Tong Siv Eng (31 October 1919– 12 June 2001) was a Cambodian politician. She was the first female member of parliament, and the first female cabinet minister, in Cambodia.
She was the daughter of a school principal who encouraged her to study. As there were no secondary education for females in Cambodia, she was given a scholarship to study in Saigon. When she returned to Cambodia, she married the courtier Pung Peng Cheng in 1939. She was a tutor of the royal children, and she and her spouse came to be personal advisers of king Sihanouk.
Secondary education covers two phases on the International Standard Classification of Education scale. Level 2 or lower secondary education is considered the second and final phase of basic education, and level 3 (upper) secondary education is the stage before tertiary education. Every country aims to provide basic education, but the systems and terminology remain unique to them. Secondary education typically takes place after six years of primary education and is followed by higher education, vocational education or employment. Like primary education, in most countries secondary education is compulsory, at least until the age of 16. Children typically enter the lower secondary phase around age 11. Compulsory education sometimes extends to age 19.
In 1958, women suffrage was introduced in Cambodia, and in the following elections the same year, Tong Siv Eng became the first and only woman elected to parliament. She served as state secretary in 1958–59, minister of Social Action in 1959–61, and minister of Health in 1963–68. Women were legally subservient to men in the Cambodian civil code of 1958, and there were only three other examples of women in higher positions in Cambodia during the 1960s: Tip Man (1962), the minister of education Diep Dinar (1966), and the under state secretary Nou Neou (1966). She also served as editor of the Samlanh Neary ("Woman's Voice").
She left Cambodia after the coup of 1970. Tong Siv Eng played an important part in the peace negotiations, as she arranged the meetings between Sihanouk and Hun Sen in 1987 and 1988. She died of a heart attack on 12 June 2001, aged 81.
Hun Sen is a Cambodian politician and the Prime Minister of Cambodia, President of the Cambodian People's Party (CPP) and Member of Parliament (MP) for Kandal. He has served as Prime Minister since 1985, making him the world’s longest-serving prime minister, the longest-serving head of government of Cambodia and one of the longest-serving leaders in the world. From 1979 to 1986 and again from 1987 to 1990, Hun Sen also served as Cambodia's foreign minister. His full honorary title is Samdech Akka Moha Sena Padei Techo Hun Sen. Born Hun Bunal, he changed his name to Hun Sen in 1972 two years after joining the Khmer Rouge.
The Kingdom of Cambodia is a unitary state that is governed within the framework of a constitutional monarchy, in which the monarch serves as the head of state, while the prime minister is the head of government. The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1989 had set in motion events that led to withdrawal of the Vietnamese armed forces that had established their presence in the country since the fall of the Khmer Rouge in 1979. The 1993 constitution, which is currently in force, was promulgated as a result of the 1991 Paris Peace Agreements, followed by the elections organized under the aegis of the United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia. The constitution proclaims a liberal, multiparty democracy in which powers are devolved to the three arms of the state: the executive, the judiciary and the legislature. Furthermore, the governing charter declares Cambodia to be an "independent, sovereign, peaceful, permanently neutral and non-aligned State."
Norodom Sihanouk was a Cambodian royal, politician, composer and filmmaker who was twice the King of Cambodia. He was the son of King Norodom Suramarit and Queen Sisowath Kossamak. In Cambodia, he is also known as Samdech Euv.
Ellen Louks Fairclough, was a Canadian politician. A member of the House of Commons of Canada from 1950 to 1963, she was the first woman ever to serve in the Canadian Cabinet.
Norodom Sihamoni is the King of Cambodia. He became King on 14 October 2004, a week after the abdication of King Norodom Sihanouk. He is the eldest son of King Sihanouk and Queen Norodom Monineath. He was Cambodia's ambassador to UNESCO and named by a nine-member throne council to become the next king after his father Norodom Sihanouk abdicated in 2004. Before ascending the throne, Sihamoni was best known for his work as a cultural ambassador in Europe and as a classical dance instructor, a specialization he graduated from in Prague, Czech Republic.
Norodom Chakrapong is a Cambodian royal politician, businessman and former major-general of the Royal Cambodian Armed Forces. He is the fourth son of Norodom Sihanouk of Cambodia and also a half-brother of the current king, Norodom Sihamoni. Chakrapong started his career as a military pilot in 1963. After Sihanouk was overthrown in 1970, Chakrapong spent time under house arrest, then in Beijing as the Head of Protocol of then-Prince Sihanouk, afterwards living overseas before he joined the Funcinpec in 1981 and fought against Vietnamese occupation as a commander of the Armée Nationale Sihanoukiste. In 1991, Chakrapong left Funcinpec to join the Cambodian People's Party (CPP) and served as the Deputy Prime Minister of Cambodia between 1992 and 1993. When the CPP lost the 1993 general elections, Chakrapong led a secession attempt in 1993. In 1994, he was accused of joining a failed coup attempt which led him to be sent into exile. After Chakrapong was pardoned in 1998, he founded a private airline company, Royal Phnom Penh Airways. The airlines later stopped all operations in early 2006.
Kamla Persad-Bissessar is a Trinidadian lawyer and politician who was the seventh Prime Minister of Trinidad and Tobago from 26 May 2010 to 9 September 2015. She was the country's first female Prime Minister, Attorney General, and Leader of the Opposition. She is also the first woman of Indian origin to be a prime minister in a country outside of India and South Asia.
