The following is a list of engagements that took place in 1862 during the American Civil War. During the summer and early spring of the year, Union forces gained several successes over the Confederacy, seizing control of Missouri, northern Arkansas, Kentucky, and western Tennessee, along with several coastal areas. Confederate forces defended the capital of Richmond, Virginia, from Union assaults, and then launched counter–offensives into Kentucky and Maryland, both of which end in Union victories.
In the Eastern Theater, the Union Army of the Potomac, commanded by Major General George B. McClellan, was transported to Fort Monroe in April to begin an offensive against Richmond, Virginia. Convinced that he was outnumbered by the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, commanded by General Joseph E. Johnston, McClellan advanced cautiously, taking nearly a month to capture the Confederate defensive works near Yorktown and an additional month to march westward and arrive just outside Richmond.Here on May 31, Johnston attacked an isolated portion of the Union army in the Battle of Seven Pines; Johnston's plan failed, due to uncoordinated attacks and to Confederate columns which failed to arrive at their assigned positions, and Johnston was wounded during the battle. To replace Johnston, Confederate President Jefferson Davis choose General Robert E. Lee, who launched the Seven Days Battles in late June. While the Confederate attacks were often disjointed and several commands failed to arrive at their assigned destinations on time, Lee was still able to drive the Union army back to Harrison's Landing, forcing McClellan to give up his attempt to capture Richmond. Although he had driven the Union army away from the Confederate capital, Lee was disappointed that he had failed to destroy the Union army.
Lee then turned northward to deal with the Union Army of Virginia, commanded by Major General John Pope, planning to defeat Pope's army before it could unite with McClellan's army, which was arriving in northern Virginia from the Peninsula. During the Second Battle of Bull Run, Lee routed Pope's armyand then invaded Maryland, hoping to seize supplies from Union territory and also hoping that a major Confederate victory in Northern territory would secure foreign recognition for the Confederacy. However, McClellan attacked Lee through the passes of South Mountain and forced Lee to call off his planned invasion of Pennsylvania, instead concentrating his army behind Antietam Creek. Neither army gained a victory at the Battle of Antietam on September 17, but Lee's retreat back to Virginia gave the Union a strategic victory in the campaign. During October and November, Union President Abraham Lincoln pressured McClellan to launch an aggressive campaign against Lee but McClellan refused, instead moving slowly and demanding supplies. Lincoln replaced McClellan on November 7 with Major General Ambrose Burnside, who hoped to cross the Rappahannock River near Fredericksburg, Virginia in order to get between Lee and Richmond. However, delays in obtaining a pontoon bridge prevented Burnside from crossing the river until December 11, by which time Lee was able to concentrate his entire army along a series of ridges near Fredericksburg. On December 13, Burnside attacked the Confederate positions and lost heavily; two days later he retreated back across the river and went into winter quarters.
In the Western Theater, the Confederate forces, commanded by General Albert S. Johnston, were forced to abandon Kentucky and much of central and western Tennessee following the loss of Fort Donelson and Fort Henry in February. The capture of the two forts turned the Union commander in the battles, Major General Ulysses S. Grant, into a national hero. –30 without Halleck's forces finding out until the following morning.Johnston, following a plan proposed by his second-in-command General P. G. T. Beauregard, concentrated as many forces as he could near Corinth, Mississippi and attacked Grant's Army of the Tennessee near Shiloh Church. Although successful in driving the Union army almost into the Tennessee River on April 6, Johnston was mortally wounded during the battle, while Grant was reinforced during the night by the Army of the Ohio, commanded by Major General Don Carlos Buell. Grant then led a counterattack the following morning and drove the Confederates from the field, who then retreated back to their base at Corinth. Major General Henry W. Halleck took command of the Union forces operating in western Tennessee and advanced to Corinth, where both armies settled in for a month-long siege. Fearing that a full scale Union assault on the Confederate defenses was imminent, Beauregard evacuated Corinth during the night of May 29
Beauregard was relieved of command shortly afterwards, due to his health; Jefferson Davis replaced him with General Braxton Bragg. Following the Union victory at Corinth, Halleck dispersed his army across northern Mississippi, western Tennessee, and northern Alabama to protect the railroads, while sending Buell's Army of the Ohio eastward to capture Chattanogga, but problems with the Union supply lines prevented Buell from capturing the city.Bragg, pondering how to counteract the Union threat, received a message from Lieutenant General Edmund Kirby Smith, commander of the Confederate Department of East Tennessee, suggesting that the two combine forces to defeat Buell and retake Kentucky. Moving his troops by rail starting the end of June, Bragg arrived at Chattanooga near the end of July; from there he advanced into Kentucky towards the Ohio River. Buell moved north as well, managing to reach Louisville before Bragg did; from there he moved south towards Bragg. The two armies met in battle near Perryville, Kentucky on October 8; Bragg's forces attacked Buell's left wing but without success. Bragg retreated that night and united with Smith, intending to remain in Kentucky, but when Buell threatened his line of retreat, Bragg move south for Tennessee.
