Last updated
Z cars title.jpg
Created by Troy Kennedy Martin
Allan Prior
Starring James Ellis
Brian Blessed
Stratford Johns
Frank Windsor
Jeremy Kemp
Joseph Brady
Colin Welland
Country of originUnited Kingdom
Original language(s)English
No. of series12
No. of episodes801
Running time25 minutes & 45 minutes
Original network BBC1
Original release2 January 1962 
20 September 1978
Related shows Softly, Softly
Softly, Softly: Taskforce
Barlow at Large / Barlow
Jack the Ripper
Second Verdict

Z-Cars or Z Cars /ˈzɛdˌkɑːrz/ is a British television drama series centred on the work of mobile uniformed police in the fictional town of Newtown, based on Kirkby, Lancashire. Produced by the BBC, it debuted in January 1962 and ran until September 1978.

Kirkby town in the Metropolitan Borough of Knowsley, Merseyside, England

Kirkby is a town in the Metropolitan Borough of Knowsley, Merseyside, England. Historically in Lancashire, it developed from the 1950s to the 1970s as a housing overspill of Liverpool. It is roughly 5 miles (8 km) north of Huyton and 6 miles (10 km) north-east of Liverpool. The population in 2011 was 40,472. It is believed to have been founded in 870 although there is archaeological evidence for settlement from the Bronze Age.

Lancashire County of England

Lancashire is a ceremonial county in North West England. The administrative centre is Preston. The county has a population of 1,449,300 and an area of 1,189 square miles (3,080 km2). People from Lancashire are known as Lancastrians.

The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster. Its headquarters are at Broadcasting House in Westminster, London, and it is the world's oldest national broadcasting organisation and the largest broadcaster in the world by number of employees. It employs over 22,000 staff in total, more than 16,000 of whom are in public sector broadcasting. The total number of staff is 35,402 when part-time, flexible, and fixed-contract staff are included.


The series differed sharply from earlier police procedurals. With its less-usual Northern setting, it injected a new element of harsh realism into the image of the police, which some found unwelcome.

Northern England Place in England

Northern England, also known as the North of England or simply the North, is the northern part of England, considered as a single cultural area. It extends from the Scottish border in the north to near the River Trent in the south, although precise definitions of its southern extent vary. Northern England approximately comprises three statistical regions: the North East, North West and Yorkshire and the Humber. These have a combined population of around 14.9 million as of the 2011 Census and an area of 37,331 km2. Northern England contains much of England's national parkland but also has large areas of urbanisation, including the conurbations of Greater Manchester, Merseyside, Teesside, Tyneside, Wearside, and South and West Yorkshire.

Z-Cars ran for 801 episodes, of which fewer than half have survived. Regular stars included: Stratford Johns (Detective Inspector Barlow), Frank Windsor (Det. Sgt Watt), James Ellis (Bert Lynch) and Brian Blessed ("Fancy" Smith). Barlow and Watt were later spun into a separate series Softly, Softly .

Alan Edgar Stratford Johns, known as Stratford Johns, was a South African-born British stage, film and television actor who is best remembered for his starring role as Detective Inspector Charlie Barlow in the innovative and long-running BBC police series Z-Cars.

Frank Windsor is a British actor, mainly on television.

James Ellis was an actor from Northern Ireland, and a theatre director, with a career stretching over sixty years.

Origin of the title

The title comes from the radio call signs allocated by Lancashire Constabulary. Lancashire police divisions were lettered from north to the south: "A" Division (based in Ulverston) was the detached part of Lancashire at the time around Barrow-in-Furness, "B" Division was Lancaster, and so on. Letters further into the alphabet were in the south around the Manchester and Liverpool areas. [1] (See also the Wikipedia page about Home Office radio.) The TV series took the non-existent signs Z-Victor 1 and Z-Victor 2. The title does not, as sometimes suggested, come from the cars used, Ford Zephyr and Ford Zodiac. The Zephyr was the standard traffic patrol car used by Lancashire and other police forces, while the Zodiac was only used for specialist tasks such as traffic duty. Also, the term "Z-car" was used in the 1960s through the 1970s by British newspaper companies to refer to any type of police car (hence the programme's title).

