|• President||Salva Kiir Mayardit|
|Elevation||550 m (1,800 ft)|
| • Estimate |
|Time zone||UTC+3 (East Africa Time Zone)|
Wau Shilluk is a village of 50,000 located in the Upper Nile state of South Sudan. Many who reside in Wau Shilluk are IDPs in need of refuge due to the recent civil war which has ravaged much of the land. Living conditions in the town are grim. Many of the residents live in small tents constructed from tarps. During the rainy season they live knee deep in water leading to contamination and recently a cholera outbreak. Along with the problems of flooding and poor housing, the populace also faces the threat of severe malnutrition. Farmers displaced by the civil war have been unable to planet crops leading to a food shortage in the country.Many of the people now rely on food distributed by UNICEF and the United Nations, however it does not seem to be enough and Shilukians explain they are unable to feed their entire family. Food imported by these groups is often looted by soldiers and rebels before it is able to make it to the civilians. It's estimated nearly 50,000 South Sudanese children will be lost this year unless food is properly distributed throughout the land. Many humanitarian groups are calling for more food and supplies in order to aid the situation. Unfortunately more aid will not be given until an official famine declaration is made. In 2015 several school children were kidnapped by forces loyal to Johnson Olony with the intention of their being forced to serve in the armed forces.
Upper Nile was one of the ten states of South Sudan. The only governor of Upper Nile since the independence of South Sudan was Simon Kun Puoch The White Nile flowed through the state, giving it its name. The state also shared a similar name with the region of Greater Upper Nile, of which it was part along with the states of Unity and Jonglei. It had an area of 77,823 square kilometres (30,048 sq mi). Malakal was the capital of the state. The town of Kodok, the location of the Fashoda Incident that ended the "Scramble for Africa", was located in the state. Upper Nile seceded from Sudan as part of the Republic of South Sudan on 9 July 2011.
South Sudan, officially known as the Republic of South Sudan, is a landlocked country in East-Central Africa. The country gained its independence from the Republic of the Sudan in 2011, making it the newest country with widespread recognition. Its capital and largest city is Juba.
An internally displaced person (IDP) is someone who is forced to flee his or her home but who remains within his or her country's borders. They are often referred to as refugees, although they do not fall within the legal definitions of a refugee.
South Sudan declared their independence from Sudan in 2011 with hopes of peace and independence. However, the past three years have been filled with internal fighting and increased poverty. Fighting has removed thousands of people from their homes. Many of these refugees are now residing in Wau Shilluk; which was not ready for the sudden influx. Due to inadequate sewage and drainage systems, the recent rainy season has flooded the fresh water reserves with waste; prompting a cholera outbreak. Cholera is an infection of the intestine which gives the afflicted diarrhea. If not treated, cholera can be fatal within hours. During July 2014 Medecins Sans Frontieres teams in Upper Nile state treated 904 patients for cholera.As of August 10, 2014 there were 894 cases reported with 17 deaths In Wau Shilluk South Sudan due to cholera, today the Mott is providing health care with support from IMA world health through the Rapid result fund.
Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. Symptoms may range from none, to mild, to severe. The classic symptom is large amounts of watery diarrhea that lasts a few days. Vomiting and muscle cramps may also occur. Diarrhea can be so severe that it leads within hours to severe dehydration and electrolyte imbalance. This may result in sunken eyes, cold skin, decreased skin elasticity, and wrinkling of the hands and feet. Dehydration can cause the skin to turn bluish. Symptoms start two hours to five days after exposure.
The Wau Shilluk inhabit Southern Sudan with a population of about 500,000, majority of them have converted over to Christianity, while little follow traditional religion, and even small numbers have converting to Islam.
Christianity is an Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth, as described in the New Testament. Its adherents, known as Christians, believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God and savior of all people, whose coming as the Messiah was prophesied in the Old Testament.
Islam is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that there is only one God, and that Muhammad is the messenger of God. It is the world's second-largest religion with over 1.8 billion followers or 24% of the world's population, most commonly known as Muslims. Muslims make up a majority of the population in 50 countries. Islam teaches that God is merciful, all-powerful, and unique, and has guided humankind through prophets, revealed scriptures and natural signs. The primary scriptures of Islam are the Quran, viewed by Muslims as the verbatim word of God, and the teachings and normative examples of Muhammad.