The Union navy, in concert with the army, captured several more coastal areas along the Atlantic seaboard and Gulf coast. Following the Union victory at Hatteras Inlet the previous year, other parts of the North Carolina coast, including New Berne, were captured; in April, Union forces attacked and captured Fort Pulaski in Georgia following a thirty hour bombardment, cutting off Savannah from blockade runners. This victory left Wilmington, North Carolina as the only major Atlantic port to remain in Confederate hands. Several ports in Florida and along the Gulf coast were captured as well, including Apalachicola and St. Augustine in Florida and Biloxi, Mississippi.In April, a Union squadron commanded by Commodore David Farragut ran past Forts Jackson and St. Philip near the mouth of the Mississippi River and forced the surrender of New Orleans, the largest Confederate port city in both population and in trade volume.
In the Trans-Mississippi Theater, the Confederates launched several offensive campaigns, all of which failed. In late January, Union Major General Samuel R. Curtis maneuvered the Missouri State Guard out of the state and into northwestern Arkansas; due to a shortage of supplies, Curtis had to halt his advance in the area of Pea Ridge. In response to the Union advance, Confederate President Jefferson Davis sent Major General Earl Van Dorn to Arkansas to take command of the Confederate forces in the state. After he arrived in early March, Van Dorn launched an offensive of his own, which resulted in the two-day Battle of Pea Ridge, a Confederate defeat. After the battle, he was ordered to take his army east of the Mississippi River and join the Confederate army at Corinth, Mississippi, but he arrived too late to fight in the Battle of Shiloh.
In Texas, Brigadier General Henry Sibley raised a brigade of cavalry and led it into the New Mexico Territory, intending to drive the remaining Union forces from it and advance into Colorado, capturing the gold and silver mines located in the territory. He fought the main Union force in the territory, commanded by Colonel Edward R.S. Canby, at the Battle of Valverde on February 17; although the battle was a Confederate victory, Sibley failed to force Canby to surrender. Instead, Sibley continued northward, leaving Canby in his rear. Continuing northward along the Rio Grande and the Santa Fe Tail, his brigade met a Union force, which included the 1st Colorado Infantry, at Glorieta Pass on March 28. The Confederates again drove the Union force from the field, but during the battle a Union detachment burned most of the Confederate supply train, along with most of their supplies. This meant that the Confederates had to retreat back to Texas, reaching it by mid-April, losing over 1,500 men out of an original force of 3,700 men.
