Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing, or TIGER, or TIGER/Line is a format used by the United States Census Bureau to describe land attributes such as roads, buildings, rivers, and lakes, as well as areas such as census tracts. TIGER was developed to support and improve the Bureau's process of taking the Decennial Census.
The TIGER files do not contain the census demographic data, but merely the geospatial/map data. GIS can be used to merge census demographics or other data sources with the TIGER files to create maps and conduct analysis. TIGER data is available without cost because U.S. Government publications are required to be released into the public domain.
The TIGER/Line shapefile data includes complete coverage of the contiguous United States, Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Guam, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and the Midway Islands.
TIGER includes both land features such as roads, rivers, and lakes, as well as areas such as counties, census tracts, and census blocks. Some of the geographic areas represented in TIGER are political areas, including state and federally recognized tribal lands, cities, counties, congressional districts, and school districts. Others are statistical areas, including Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSA), census tracts, census block groups, and census blocks. ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTA) are quasi-statistical areas which attempt to approximate, but do not exactly match, the delivery areas of USPS ZIP codes.ZIP codes are not truly areas, but rather a group of deliverable addresses. Some or all of an existing ZIP code's addresses may be reassigned to a new ZIP if there is sufficient growth within a given postal ZIP Code. As many as 3% of ZIP codes undergo change each quarter. Thus, the 5-digit ZCTAs are of limited value in areas of growth or change.
TIGER data published through February 2007 (2006 Second Edition) were in a custom text-based format formally known as TIGER/Line files. In 2008, data in shapefile format was published. The Census Bureau has made the data available through WMS servers.The data forms a base for OpenStreetMap in the USA, and also was used for the initial import of US map data into the Waze navigation system.
A ZIP Code is a postal code used by the United States Postal Service (USPS). Introduced in 1963, the basic format consisted of five digits. In 1983, an extended ZIP+4 code was introduced; it included the five digits of the ZIP Code, followed by a hyphen and four digits that designated a more specific location.
Mitchell Township is a civil township of Alcona County in the U.S. state of Michigan. The population was 352 at the 2010 census.
Wayland Township is a civil township of Allegan County in the U.S. state of Michigan. The population was 3,088 at the 2010 census.
Berrien Township is a civil township of Berrien County in the U.S. state of Michigan. As of the 2010 census, the township population was 5,084.
Clarence Township is a civil township located in northeast Calhoun County in the U.S. state of Michigan. It is part of the Battle Creek, Michigan Metropolitan Statistical Area. The population was 1,985 at the 2010 census. The township was originally named Pinkney Township.
Clarendon Township is a civil township of Calhoun County in the U.S. state of Michigan. The population was 1,139 at the 2010 census. The township is part of the Battle Creek Metropolitan Statistical Area.
Volinia Township is a civil township of Cass County in the U.S. state of Michigan. The population was 1,112 at the 2010 census. When the township was organized in 1833, it was at first named Volhynia, after the province in Poland. It is believed to have been given to honor General Tadeusz Kościuszko, the Polish patriot who helped the United States during the American Revolutionary War. The name was altered first to "Volenia" and then by 1901 or earlier to "Volinia".
Indian River is an unincorporated community in Cheboygan County in the U.S. state of Michigan. It is a census-designated place (CDP) for statistical purposes and is not legally recognized as a municipality. The population was 1,959 at the 2010 census.
Pickford Township is a civil township of Chippewa County in the U.S. state of Michigan. As of the 2010 census, the township population was 1,595.
Raber Township is a civil township of Chippewa County in the U.S. state of Michigan. The population was 647 at the 2010 census.
Hamburg Township is a civil township of Livingston County in the U.S. state of Michigan. As of the 2010 census, the township population was 21,165. It is the most populated municipality in Livingston County.
Republic is an unincorporated community in Marquette County in the U.S. state of Michigan. It is also a census-designated place (CDP) for statistical purposes, covering a narrow, roughly crescent-shaped area along several miles of M-95. Most of the CDP is within Republic Township, although a small portion of the CDP extends north into Humboldt Township
Canadian Lakes is an unincorporated community in Mecosta County in the U.S. state of Michigan. The area is mostly within the southwest portion of Morton Township, southwest of Mecosta and east of Stanwood.
Alba is an unincorporated community and census-designated place (CDP) located in Antrim County in the U.S. state of Michigan. As of the 2010 census, it had a population of 295. Situated just north of Mancelona along U.S. Route 131, Alma is divided between Star Township on the east and Chestonia Township on the west.
Linwood is a small unincorporated community in the northern portion of Bay County in the U.S. state of Michigan. The community is on the boundary between Fraser Township on the north and Kawkawlin Township on the south. It is situated with M-13 to the west and the Saginaw Bay of Lake Huron on the east, between Kaiser Tower Road and Elevator Road where Linwood Road becomes Center Road. Bay City is about 12 miles to the south and Linwood is included in the Bay City Metropolitan Statistical Area.
Geocoding is the process of taking input text, such as an address or the name of a place, and returning a latitude/longitude location on the Earth's surface for that place. Reverse geocoding, on the other hand, converts geographic coordinates to a description of a location, usually the name of a place or an addressable location. Geocoding relies on a computer representation of address points, the street / road network, together with postal and administrative boundaries.
ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) are statistical entities developed by the United States Census Bureau for tabulating summary statistics. These were introduced with the Census 2000 and continued with the 2010 Census. This new entity was developed to overcome the difficulties in precisely defining the land area covered by each ZIP code. Defining the extent of an area is necessary in order to tabulate census data for that area.
New Gretna is an unincorporated community located within Bass River Township in Burlington County, New Jersey, United States. The area is served as United States Postal Service ZIP Code 08224.
The National Historical Geographic Information System (NHGIS) is a historical GIS project to create and freely disseminate a database incorporating all available aggregate census information for the United States between 1790 and 2010. The project has created one of the largest collections in the world of statistical census information, much of which was not previously available to the research community because of legacy data formats and differences between metadata formats. The statistical and geographic data are disseminated free of charge through a sophisticated online data access system.
New Monmouth is an unincorporated community located within Middletown Township in Monmouth County, New Jersey, United States. The area is served as United States Postal Service ZIP code 07748.
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