Lancashire Constabulary

Lancashire Constabulary is the territorial police force responsible for policing the ceremonial county of Lancashire in North West England. The force's headquarters are at Hutton, near the city of Preston. As of October 2018 the force had just under 3,000 officers as well as 2,000 Police Staff - of which 272 are police community support officers.

Ulverston town in England, in region North West England, in the county of Cumbria

Ulverston is a market town in the South Lakeland district of Cumbria, North West England. Historically in Lancashire, it is in the Furness area eight miles (13 km) north-east of Barrow-in-Furness, four miles (7 km) south of the Lake District and just north-west of Morecambe Bay. Neighbouring places include Swarthmoor, Pennington and Rosside. The most visible landmark is the limestone Hoad Monument built in 1850 to commemorate statesman and local resident Sir John Barrow. It provides views of the surrounding area, including Morecambe Bay and parts of the Lake District. Ulverston Canal, no longer navigable, was once vital to the town's economy and is still marked with an art installation.

Barrow-in-Furness town and seaport in the county of Cumbria, England

Barrow-in-Furness is a town and borough in Cumbria, North-West England. Historically part of Lancashire, it was incorporated as a municipal borough in 1867 and merged with Dalton-in-Furness Urban District in 1974 to form the Borough of Barrow-in-Furness. At the tip of the Furness peninsula, close to the Lake District, it is bordered by Morecambe Bay, the Duddon Estuary and the Irish Sea. In 2011, Barrow's population was 57,000, making it the second largest urban area in Cumbria after Carlisle, although it is geographically closer to the whole of Lancashire and most of Merseyside. Natives of Barrow, as well as the local dialect, are known as Barrovian.

Concept and principal characters

Z Cars as an idea came to creator Troy Kennedy Martin as he listened to police messages on his radio while trying to relieve the boredom of being ill in bed with mumps. [2] It was set in the fictional Newtown, loosely based on the modern suburb of Kirkby, one of many housing estates that had sprung up across Britain in the post-war years, and its ageing neighbour "Seaport". [3]

Troy Kennedy Martin was a Scottish-born film and television screenwriter best known for creating the long-running BBC TV police series Z-Cars (1962–1978), and for the award-winning 1985 anti-nuclear drama Edge of Darkness. His best-known work for the cinema was the screenplay for the original version of The Italian Job (1969).

Mumps Human disease caused by paramyxovirus

Mumps is a viral disease caused by the mumps virus. Initial signs and symptoms often include fever, muscle pain, headache, poor appetite, and feeling generally unwell. This is then usually followed by painful swelling of one or both parotid salivary glands. Symptoms typically occur 16 to 18 days after exposure and resolve after 7 to 10 days. Symptoms are often more severe in adults than in children. About a third of people have mild or no symptoms. Complications may include meningitis (15%), pancreatitis (4%), inflammation of the heart, permanent deafness, and testicular inflammation, which uncommonly results in infertility. Women may develop ovarian swelling, but this does not increase the risk of infertility.

The stories revolve around pairs of officers patrolling that week. Riding on changing social attitudes and television, the social realism, with interesting stories, garnered popularity for Z Cars. It was initially somewhat unpopular with real-life police, who disliked the sometimes unsympathetic characterisation of officers. Being set in the North of England helped give Z Cars a regional flavour when most BBC dramas were set in the south. It directly challenged the BBC's established police drama Dixon of Dock Green , which at that point had been running for seven years but which some considered 'cosy'. [4]

<i>Dixon of Dock Green</i> BBC television series

Dixon of Dock Green was a BBC television series about daily life at a fictional London police station, with the emphasis on petty crime, successfully controlled through common sense and human understanding. The central character was a mature and sympathetic police constable, George Dixon, played by Jack Warner in all of the 432 episodes, from 1955 to 1976.

