasties since Liang Qichao and other royalist reformers supported the Qing dynasty, the Han are China's main ethnic group, this means that there are many opinions that equate Han Chinese people with China and lead to criticism of the legitimacy of these two dynasties.