The Shilluk language is uniformly spoken throughout all half million of these people. The country is broken up into north (Gar) and south (Iwak); within the north and south there are around 100 different ethnic clans or groups.
Shilluk is a Luo language spoken by the Shilluk people of South Sudan and Sudan. It is closely related to other Luo and Nilotic peoples' languages. The term Shilluk is a pronunciation of Arabic origin.
Agriculture is a way of life for these people where main crops consist of harvesting and consuming beans, simsim, maize, and sorghum. The Shilluk have thrived on fishing in the Nile River and surrounding tributaries fueling their diet of eating seafood.
Sesame is a flowering plant in the genus Sesamum, also called benne. Numerous wild relatives occur in Africa and a smaller number in India. It is widely naturalized in tropical regions around the world and is cultivated for its edible seeds, which grow in pods or "buns". World production in 2016 was 6.1 million tonnes, with Tanzania, Myanmar, India, and Sudan as the largest producers.
Maize, also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago. The leafy stalk of the plant produces pollen inflorescences and separate ovuliferous inflorescences called ears that yield kernels or seeds, which are fruits.
Sorghum is a genus of flowering plants in the grass family Poaceae. Seventeen of the 25 species are native to Australia, with the range of some extending to Africa, Asia, Mesoamerica, and certain islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. One species is grown for grain, while many others are used as fodder plants, either cultivated in warm climates worldwide or naturalized, in pasture lands. Sorghum is in the subfamily Panicoideae and the tribe Andropogoneae.
Culture, morals are passed on orally from generation to generation, which is why majority of traditions have been lost. One tradition not lost is marriage, which is the main goal in the lifetime of the Shilluk. It is an old fashion approach where word of mouth slowly reaches the ears of those dominant in the family. The finalization of the marriage entails a price of 10 cows or 30 sheep and goats to the family of the bride.
The Dinka people are a Nilotic ethnic group native to South Sudan, but also having a sizable diaspora population. They mostly live along the Nile, from Mangalla to Renk, in regions of Bahr el Ghazal, Upper Nile and Abyei Area of the Ngok Dinka in South Sudan.
The Shilluk are a major Luo Nilotic ethnic group of Southern Sudan, living on both banks of the river Nile, in the vicinity of the city of Malakal. Before the Second Sudanese Civil War the Shilluk also lived in a number of settlements on the northern bank of the Sobat River, close to where the Sobat joins the Nile.
Famine scales are the ways in which degrees of food security are measured, from situations in which an entire population has adequate food to full-scale famine. The word "famine" has highly emotive and political connotations and there has been extensive discussion among international relief agencies offering food aid as to its exact definition. For example, in 1998, although a full-scale famine had developed in southern Sudan, a disproportionate amount of donor food resources went to the Kosovo War. This ambiguity about whether or not a famine is occurring, and the lack of commonly agreed upon criteria by which to differentiate food insecurity has prompted renewed interest in offering precise definitions. As different levels of food insecurity demand different types of response, there have been various methods of famine measurement proposed to help agencies determine the appropriate response.
The famine in Sudan in 1998 was a humanitarian disaster caused mainly by human rights abuses, as well as drought and the failure of the international community to react to the famine risk with adequate speed. The worst affected area was Bahr el Ghazal in southwestern Sudan. In this region over 70,000 people died during the famine.
Doleib Hill was a mission station established by the American Inland Mission in southern Sudan, located approximately 10 miles (16 km) south of the city of Malakal, on the northern bank of the Sobat River, then in the former Upper Nile province of Sudan, the present day Upper Nile state of South Sudan.
On 3 July 2007, flash floods started to devastate many parts of Sudan, including some areas in Darfur and Southern Sudan.
A large-scale, drought-induced famine occurred in Africa's Sahel region and many parts of the neighboring Sénégal River Area from February to August 2010. It is one of many famines to have hit the region in recent times.
The Shilluk Kingdom was located along the banks of the White Nile river in modern South Sudan. Its capital and royal residence was in the town of Fashoda. According to their folk history and neighboring accounts, the kingdom was founded during the mid-fifteenth century CE by its first ruler, the demigod Nyikang. During the nineteenth century, the Shilluk were affected by military assaults from the Ottoman Empire and later British colonization in Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. The Shilluk king is currently not an independent political leader, but a traditional chieftain within the governments of South Sudan and Sudan. The current Shilluk king is His Majesty Reth Kwongo Dak Padiet who ascended to the throne in 1993.