The one character present throughout the entire run (though not in every episode) was Bert Lynch, played by James Ellis (though John Phillips as Det. Chief Supt. Robins would reappear sporadically during the show's run – by the end of the series he had become Chief Constable). Other characters in the early days were Stratford Johns (Inspector Barlow), Frank Windsor (Det. Sgt Watt), Robert Keegan (Sgt Blackitt), Joseph Brady (PC "Jock" Weir) and Brian Blessed ("Fancy" Smith). Also in 1960s episodes as David Graham was Colin Welland, later a screenwriter. Other British actors who played regular roles in the early years included Joss Ackland. Although he played no regular role in the series, future Monkee Davy Jones appeared in three episodes.[ vague ] John Thaw, later known for his roles in The Sweeney and Inspector Morse , appeared in four episodes in 1963 as a detective constable who had to leave the force because he had a "glass head" – he couldn't drink alcohol when socialising and mixing with the criminal fraternity, very much part of a detective's job.


Z-Cars ran for 801 episodes.

The original run ended in 1965; Barlow, Watt and Blackitt were spun off into a new series Softly, Softly . When the BBC was looking for a twice-weekly show to replace a series of failed 'soaps' (one example being United! ), Z Cars was revived. The revival was produced by the BBC's serials department in a twice-weekly soap opera format of 25-minute episodes and only James Ellis and Joseph Brady remained from the original show's run. It was shown from March 1967, both 25-minute segments each week comprising one story.

It ran like this until the episode "Kid's Stuff" (broadcast on 30 March 1971), shown as a single 50-minute episode for the week, proved the longer format would still work. Thereafter, Z Cars was shown in alternating spells of either 2 × 25 minutes episodes or the single 50-minute episode each week over the next sixteen months. This arrangement ended with the showing of the final 2-parter, "Breakage" (Series 6, parts 74 and 75, on 21 and 22 August 1972 respectively), after which the series returned permanently to a regular pattern of one 50-minute episode per week. [5]

Theme music

The Z-Cars theme tune was arranged by Fritz Spiegl [6] and his then-wife, composer Bridget Fry, from the traditional Liverpool folk song "Johnny Todd". [6] It was released on record in several versions in 1962. Johnny Keating's version (Piccadilly Records, 7N.35032) sold the best, reaching No. 8 on the Record Retailer chart and as high as No. 5 on some UK charts, whilst the Norrie Paramor Orchestra's version, on Columbia DB 4789, peaked at No. 33. A vocal version of the theme, using the original ballad's words, was released by cast member James Ellis on Philips Records; this missed the charts. [7]

The song in Spiegl and Fry's arrangement is used as an anthem by English football clubs Everton and Watford, playing as the teams enter the pitch for their home games, at Goodison Park and Vicarage Road respectively. [8] [9]

After Z-Cars

Softly, Softly , a spin-off, focused on the regional crime squad, and ran until 1969, when it was again revised and became Softly, Softly: Taskforce , running until 1976. The character of Barlow (Stratford Johns) was one of the best-known figures in British television in the 1960s and 1970s. He was given several seasons of his own solo series, Barlow at Large (later Barlow ) which ran from 1971 to 1975. Barlow joined Watt (Frank Windsor) for the 1973 serial Jack the Ripper . The serial's success led to a further spin-off entitled Second Verdict in which Barlow and Watt looked into unsolved cases and unsafe convictions.

Windsor made a final appearance as Watt in the last episode of Z-Cars, "Pressure", in September 1978, with Robins (John Phillips), the detective chief superintendent from the original series who had risen to chief constable. Jeremy Kemp, Brian Blessed, Joseph Brady and Colin Welland also appeared, though not as their original characters.