Blanche Margaret Meagher, was a Canadian diplomat who became the nation's first-ever appointed female ambassador. She served as Canadian Ambassador to Israel from 1958 to 1961, Austria from 1962 to 1966, and Sweden from 1969 to 1973. She was also High Commissioner to Cyprus, Uganda and Kenya, and chaired the International Atomic Energy Agency Board of Governors from 1964 to 1965.
Fu Ying is a Chinese politician and diplomat, best known for her terms as the ambassador to the United Kingdom and as Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs. She currently serves as the chairperson of the National People's Congress Foreign Affairs Committee.
From the turn of the 20th century, women have participated in government in Australia. Following federation, the government of the newly formed Commonwealth of Australia passed the Commonwealth Franchise Act 1902 allowing most women to both vote and stand at the 1903 Federal election. South Australia and Western Australia granted women the vote before federation, and the states of New South Wales, Tasmania, Queensland and Victoria also passed legislation allowing women to participate in government at the state and local levels following federation. Indigenous Australian women did not achieve suffrage at all levels of government and in all states and territories until 1962.
Sam Sary was a Cambodian politician who participated in the so-called Bangkok Plot against Prince Norodom Sihanouk. He was a son of Sam Nhean, a prominent politician in the 1940s, and father of Sam Rainsy, the leader of Cambodia's main opposition party. He was a close confidant of the then Prince Norodom Sihanouk but had a falling-out with the Prince when he was exposed in corruption, selling import licenses and a second time during his tenure as a Cambodian ambassador to London in 1958, for beating his pregnant servant. He was alleged to have beaten her so badly that she escaped to the protection of the London police. The scandal made headlines in the London tabloids and he was recalled to Cambodia and stripped of all of his duties. He disappeared mysteriously in 1962.
Bun Rany is a Cambodian humanitarian worker, nurse and, as the wife of long-time Cambodian Prime Minister Hun Sen, First Lady of Cambodia. She has served as the vice president of the National Association of the Cambodian Red Cross and, since 1998, as its president. She has received national and international recognition and numerous awards for her work with Cambodia's orphans and poor, HIV/AIDS awareness and prevention, and her emphasis on women's issues with efforts to improve domestic safety and empowerment through education and vocational training. Her full honorary title is Samdech Kittipritbandi Bun Rany Hun Sen.
Movements for Muslim women to seek roles in national leadership have increased rapidly. Greater opportunities for women in education have further encouraged their involvement in politics. The most prominent Muslim female leaders are former prime minister of Pakistan Benazir Bhutto, Indonesian President Megawati Sukarnoputri, former Turkish Prime Minister Tansu Ciller, former Senegalese Prime Minister Mame Madior Boye, Bangladeshi Prime Ministers Khaleda Zia and Sheikh Hasina Wajed, former Iranian Vice President Masoumeh Ebtekar, Malian president Cissé Mariam Kaïdama Sidibé, Kosovan President Atifete Jahjaga, current President of Mauritius Bibi Ameenah Firdaus Gurib-Fakim and Current President of Singapore Halimah Yacob.
Norodom Monineath Sihanouk is the queen mother of Cambodia. She was queen consort of Cambodia from 1952 to 1955 and again from 1993 to 2004, as the wife of King Norodom Sihanouk. She is the widow of King-Father Norodom Sihanouk, whom she married in 1952. Queen Monineath and King Sihanouk parented two children: Norodom Sihamoni and Norodom Narindrapong (1954-2003). Her official, full title is " Samdech Preah Mahaksatrey Norodom Monineath Sihanouk". The Queen is also called "Preah Voreakreach Meada Cheat Khmer". Her birthday on 18 June is an official public holiday in Cambodia.
Roland Eng is a Cambodian politician and ambassador. He has worked diplomatically with Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, and the United States of America.
Torild Skard is a Norwegian psychologist, politician for the Socialist Left Party, a former Deputy Permanent Secretary at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and a former Chairman of UNICEF.
Mu Sochua is a Cambodian politician and rights activist. She was a Member of Parliament (MP) for Battambang from 2013 to 2017, a seat which she previously held from 1998 to 2003. She was a member and Vice President of the Cambodia National Rescue Party (CNRP) until its dissolve, and previously a member of the Sam Rainsy Party (SRP) prior to its merger with the Human Rights Party. As a member of FUNCINPEC, she also served as Minister of Women and Veterans' Affairs in Hun Sen's coalition government from 1998 to 2004. She is currently one of 118 senior opposition figures serving a five-year ban from politics following a court ruling on 16 November 2017.
Ulla Gunilla Lindström, née Wohlin, was a Swedish journalist and politician. She was Minister of Family- Consumption- Aid and Immigration from 1954-1966. She was also the first woman in Sweden to be acting Prime Minister (1958).
Kang Kyung-wha is the Foreign Minister of South Korea, the first woman nominated for and appointed to the position. She is also the first Korean woman to hold a high-level position in the United Nations. Previously, Kang was the first non-exam-taker to become a director-general in the ministry. Moreover, she is the first South Korean foreign minister to join the official South Korean delegation for the inter-Korean summit as well as to visit Pyongyang, the North Korean capital.
Türkân Akyol was a Turkish politician, physician and academic. She was the first Turkish female government minister, and the first female university rector in Turkey.
The International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is a numeric commercial book identifier which is intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.