|Date||Engagement||Military units||Losses||Victor (if applicable)|
|January 3||Cockpit Point, Virginia||Confederate Department of Northern Virginia, Union Potomac Flotilla||none||Inconclusive|
|January 5–6||Hancock, Maryland||Confederate Valley District, Department of Northern Virginia, Union garrison||25 total||Inconclusive|
|January 8||Roan's Tan Yard, Missouri||Missouri State Guard, Union Department of the Missouri||Missouri State Guard 80, Union 11||USA|
|January 10||Middle Creek, Kentucky||Confederate Army of Central Kentucky, Union Army of the Ohio||Confederate 65, Union 27||USA|
|January 11||Lucas Bend, Columbus, Kentucky||Confederate CSS Grampus and two steamers, Union U.S.S. Essex||none||Inconclusive|
|January 19||Mill Springs, Kentucky||Confederate Department No. 2, Union Army of the Ohio.||Confederate 350, Union 232||USA|
|February 6||Fort Henry, Tennessee||Confederate garrison, Union navy||Confederate 99, Union 47.||USA|
|February 6||Roanoke Island, North Carolina||Confederate garrison, Union North Atlantic Blockading Squadron||Confederate 2,643, Union 264||USA|
|February 14–16||Fort Donelson, Tennessee||Confederate garrison, Union Army of the Tennessee||Confederate 17,000 (including 13,829 prisoners), Union 2,852||USA|
|February 17||Little Sugar Creek, Arkansas||Confederate forces, Union Army of the Southwest||Confederate unknown, Union 33||Inconclusive|
|February 21||Fort Craig or Valverde, New Mexico||Confederate Army of New Mexico, Union Department of New Mexico||Confederate 187, Union 263||CSA|
|February 23||Socorro, New Mexico||Confederate 5th Texas Mounted Rifles, Union 2nd New Mexico Militia||unknown||CSA|
|March 6–8||Pea Ridge, Arkansas||Confederate Army of the West and Missouri State Guard, Union Army of the Southwest||Confederate 2,000, Union 1,384||USA|
|March 8–9||Hampton Roads, Virginia||Confederate gunboat CSS Virginia, Union gunboats Monitor , Minnesota , Congress , and Cumberland .||Confederate 24, Union 409||•Tactical: Inconclusive |
|March 14||New Berne, North Carolina||Confederate garrison, Union North Carolina Expeditionary Corps||Confederate 609, Union 476||USA|
|March 23||Kernstown, Virginia||Confederate Army of the Valley, Union division, V Corps||Confederate 718, Union 590||•Tactical: USA |
|March 25||La Villa, Florida||Confederate 4th Florida Infantry, Union 4th New Hampshire Infantry||Confederate one, Union eight||CSA?|
|March 26–28||Apache Canyon and Glorieta, near Santa Fe, New Mexico||Confederate Army of New Mexico, Union Department of New Mexico||Confederate 227, Union 132||USA|
|March 30||Stanwix Station, Arizona||Confederate Company A, Arizona Rangers, Union cavalry from California Column||Confederate none, Union 1 wounded||USA|
|April 5 – May 4||Yorktown, Virginia||Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, Union Army of the Potomac||Confederate 300, Union 182||Inconclusive|
|April 6–7||Shiloh, Tennessee||Confederate Army of Mississippi, UnionArmy of West Tennessee, Army of the Ohio and U.S. Gunboats Tyler and Lexington .||Confederate 10,699, Union 13,047||USA|
|April 8||Island No. 10, Tennessee||Confederate Department No. 2, Union Army of the Mississippi||Confederacy 3,017 (including 3,000 prisoners), Union 51||USA|
|April 8||Albuquerque, New Mexico||Confederate Army of New Mexico, Union Department of New Mexico||unknown||USA|
|April 10–11||Ft. Pulaski, Georgia||Confederate garrison, Union South Carolina Expeditionary Corps||Confederate 1, Union 1||USA|
|April 14||Fort Pillow, Tennessee||Union mortar boats bombard Fort Pillow||none||CSA|
|April 14||Las Padillas, New Mexico||Confederate detachment from Army of New Mexico, Union New Mexico militia||unknown||USA?|
|April 15||Picacho Pass, Arizona||Confederate Company A, Arizona Rangers, Union company of 1st California Cavalry.||Confederate 6, Union 6.||CSA|
|April 15||Peralta, New Mexico Territory||Confederate Army of New Mexico, Union Department of New Mexico||Confederate 33, Union unknown||USA|