The 2010 Nigerien floods were floods across Niger which left over 111,000 people homeless. Niger was already suffering acute food shortages following prolonged drought in the Sahel region. As of 24 August 2010, at least 6 to 8 people had died. The Niger river was pushed to its highest levels in 80 years. The floods subsequently spread along the River Niger into Nigeria, Ghana, Burkina Faso, Togo and Benin over the next few months. Later storms also brewed up in the CAR, Morocco and northern Algeria.
By January 2011 the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) estimated that there are 262,900 Sudanese refugees in Chad. The majority of them left Sudan escaping from the violence of the ongoing Darfur crisis, which began in 2003. UNHCR has given the Sudanese refugees shelter in 12 different camps situated along the Chadian-Sudanese border. The most pressing issues UNHCR has to deal with in the refugee camps in Chad are related to insecurity in the camps,, malnutrition, access to water, HIV and AIDS, and education.
South Sudan is home to around 60 indigenous ethnic groups and 80 linguistic partitions among a 2016 population of around 12 million. Historically, most ethnic groups were lacking in formal Western political institutions, with land held by the community and elders acting as problem solvers and adjudicators. Today, most ethnic groups still embrace a cattle culture in which livestock is the main measure of wealth and used for bride wealth.
The history of South Sudan comprises the history of the territory of present-day South Sudan and the peoples inhabiting the region.
Between July 2011 and mid-2012, a severe drought affected the entire East Africa region. Said to be "the worst in 60 years", the drought caused a severe food crisis across Somalia, Djibouti, Ethiopia and Kenya that threatened the livelihood of 9.5 million people. Many refugees from southern Somalia fled to neighboring Kenya and Ethiopia, where crowded, unsanitary conditions together with severe malnutrition led to a large number of deaths. Other countries in East Africa, including Sudan, South Sudan and parts of Uganda, were also affected by a food crisis.
Melut County is an administrative area in the Eastern Nile state.
Ethnic violence in South Sudan has a long history among South Sudan's varied ethnic groups. South Sudan has 64 tribes with the largest being the Dinkas, who constitute about 35% of the population and predominate in government. The second largest are the Nuers. Conflict is often aggravated among nomadic groups over the issue of cattle and grazing land and is part of the wider Sudanese nomadic conflicts.
Greater Maban is a county located in the Upper Nile State of South Sudan. The county capital is the town of Bunj. In 2017, the South Sudan government divided the county into two: North East and South West.
Since 2016, a famine has been ongoing in Yemen which started during the Yemeni Civil War. Over 17 million of Yemen's population are at risk; over 3.3 million children and pregnant or lactating women suffer from acute malnutrition. Over 100,000 of the affected children are in Al Hudaydah Governorate, with the city of Al Hudaydah worst affected area of the province. According to the Norwegian Refugee Council, the famine in Yemen will soon reach "biblical proportions". The famine is being compounded by an outbreak of cholera, which is resulting in 5,000 new cases daily. Devastation of Yemeni infrastructure, health, water and sanitation systems and facilities by Saudi-led coalition air strikes led to the spread of cholera. UNICEF says that Saudi-led coalition airstrikes are deliberately targeting water systems in Yemen.
In the early months of 2017, parts of South Sudan experienced a famine following several years of instability in the country's food supply caused by war and drought. The famine, largely focused in the northern part of the country, affected an estimated five million people. In May 2017, the famine was officially undeclared but international humanitarian agencies warned of continued severe food insecurity.
As of February 2017 a drought ravages Somalia that has left more than 6 million people, or half the country's population, facing food shortages with several water supplies becoming undrinkable due to the possibility of infection.
The Tiger Faction New Forces was a Shilluk militia that took part in the South Sudanese Civil War with the aim of reversing the division of South Sudan into 28 states in order to restore the territory of the Shilluk Kingdom per its 1956 borders. Led by Yoanis Okiech, the TFNF originally split from the Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA) in late October 2015 and subsequently started an insurgency against the SPLM government. In course of 2016, however, it also came into conflict with SPLM-IO rebels, leading to inter-rebel fighting which resulted in Okiech's death and the group's destruction in January 2017.