Triple-headed eagle

Last updated
The triple-headed eagle design used by Michael I of Russia. Novikov triple eagle.jpg
The triple-headed eagle design used by Michael I of Russia.
Title page of Lado (1911). Lado sbornik 1911.jpg
Title page of Lado (1911).

The three-headed eagle is a mythological or heraldic bird, as it were an augmented version of the double-headed eagle.

A three-headed eagle is mentioned in the apocryphal Latin Ezra, featuring in a dream by the high priest Ezra. In a Chechen fairy tale, a three-headed eagle figures as a monstrous adversary to be killed by the hero. [2] Öksökö (Өксөку) is the name of an eagle with either two or three heads in Yakut and Dolgan folklore. [3]

Exceptionally, a three-headed eagle (or rather, an eagle with two additional heads mounted on the tips of its wings) is shown as the coat of arms of minnesinger Reinmar von Zweter (c. 1200–1248) in the Codex Manesse (c. 1300). An unrelated depiction of the Reichsadler with three heads is found in the Wappenbuch of Conrad Grünenberg (1483).[ page needed ] A three-headed bird (not necessarily an eagle) is also found in the Middle Low German illustrated manuscript Splendor Solis , dated to the 1530s.

The sceptre of tsar Michael I of Russia was decorated with a three-headed eagle, and representations of the design are found in Russian symbolism. The literary anthology Lado, published in 1911, opens with a poem "Slavic Eagle" (Славянский орел) by Dmitriy Vergun, in which the three heads are explained as representing the union of three races which contributed to the genesis of Russia, the "western" head representing the Varangians, the "eastern head" the Mongols and the central head the Slavs.

The Three-Headed Eagle (1944) by A. Ferris discusses the destiny of the peoples of Europe based on the Latin Ezra.

See also

Related Research Articles

Sakha First-level administrative division of Russia

Sakha, also known as Yakutia or Yakutiya, is a republic of Russia, in the Russian Far East, along the Arctic Ocean, with a population of roughly 1 million. Sakha comprises half of the area of its governing Far Eastern Federal District, and is the world's largest country subdivision, covering over 3,083,523 square kilometers. Yakutsk, which is the world's coldest major city, is its capital and largest city. The republic has a reputation for an extreme and severe climate, with the lowest temperatures in the Northern Hemisphere being recorded in Verkhoyansk and Oymyakon, and regular winter averages commonly dipping below −35 °C (−31 °F) in Yakutsk. The hypercontinental tendencies also result in warm summers for much of the republic.

A breve is the diacritic mark ˘, shaped like the bottom half of a circle. As used in Ancient Greek, it is also called brachy, βραχύ. It resembles the caron but is rounded, in contrast to the angular tip of the caron. In many forms of Latin, ˘ is used for a shorter, softer variant of a vowel, such as "Ĭ", where the sound is nearly identical to the English /i/.

Slavic paganism Religious beliefs, myths, and ritual practices of the Slavic people before Christianisation

Slavic paganism or Slavic religion is the religious beliefs, myths, and ritual practices of the Slavs before Christianisation, which occurred at various stages between the 8th and the 13th century. The South Slavs, who likely settled in the Balkan Peninsula during the 6th–7th centuries AD, bordering with the Byzantine Empire to the south, came under the sphere of influence of Eastern Christianity, beginning with the creation of writing systems for Slavic languages in 855 by the brothers Saints Cyril and Methodius and the adoption of Christianity in Bulgaria in 863. The East Slavs followed with the official adoption in 988 by Vladimir the Great of Kievan Rus'.

Flag of Russia National flag of Russia

The national flag of Russia, also known as the State Flag of the Russian Federation, is a tricolour flag consisting of three equal horizontal fields: white on the top, blue in the middle, and red on the bottom. The flag was first used as an ensign for Russian merchant ships in 1696.

Yakuts Turkic ethnic group

The Yakuts, or the Sakha, are a Turkic ethnic group who mainly live in the Republic of Sakha in the Russian Federation, with some extending to the Amur, Magadan, Sakhalin regions, and the Taymyr and Evenk Districts of the Krasnoyarsk region. The Yakut language belongs to the Siberian branch of the Turkic languages. The Russian word yakut was taken from Evenk yokō. The Yakuts call themselves Sakha, or Urangai Sakha in some old chronicles.

World tree Common motif appearing in many mythologies and religions

The world tree is a motif present in several religions and mythologies, particularly Indo-European religions, Siberian religions, and Native American religions. The world tree is represented as a colossal tree which supports the heavens, thereby connecting the heavens, the terrestrial world, and, through its roots, the underworld. It may also be strongly connected to the motif of the tree of life, but it is the source of wisdom of the ages.

Dolgans Turkic ethnic group native to Russia

Dolgans (Russian: долганы; Dolgan: Дулҕан Dulğan; self-designation: долган, тыа-киһи, һака are an ethnic group who mostly inhabit Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia. They are descended from several groups, particularly Evenks, one of the indigenous peoples of the Russian North. They adopted a Turkic language sometime after the 18th century. The 2010 Census counted 7,885 Dolgans. This number includes 5,517 in former Taymyr Autonomous Okrug.

The Even language, also known as Lamut, Ewen, Eben, Orich, Ilqan, is a Tungusic language spoken by the Evens in Siberia. It is spoken by widely scattered communities of reindeer herders from Kamchatka and the Sea of Okhotsk in the east to the Lena river in the west and from the Arctic coast in the north to the Aldan river in the south. Even is an endangered language with only some 5,700 speakers. These speakers are specifically from the Magadan region, the Chukot region and the Koryak region. The dialects are Arman, Indigirka, Kamchatka, Kolyma-Omolon, Okhotsk, Ola, Tompon, Upper Kolyma, Sakkyryr and Lamunkhin.