|April 16–28||Forts Jackson and St. Philip, Louisiana||Confederate Department No. 1, Union West Gulf Blockading Squadron||Confederate 782, Union 229||USA|
|April 19||Camden, North Carolina, also called South Mills||Confederate garrison, Union detachment from North Carolina Expeditionary Corps||Confederate 25, Union 114||CSA|
|April 25||Fort Macon, North Carolina||Confederate garrison, U.S. Gunboats Daylight, Georgia, Chippewa , the bark Gemsbok, and North Carolina Expeditionary Corps||Confederate 439, Union 3||USA|
|April 25 – May 1||New Orleans, Louisiana (surrender to Union forces)||Union West Gulf Blockading Squadron||none||USA|
|April 29 – May 30||Corinth, Mississippi||Confederate Army of Mississippi, Union Army of the Mississippi, Army of West Tennessee, and Army of the Ohio||Confederate 1,000, Union 1,000||USA|
|May 5||Williamsburg, Virginia||Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, Union III and IV Corps Army of the Potomac||Confederate 1,582, Union 2,283||Inconclusive|
|May 7||West Point or Eltham's Landing, Virginia||Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, Union Army of the Potomac||Confederate 48, Union 186||Inconclusive|
|May 8||McDowell, Virginia||Confederate Army of the Valley and Army of the Northwest, Union Mountain Department||Confederate 500, Union 256||CSA|
|May 10||Plum Run Bend, Tennessee||Confederate River Defense Fleet, Union Mississippi River Squadron||Confederate four ships disabled, Union two ships sunk||CSA|
|May 15||Fort Darling, James River, Virginia||Confederate garrison, U.S. Gunboats Galena , Port Royal , Naugatuck , Monitor , and Aroostook .||Confederate 15, Union 24||CSA|
|May 15–17||Princeton, West Virginia||Confederate Army of East Kentucky, Union District of the Kanawha, Mountain Department||Confederate 16, Union 129||CSA|
|May 19||Whitney's Lane, Arkansas||Confederate Trans-Mississippi Department, Union Army of the Southwest||Confederate 150, Union 45||USA|
|May 23||Front Royal, Virginia||Confederate Army of the Valley, Union Department of the Shenandoah||Confederate 56, Union 904||CSA|
|May 23||Fort Craig, New Mexico||Confederate detachment Army of New Mexico, Union 3rd U.S. Cavalry||Confederate unknown, Union 3 wounded||USA|
|May 25||Winchester, Virginia||Confederate Army of the Valley, Union Department of the Shenandoah||Confederate 400, Union 2,019||CSA|
|May 27||Hanover Courthouse, Virginia||Confederate brigade, Army of Northern Virginia||Confederate 746, Union 355||USA|
|May 27||Dragoon Springs, Arizona||Confederate Company A, Arizona Rangers, Chiricahuas||unknown||CSA?|
|May 31 – June 1||Seven Pines and Fair Oaks, Virginia||Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, Union Army of the Potomac.||Confederate 6,100, Union 5,000||USA|
|June 5||Tranter's Creek, North Carolina||Confederate 44th North Carolina Infantry, Union 24th Massachusetts Infantry||40 total||USA|
|June 6||Memphis, Tennessee||Confederate River Defense Fleet, Union Mississippi Flotilla.||Confederate 180, Union 1||USA|
|June 6||Good's Farm near Harrisonburg, Virginia||Detachments from Confederate Army of the Valley District and Union Mountain Department||Confederate 67, Union 63||CSA|
|June 7– 8||Chattanooga I, Tennessee||Confederate and Union forces||Confederate 3, Union unknown||USA|
|June 8||Cross Keys or Union Church, Virginia||Confederate Army of the Valley, Union Mountain Department||Confederate 288, Union 684||CSA|
|June 9||Port Republic, Virginia||Confederate Army of the Valley, Union Department of the Rappahannock||Confederate 800, Union 800–1,000||CSA|
|June 16||Secessionville, James Island, South Carolina||Confederate Department of South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida, Union Department of the South||Confederate 204, Union 683||CSA|
|June 17||St. Charles, White River, Arkansas||Confederate garrison, Union Gunboats Lexington, Mound City, Conestoga, and St. Louis.||Confederate 40, Union 160||USA|
|June 21||Simmon's Bluff, South Carolina||Confederate Department of South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida, Union Department of the South||none||USA|
