|Type||Privately held company|
|Founded||Marseille, France (1999 )|
|Fate||Acquired by Hoffmann-La Roche|
Trophos was a biopharmaceutical company specialising in the discovery and development of novel therapeutics to treat both orphan neurodegenerative diseases and more prevalent disorders.[ citation needed ]
Trophos was founded in 1999 in Marseille by three scientists: Christopher Henderson, Olivier Pourquie and Jean-Louis Kraus, and two entrepreneurs: Antoine Beret and Michel Delaage. Trophos' lead compound was olesoxime (TRO19622),a mitochondrial targeted compound developed ot treat neurodegenerative diseases.
In January 2015, Hoffmann-La Roche announced its intention to buy Trophos for € 120,000,000 upfront and up to € 350,000,000 in milestone performance payments. The deal was completed shortly afterwards.
Antisense therapy is a form of treatment that uses antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) to target messenger RNA (mRNA). ASOs are capable of altering mRNA expression through a variety of mechanisms, including ribonuclease H mediated decay of the pre-mRNA, direct steric blockage, and exon content modulation through splicing site binding on pre-mRNA. Several ASOs have been approved in the United States, the European Union, and elsewhere.
Oxybutynin, sold as under the brand names Ditropan among others, is a medication used to treat overactive bladder. It works similar to tolterodine, Darifenacin, and Solifenacin. While used for bed wetting in children, evidence to support this use is poor. It is taken by mouth or applied to the skin.
Naphthylaminopropane (PAL-287) is an experimental drug under investigation as of 2007 for the treatment of alcohol and stimulant addiction.
Xaliproden is a drug which acts as a 5HT1A agonist. It has neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects in vitro, and has been proposed for use in the treatment of several neurodegenerative conditions including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Alzheimer's disease.
Solute carrier family 22 member 8, or organic anion transporter 3 (OAT3), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC22A8 gene.
LY-503430 is an AMPA receptor positive allosteric modulator developed by Eli Lilly.
Difluoropine (O-620) is a stimulant drug synthesised from tropinone, which acts as a potent and selective dopamine reuptake inhibitor. Difluoropine is unique among the tropane-derived dopamine reuptake inhibitors in that the active stereoisomer is the (S) enantiomer rather than the (R) enantiomer, the opposite way round compared to natural cocaine. It is structurally related to benztropine and has similar anticholinergic and antihistamine effects in addition to its dopamine reuptake inhibitory action.
GSK-189,254 is a potent and selective H3 histamine receptor inverse agonist developed by GlaxoSmithKline. It has subnanomolar affinity for the H3 receptor (Ki = 0.2nM) and selectivity of over 10,000x for H3 over other histamine receptor subtypes. Animal studies have shown it to possess not only stimulant and nootropic effects, but also analgesic action suggesting a role for H3 receptors in pain processing in the spinal cord. GSK-189,254 and several other related drugs are currently being investigated as a treatment for Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia, as well as possible use in the treatment of conditions such as narcolepsy, or neuropathic pain which do not respond well to conventional analgesic drugs.
SB-612,111 is an opioid receptor ligand which is a potent and selective antagonist for the nociceptin receptor (ORL-1), several times more potent than the older drug J-113,397. It does not have analgesic effects in its own right, but prevents the development of hyperalgesia, and also shows antidepressant effects in animal studies.
4-Methylamphetamine is a stimulant and anorectic drug of the phenethylamine and amphetamine chemical classes.
LY-487,379 is a drug used in scientific research that acts as a selective positive allosteric modulator for the metabotropic glutamate receptor group II subtype mGluR2. It is used to study the structure and function of this receptor subtype, and LY-487,379 along with various other mGluR2/3 agonists and positive modulators are being investigated as possible antipsychotic and anxiolytic drugs.
The alpha-3 beta-4 nicotinic receptor, also known as the α3β4 receptor and the ganglion-type nicotinic receptor, is a type of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, consisting of α3 and β4 subunits. It is located in the autonomic ganglia and adrenal medulla, where activation yields post- and/or presynaptic excitation, mainly by increased Na+ and K+ permeability.
WAY-317538 (SEN-12333) is a drug that acts as a potent and selective full agonist for the α7 subtype of neural nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. It was not the most potent compound in the series, but was selected for further development on the basis of its high selectivity over related receptors, ease of synthesis, and good in vivo properties including high oral bioavailability and good brain penetration. It has nootropic and neuroprotective effects in animal studies, and is being investigated as a potential treatment for neurodegenerative and neurocognitive conditions including Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia.
Gabapentin enacarbil is an anticonvulsant and analgesic drug of the gabapentinoid class, and a prodrug to gabapentin. It was designed for increased oral bioavailability over gabapentin, and human trials showed it to produce extended release of gabapentin with almost twice the overall bioavailability, especially when taken with a fatty meal. Gabapentin enacarbil has passed human clinical trials for the treatment of restless legs syndrome, and initial results have shown it to be well tolerated and reasonably effective.
Olesoxime (TRO19622) is an experimental drug formerly under development by the now-defunct French company Trophos as a treatment for a range of neuromuscular disorders. It has a cholesterol-like structure and belongs to the cholesterol-oxime family of mitochondrial pore modulators.
3,4-Dichloroamphetamine (DCA), is an amphetamine derived drug invented by Eli Lilly in the 1960s, which has a number of pharmacological actions. It acts as a highly potent and selective serotonin releasing agent (SSRA) and binds to the serotonin transporter with high affinity, but also acts as a selective serotonergic neurotoxin in a similar manner to the related para-chloroamphetamine, though with slightly lower potency. It is also a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI), as well as a very potent inhibitor of the enzyme phenylethanolamine N-methyl transferase which normally functions to transform noradrenaline into adrenaline in the body.
Clorotepine, also known as octoclothepin or octoclothepine, is an antipsychotic of the tricyclic group which was derived from perathiepin in 1965 and marketed in the Czech Republic by Spofa in or around 1971 for the treatment of schizophrenic psychosis.
Acetothiolutamide is a selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM) derived from the nonsteroidal antiandrogen bicalutamide that was described in 2002 and was one of the first SARMs to be discovered and developed. It is a high-affinity, selective ligand of the androgen receptor (AR), where it acts as a full agonist in vitro, and has in vitro potency comparable to that of testosterone. However, in vivo, acetothiolutamide displayed overall negligible androgenic effects, though significant anabolic effects were observed at high doses. In addition, notable antiandrogen effects were observed in castrated male rats treated with testosterone propionate. The discrepancy between the in vitro and in vivo actions of acetothiolutamide was determined to be related to rapid plasma clearance and extensive hepatic metabolism into a variety of metabolites with differing pharmacological activity, including AR partial agonism and antagonism. In accordance with its poor metabolic stability, acetothiolutamide is not orally bioavailable, and shows activity only via injected routes such as subcutaneous and intravenous.
Burapitant (SSR-240,600) is a drug developed by Sanofi-Aventis which was one of the first compounds developed that acts as a potent and selective antagonist for the NK1 receptor. While burapitant itself did not proceed beyond early clinical trials and was never developed for clinical use in humans, promising animal results from this and related compounds have led to a number of novel drugs from this class that have now been introduced into medical use.
SR-16435 is a drug which acts as a potent partial agonist at both the μ-opioid receptor and nociceptin receptor. In animal studies it was found to be a potent analgesic, with results suggestive of reduced development of tolerance and increased activity against neuropathic pain compared to classic μ-selective agonists.