Tungusic peoples Ethno-linguistic family

Tungusic peoples are an ethno-linguistic group formed by the speakers of Tungusic languages. They are native to Siberia and Northeast Asia.

Semyon Novgorodov Yakut politician and linguist

Semyon Andreyevich Novgorodov was a Yakut politician and linguist, the creator of a Yakut written language.

Yakut scripts Scripts used to write the Yakut language

There are 4 stages in the history of Yakut writing systems:

György Almásy Hungarian Asiologist, traveler, zoologist, and ethnographer

György Ede Almásy de Zsadány et Törökszentmiklós was a Hungarian Asiologist, traveler, zoologist and ethnographer. His son, László Almásy, was an aviator, Afrologist and soldier.

Nikolai Aleksandrovich Baskakov was a Soviet Turkologist, linguist, and ethnologist. He created a systematization model of the Turkic language family, and studied Turkic-Russian contacts in the 10-11th centuries CE. During 64 years of scientific work (1930-1994), Baskakov published almost 640 works including 32 books. The main area of Baskakov's scientific interests was linguistics, but he also studied folklore and ethnography of the Turkic peoples, and also was a musician and composer.

Anabarsky District District in Sakha Republic, Russia

Anabarsky District is an administrative and municipal district, one of the thirty-four in the Sakha Republic, Russia. It is located in the northwest of the republic and borders with Bulunsky District in the east, Olenyoksky District in the south, and with Taymyrsky Dolgano-Nenetsky District of Krasnoyarsk Krai in the west. The area of the district is 55,600 square kilometers (21,500 sq mi). Its administrative center is the rural locality of Saskylakh. As of the 2010 Census, the total population of the district was 3,501, with the population of Saskylakh accounting for 66.2% of that number.

Yakut language Siberian Turkic language

Yakut, also known as Yakutian, Sakha, Saqa or Saxa, is a Turkic language with around 450,000 native speakers spoken in Sakha (Yakutia), a federal republic in the Russian Federation, by the Yakuts.

Sergei Tokarev

Sergei Aleksandrovich Tokarev was a Russian scholar, ethnographer, historian, researcher of religious beliefs, doctor of historical sciences, and professor at Moscow State University.

Dolgan language Northern Turkic language

The Dolgan language is a Turkic language with around 1,000 speakers, spoken in the Taymyr Peninsula in Russia. The speakers are known as the Dolgans. The word "Dolgan" means 'tribe living on the middle reaches of the river'. This is most likely signifying the geographical location of the Dolgan tribe.

Coat of arms of the Sakha Republic Official symbol of the Sakha Republic

The coat of arms of the Sakha Republic, in the Russian Federation, is an official symbol of the Sakha Republic, alongside the flag and the national anthem of the Sakha Republic. The coat of arms consists of a circle, in the center of which is a red silhouette of a rider, holding a banner, mounted upon a six-legged horse, based on the prehistoric petroglyphs of the "Shishkin pisanitsa", against a white sun background. The central image is framed with a traditional Sakha ornament in the form of seven rhombic crystal-like figures and the inscriptions "Республика Саха (Якутия) • Саха Өрөспүүбүлүкэтэ". This coat of arms has been used officially since 26 December 1992.

The Sea Tsar and Vasilisa the Wise Russian fairy tale

The Sea Tsar and Vasilisa the Wise is a Russian fairy tale published by author Alexander Afanasyev in his collection of Russian Fairy Tales, numbered 219. The tale features legendary characters Tsar Morskoi and Vasilisa the Wise.

Cold Synagogue, Mogilev

The Cold Synagogue or Školišča Synagogue was a wooden synagogue located in Mogilev near the intersection of Vyalikaja Hramadzianskaya and Pravaya Naberezhnaya Streets. It was established around 1680. There was a cheder next to the synagogue. The interior was almost entirely covered with magnificent polychromes made in 1740s by the Słuck painter Chaim ben Yitzchak ha-Levi Segal. In the beginning of the 20th century, several ethnographic expeditions, by Alexander Miller, S. An-sky and Solomon Yudovin, and by El Lissitzky and Issachar Ber Ryback documented and photographed interiors of the synagogue. After the article by Lissitzky, interior murals of the synagogue became quite famous in artistic circles. It was decided in 1918 that the synagogue was covered by legal protection by the state authorities, but despite of it the synagogue was closed in 1938 and then dismantled by the authorities. The photos, drawings, and article by El Lissitzky is almost all evidence that preserved.

References

  1. Владимиръ Новиковъ. Русскій государственный орелъ. Мистерiя 445-лѣтней исторической эволюцiи, Paris, 1966, p. 50.
  2. Дахкильгов И. А., Мальсагов А. О. (eds.), Сказки, сказания и предания чеченцев и ингушей Grozny 1986.
  3. P. E. Efremov, Фольклор долган ("Dolgan Folklore"), Novosibirsk: Institute of Archeology and Ethnography of the Russian Academy of Sciences (2000), p. 430 ((in Russian) bestiary.us) V.L. Seroshevsky, Якуты. Опыт этнографичекого исследования ("The Yakuts. An experience in ethnographic research", Russian Political Encyclopedia, Moscow, 1993, p. 227.