|June 26 – July 1||The Seven Days Battles, Virginia : Including engagements known as Oak Grove, Virginia on the 25, Mechanicsville on the 26, Gaines' Mills on the 27, Garnett's and Golding's Farm on the 27 and 28, Savage Station on the 29, White Oak Swamp and Glendale on the 30, and Malvern Hill on July 1.||Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, Union Army of the Potomac||Confederate 20,614, Union 15,849||Overall: CSA |
Garnett's and Golding's Farm:
White Oak Swamp:
|July 3||Evelington Heights, Virginia (near Harrison's Landing)||Confederate cavalry from Army of Northern Virginia, Union Army of the Potomac||none||USA|
|July 7||Cache River, Arkansas||Confederate cavalry, Union Army of the Southwest||Confederate 272, Union 63||USA|
|July 13||Murfreesboro, Tennessee||Confederate cavalry, Union garrison||Confederate 150, Union 1,200||CSA|
|July 15||Apache Pass, New Mexico Territory (modern-day Arizona)||Apaches, Union California Column||unknown||USA|
|August 5||Baton Rouge, Louisiana||Confederate Army of West Tennessee, Union Department of the Gulf||Confederate 478, Union 371||USA|
|August 6–9||Kirksville, Missouri||Missouri State Guard, Union cavalry.||Confederate 368, Union 88||USA|
|August 9||Cedar Mountain, Virginia||Confederate Left Wing, Army of Northern Virginia, Union Army of Virginia||Confederate 1,400, Union 2,500||CSA|
|August 11||Independence, Missouri||Missouri State Guard, Union garrison.||Missouri State Guard unknown, Union 344||CSA|
|August 15–16||Lone Jack, Missouri||Confederate and Union cavalry||Confederate unknown, Union 272||CSA|
|August 19||New Ulm, Minnesota||Dakotas, Union civilians||Dakotas unknown, civilians 59||USA|
|August 22||Big Hill, Kentucky||Cavalry from Confederate Department of East Tennessee and Union Army of the Ohio||Confederate 16, Union 270||CSA|
|August 20–22||Fort Ridgely, Minnesota||Mdewakanton Dakotas, Union garrison||Mdewakanton Dakotas unknown, Union 26||USA|
|August 23||New Ulm, Minnesota||Dakotas, Union civilians, militia||Dakotas unknown, Civilians, Minnesota militia 10 killed, 50 wounded||USA|
|August 23–25||Rappahannock Station, Virginia||Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, Union Army of Virginia||225 total||Inconclusive|
|August 26–27||Manassas Station, Virginia||Confederate Left Wing, Army of Northern Virginia, Union detachments from Army of Virginia and Army of the Potomac||Confederate 173, Union 1,144||CSA|
|August 28||Thoroughfare Gap, Virginia||Confederate Right Wing, Army of Northern Virginia, Union detachment, Army of Virginia||100 total||CSA|
|August 28– 30||Second Battle of Bull Run or Manassas, Virginia||Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, Union Army of Virginia (with units of Army of the Potomac attached)||Confederate 3,353, Union 13,826||CSA|
|August 30||Richmond, Kentucky||Confederate Department of East Tennessee, Union Army of the Ohio||Confederate 603, Union 5,600||CSA|
|August 30||Bolivar, Tennessee||Detachments from Confederate Army of the West and Union Army of the Mississippi||Confederate 100, Union 87||Inconclusive?|
|September 1||Chantilly, Virginia||Confederate Left Wing, Army of Northern Virginia, Union Army of Virginia and Army of the Potomac||Confederate 800, Union 1,300:||Inconclusive|
|September 1||Denmark, Mississippi||Detachments of Confederate Army of the West and Union Army of the Mississippi||Confederate 288, Union 88||USA|
|September 2– 3||Birch Coulee, Minnesota||Dakotas, Union Department of the Northwest||Dakotas unknown, Union 19||Dakota|
|September 3– 6||Fort Abercrombie, Minnesota||Dakotas, Yanktons, and Yanktonais, Union Company D, 5th Minnesota Infantry||Dakotas unknown, Union five||USA?|
|September 12– 15||Harper's Ferry, Virginia||Confederate Left Wing, Army of Northern Virginia, Union garrison||Confederate 286, Union 12,719 (including 12,500 captured)||CSA|
|September 14||Turner's and Crampton's Gap, South Mountain, Maryland||Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, Union Army of the Potomac||Confederate 2,300, Union 2,325||USA|