Lost episodes

Like many series of its era, Z-Cars is incomplete in the archives. The period 1962–65 is reasonably well represented; though with big gaps. With the 1967–71 sixth series, when the programme was shown almost every week, material becomes more patchy. Of the 416 episodes made for this series, only 108 survive: a few episodes each from 1967, 1969, and 1970, but there are no surviving episodes from 1968 or 1971. About 40% of the approximately eight hundred total episodes are preserved. [10]

The original series was one of the last British television dramas to be screened as a live production. With videotaping becoming the norm and telerecording a mature method of preserving broadcasts the practice of live broadcasting drama productions was rare by the time the programme began in 1962. Going out "live" was a preference of the series' producer David Rose, who felt it helped immediacy and pace and gave it an edge. As a result, episodes were still not being pre-recorded as late as 1965. Most were videotaped for a potential repeat, although the tapes – costed as part of a programme's budget – were normally wiped for re-use. A live or videotaped programme transferred to film greatly enhanced its chances of surviving. [11] [ circular reference ]

In the 1980s, the telerecording of the pilot episode "Four of a Kind" was returned to its writer Allan Prior by an engineer. He had taken it home to preserve it because his children had enjoyed the programme and as a result he could not bring himself to destroy it. This and two other early editions were released on a BBC Video in 1993. [12]

Two episodes were returned in 2004 after turning up in a private collection, along with occasional returns of individual early episodes in more recent years. When Z-Cars returned in 1967 in its 30-minute, twice-weekly format, it was on nearly every week of the year, which may account for its poor survival rate over this period. The 2 × 30-minute format gradually interchanged with the returning 50-minute format and when the 50-minute format fell into regular use by the series, this coincided with an increase in its survival rate.

All episodes from the 1975–1978 period are preserved in the archives. BBC Archive Treasure Hunt was a drive to seek out missing episodes and is still open to information regarding missing editions of lost BBC television programmes. British vintage television enthusiasts Kaleidoscope are also interested in the recovery of lost television shows, regardless of their original maker or broadcaster.


In a 2000 poll to find the 100 Greatest British Television Programmes of the 20th century conducted by the British Film Institute, Z-Cars was voted 63rd. [13] It was also included in television critic Alison Graham's alphabetical list of 40 "all-time great" TV shows published in Radio Times in August 2003. [14]


Main cast

(1962–1965 and 1967–1978: 12 series, 801 episodes)

CharacterPortrayed ByYears ActiveSeries ActiveEpisode Count
DCI Charlie Barlow Stratford Johns 1962–19651–6126
DS John Watt Frank Windsor 1962–1965, 19781–5, 12130
PC "Jock" Weir Joseph Brady 1962–1965, 1967–19681–6165
PC/DC/Sgt./Insp. Bert Lynch James Ellis 1962–1965, 1967–19781–12565
PC "Fancy" Smith Brian Blessed 1962–19651–5113
PC Bob Steele Jeremy Kemp 1962–19631–234
Sgt. Percy Twentyman Leonard Williams 19621–230
PC Ian Sweet Terence Edmond 1962–19641–378
DC Glyn Hicks Michael Forrest 1962–19642–336
PC David Graham Colin Welland 1962–19652–585
Sgt. Bob Blackitt Robert Keegan 1962–19652–5108
PC Ken Baker Geoffrey Whitehead 1964–1965429
PC Taylor Marcus Hammond 1964–1965420
Paula Poulton (BD Girl) Sara Aimson 19654–523
PC Ray Walker Donald Gee 19654–518
DI/DCI Sam Hudson John Barrie 1967, 1968632
DS Tom Stone John Slater 1967–19746–9431
PC Owen Culshaw David Daker 1967–1968682
PC Steve Tate Sebastian Breaks 1967634
PC Alec May Stephen Yardley 1967–1968668
WPC Parkin Pauline Taylor 1967–1969658
PC Bill Newcombe Bernard Holley 1967–19716292
BD Girl (name N/A) Jennie Goossens 1967–19716–7146
DI Todd Joss Ackland 1967–1968640
PC Jackson John Wreford 1967–1968632
DI Alan Witty John Woodvine 1968–1969662
PC Doug Roach Ron Davies 1968–1969660
PC Bruce Bannerman Paul Angelis 1968–19696128
PC/Sgt. Alec Quilley Douglas Fielding 1969–19786–12345
DI/Mr. Neil Goss Derek Waring 1969–19736–8226
PC/DC Joe Skinner Ian Cullen 1969–19756–9226
PC Reg Horrocks Barry Lowe 1970–1975, 1977Series 6–9, 1129
PC/Sgt. Bowman John Swindells 1970–19736–740
DS Cecil Haggar John Collin 1971–1976, 19786–7, 9–10,1251
DC Dave Scatliff Geoffrey Hayes 1971–19746–827
PC Shaun Covill Jack Carr 1971–19726–739
PC Fred Render Allan O'Keefe 1971–19786–1265
DS/DI Terry Moffat Ray Lonnen 1972–19777–1125
DS Wilf Miller Geoffrey Whitehead 1972–19756–922
DC Jim Braithwaite David Jackson 1972–19787–1222
Sgt. Gilbert ChubbPaul Stewart1974–19789–1225
DC/DS Bernard Bowker Brian Grellis 1974–19789–1219