|September 14– 16||Munfordville, Kentucky||Confederate Army of Mississippi, Union garrison||Confederate 285, Union 4,148||CSA|
|September 17||Antietam, Maryland||Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, Union Army of the Potomac||Confederate 10,300, Union 12,400||•Tactical: Inconclusive |
|September 19– 20||Iuka, Mississippi||Confederate Army of the West, Union Army of the Mississippi||Confederate 594, Union 790||USA|
|September 20||Blackford's Ford, Sheppardstown, Virginia||Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, Union V Corps, Army of the Potomac||Confederate 291, Union 363||CSA|
|September 23||Wood Lake, Minnesota||Dakotas, Union Department of the Northwest||Dakotas 25, Union 41||USA|
|September 30||Newtonia, Missouri||Confederate and Union cavalry||Confederate 78, Union 245||CSA|
|October 1– 3||St. John's Bluff, Florida||Confederate Department of South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida, Union Department of the South||unknown||USA|
|October 3–4||Corinth, Mississippi||Confederate Army of West Tennessee, Union Army of the Mississippi.||Confederate 4,312, Union 2,520||USA|
|October 5||Hatchie's Bridge or Davis Bridge, Tennessee||Confederate Army of West Tennessee, Union Army of the Mississippi||Confederate 337, Union 570||USA|
|October 8||Perryville, Kentucky||Confederate Army of Mississippi, Union Army of the Ohio||Confederate 3,396, Union 4,211||•Strategic: USA|
|October 22||Old Fort Wayne, Indian Territory||Confederate cavalry, Union division Army of the Frontier||Confederate 60–100, Union 10||USA|
|October 31–November 2||Bloomfield and Union, Loudoun County, Virginia||Cavalry from Confederate Army of the Potomac and Union Army of the Potomac.||Confederate 18, Union 12||Inconclusive|
|November 2||Philomont, Virginia||Cavalry from Confederate Army of Northern Virginia and Union Army of the Potomac.||Confederate 13, Union 15||USA?|
|November 27||Yellville, Arkansas||Confederate garrison, Union cavalry Army of the Frontier||Confederate 60 (all prisoners), Union none||USA|
|November 28||Cane Hill, Arkansas||Confederate cavalry, Trans-Mississippi Department, Union 1st Division Army of the Frontier.||Confederate 80, Union 44||•Tactical: CSA|
|December 4||Reed's Mountain, Arkansas||Cavalry from Confederate I Corps, Trans-Mississippi Department and Union Army of the Frontier||unknown||•Tactical: USA |
|December 7||Prairie Grove, Arkansas||Confederate I Corps, Trans-Mississippi Department, Union Army of the Frontier.||Confederate 1,483, Union 1,251||USA|
|December 7||Hartsville, Tennessee||Confederate cavalry, Union detachment from Army of the Cumberland.||Confederate 139, Union 2,096||CSA|
|December 13||Fredericksburg, Virginia||Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, Union Army of the Potomac||Confederate 5,300, Union 12,600||CSA|
|December 14||Kinston, North Carolina||Confederate brigade, Union Department of North Carolina.||Confederate 525, Union 160||USA|
|December 16||White Hall, North Carolina||Confederate cavalry, Union Department of North Carolina||150 total||Inconclusive|
|December 17||Goldsboro Bridge, North Carolina||Confederate brigade, Union Department of North Carolina||220 total||USA|
|December 27-29||Chickasaw Bayou, Mississippi||Confederate Army of Vicksburg, Union XVII Corps||Confederate 187, Union 1,176||CSA|
|December 30||Parker's Cross Roads, Tennessee||Confederate Forrest's Cavalry Corps, Union infantry and artillery||Confederate 500, Union 237||CSA|
|December 31 – January 2||Murfreesboro' or Stone River, Tennessee||Confederate Army of Tennessee, Union Army of the Cumberland||Confederate 10,000, Union 13,000||USA|
Braxton Bragg was an American army officer during the Second Seminole War and Mexican–American War and Confederate army officer who served as a general in the Confederate Army during the American Civil War, serving in the Western Theater. His most important role was as commander of the Army of Mississippi, later renamed the Army of Tennessee, from June 1862 until December 1863.
Don Carlos Buell was a United States Army officer who fought in the Seminole War, the Mexican–American War, and the American Civil War. Buell led Union armies in two great Civil War battles—Shiloh and Perryville. The nation was angry at his failure to defeat the outnumbered Confederates after Perryville, or to secure East Tennessee. Historians generally concur that he was a brave and industrious master of logistics, but was too cautious and too rigid to meet the great challenges he faced in 1862. Buell was relieved of field command in late 1862 and made no more significant military contributions.
The Battle of Stones River, also known as the Second Battle of Murfreesboro, was a battle fought from December 31, 1862, to January 2, 1863, in Middle Tennessee, as the culmination of the Stones River Campaign in the Western Theater of the American Civil War. Of the major battles of the war, Stones River had the highest percentage of casualties on both sides. Although the battle itself was inconclusive, the Union Army's repulse of two Confederate attacks and the subsequent Confederate withdrawal were a much-needed boost to Union morale after the defeat at the Battle of Fredericksburg, and it dashed Confederate aspirations for control of Middle Tennessee.
William Starke Rosecrans was an American inventor, coal-oil company executive, diplomat, politician, and U.S. Army officer. He gained fame for his role as a Union general during the American Civil War. He was the victor at prominent Western Theater battles, but his military career was effectively ended following his disastrous defeat at the Battle of Chickamauga in 1863.
The Army of Tennessee was the principal Confederate army operating between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River during the American Civil War. It was formed in late 1862 and fought until the end of the war in 1865, participating in most of the significant battles in the Western Theater.
The following is a list of engagements that took place in 1861 during the American Civil War.
The Chickamauga campaign of the American Civil War was a series of battles fought in northwestern Georgia from August 21 to September 20, 1863, between the Union Army of the Cumberland and Confederate Army of Tennessee. The campaign started successfully for Union commander William S. Rosecrans, with the Union army occupying the vital city of Chattanooga and forcing the Confederates to retreat into northern Georgia. But a Confederate attack at the Battle of Chickamauga forced Rosecrans to retreat back into Chattanooga and allowed the Confederates to lay siege to the Union forces.
The second Battle of Corinth was fought October 3–4, 1862, in Corinth, Mississippi. For the second time in the Iuka-Corinth Campaign, Union Maj. Gen. William Rosecrans defeated a Confederate army, this time one under Maj. Gen. Earl Van Dorn.
The Battle of Iuka was fought on September 19, 1862, in Iuka, Mississippi, during the American Civil War. In the opening battle of the Iuka-Corinth Campaign, Union Maj. Gen. William Rosecrans stopped the advance of the Confederate Army of the West commanded by Maj. Gen. Sterling Price.
The siege of Corinth was an American Civil War engagement lasting from April 29 to May 30, 1862, in Corinth, Mississippi. A collection of Union forces under the overall command of Major General Henry Halleck engaged in a month-long siege of the city, whose Confederate occupants were commanded by General P.G.T. Beauregard. The siege resulted in the capture of the town by Federal forces.
The following engagements took place in the year 1863 during the American Civil War. During the year, Union forces captured the Confederate cities of Vicksburg and Port Hudson, giving them complete control over the Mississippi River, while forcing Confederates out of the North following the Battle of Gettysburg.
The Army of the West, also known as the Trans-Mississippi District, was a formation of the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War that was a part of the Army of Mississippi. It saw action in the Battle of Pea Ridge, Battle of Corinth, and Battle of Iuka and consisted of about 20,000 personnel.
The Western Theater of the American Civil War encompassed major military operations in the states of Alabama, Georgia, Florida, Mississippi, North Carolina, Kentucky, South Carolina and Tennessee, as well as Louisiana east of the Mississippi River. Operations on the coasts of these states, except for Mobile Bay, are considered part of the Lower Seaboard Theater. Most other operations east of the Appalachian Mountains are part of the Eastern Theater. Operations west of the Mississippi River took place in the Trans-Mississippi Theater.
The Eastern Theater of the American Civil War consisted of the major military and naval operations in the states of Virginia, West Virginia, Maryland, and Pennsylvania, the District of Columbia, and the coastal fortifications and seaports of North Carolina.
The Confederate Heartland Offensive, also known as the Kentucky Campaign, was an American Civil War campaign conducted by the Confederate States Army in Tennessee and Kentucky where Generals Braxton Bragg and Edmund Kirby Smith tried to draw neutral Kentucky into the Confederacy by outflanking Union troops under Major General Don Carlos Buell. Though they scored some successes, notably a tactical win at Perryville, they soon retreated, leaving Kentucky primarily under Union control for the rest of the war.
The Army of West Tennessee was a short-lived Confederate army led by Maj. Gen. Earl Van Dorn, which fought principally in the Second Battle of Corinth.
The 4th Missouri Infantry Regiment was formed on April 28, 1862, and served in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. The infantry regiment did not see action at the Battle of Farmington on May 9, and the Battle of Iuka on September 19 despite being part of the Confederate force present at those battles. As part of Brigadier General Martin E. Green's brigade, the regiment participated in three charges against Union lines on October 3, 1862, during the Second Battle of Corinth. The following day, the regiment, along with the rest of Green's brigade, attacked the new Union lines. Despite initial success, the attack was repulsed by a Union counterattack. The regiment ceased to exist as a separate unit when it was combined with the 1st Missouri Infantry Regiment on November 7, 1862, to form the 1st and 4th Missouri Infantry Regiment (Consolidated).
The 3rd Missouri Infantry Regiment served in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. The infantry regiment was officially mustered into service on January 17, 1862. It fought at the Battle of Pea Ridge in Arkansas in March before being transferred across the Mississippi River. While stationed at Corinth, Mississippi, the regiment played a minor role in the Battle of Farmington before the evacuation of the town. In September, the unit saw light action at the Battle of Iuka before being heavily engaged during the Second Battle of Corinth as the Confederates attempted to retake the town in October. In early 1863, the regiment was transferred to Grand Gulf, Mississippi, in order to strengthen the defenses of the Mississippi River at that point. At the Battle of Grand Gulf on April 29, the unit helped repulse a Union Navy attack against the Confederate defensive works. After elements of the Union Army of the Tennessee landed below Grand Gulf, the regiment fought in a delaying action at the Battle of Port Gibson on May 1.
Hiram Bledsoe's Missouri Battery was an artillery battery that served in the Missouri State Guard and the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. The battery was formed when the Missouri State Guard was formed as a pro-secession state militia unit in response to the Camp Jackson affair. As part of the Missouri State Guard, the unit was engaged in the Engagement near Carthage and the Battle of Wilson's Creek during mid-1861, before fighting at the Battle of Dry Wood Creek and the Siege of Lexington later that year when Major General Sterling Price led the Guard northwards towards the Missouri River. After the Missouri State Guard retreated into Arkansas in early 1862, Bledsoe's Battery served during the Confederate defeat at the Battle of Pea Ridge in March. The battery, as part of the Army of the West, transferred across the Mississippi River into Tennessee in April, where it left the Guard to enter Confederate service on April 21.
Barrett's Missouri Battery was an artillery battery that served in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. After entering Confederate service on April 1, 1862, the unit was armed with two 6-pounder smoothboore cannons and two 12-pounder howitzers and was commanded by Captain Overton W. Barrett. It was present during the Siege of Corinth, but saw no action. During the Battle of Perryville in October 1862, Barrett's battery provided artillery support for a Confederate brigade. After spending the next several months moving around Tennessee, the battery supported a Confederate attack during the Battle of Stones River in December. The 1863 Chickamauga campaign brought light action for the unit, which also fought in the Battle of Missionary Ridge. When the Confederates retreated after the Missionary Ridge fighting, Barrett's battery was part of the Confederate rear guard at the Battle of Ringgold Gap, earning the praise of Patrick R. Cleburne. Rearmed with four 12-pounder howitzers, the unit was action in the 1864 Atlanta campaign as part of the Confederate reserve artillery, although two of the cannons were lost to attrition. On April 16, 1865, the battery ceased to exist when its flag, cannons, and most of its members were captured during the Battle of Columbus, Georgia. As of January 2021, its battle flag is part of the collection of the Missouri State Museum.