Recurring cast

CharacterPortrayed ByYears ActiveSeries ActiveEpisode Count
Janey Steele Dorothy White 1962–19631–214
Sgt/Insp Barnes Frank Hawkins 1962–63N/A20
DCS/ACC/Chief Con. Robins John Phillips 1962–1965, 1967, 1969, 1973, 1978Series 1–4, 6–7, 1214
Katy Hoskins (BD Girl) Virginia Stride 1962–19641–318
WPC Jenny Stacey Lynn Furlong 1962–19651–424
DC Bob "Lofty" Smithers – Police Photographer Ken Jones 1962–641–38
DI/Supt. Dunn Dudley Foster 1962, 19641, 313
DCS Miller Leslie Sands 1962–63, 1965, 1967, 1969Series 1–4, 612
Sally Clarkson (BD Girl) Diane Aubrey 19621–224
Sgt. Michaelson James Cossins 1962–1963211
Joan Longton (BD Girl) Hilary Martyn 1962–1963213
DI Bamber Leonard Rossiter 196328
Betty Clayton (BD Girl) Sidonie Bond 1963216
DC Elliot John Thaw 196334
Shirley Burscough (BD Girl)Kate Brown1963316
Pamela Earnshaw (BD Girl) Kate Allitt 1964312
Ann Fazakerley (BD Girl) Lynn Farleigh 19643–417
WPC Nelson Susan Jameson 1965, 1975Series 4,96
PC Foster Donald Webster 196548
WPC Jane Shepherd Luanshya Greer 196766
BD Girl (name N/A) Anjula Harman 1967, 1969615
DC Kane Christopher Coll 1967–1968620
Betty Culshaw Doreen Aris 1967–196868
DI Brogan George Sewell 196766
Sally Stone Thelma Whiteley 1967, 1969–197068
Sgt. Potter Victor Brooks 1968–1969610
D Supt. Oakley William Dexter 1968–197166
PC StackJohn Livesey1969613
WPC/WP Sgt. Lorna Cameron June Watson 1970, 1973–19756, 8–98
Supt./D Supt. Roy Richards Jerome Willis 1971–19736–74
WPC Anne Howarth Stephanie Turner 1971–19757–915
PC Lindsay James Walsh 1971–19747–910
Sgt. Frank Culshaw John Challis 1972–19757–913
DI Fred Connor Gary Watson 1972–19747–811
PC Jeff Yates Nicholas Smith 1972–19757–99
Insp./CI Logie Kenton Moore 1972–19747–84
DI Gerry Madden Tommy Boyle 1978128
WPC Jane Beck Victoria Plucknett 1978123

See also

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  2. "Troy Kennedy Martin: Innovative writer who created 'Z Cars' and wrote 'Edge of Darkness' and 'The Italian Job'". The Independent. London. 17 September 2009.
  3. Leishman, Frank; Mason, Paul (2003). Policing and the Media: Facts, Fictions and Factions (Policing & Society). p. 56. ISBN   1903240298.
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  6. 1 2 Barker, Dennis (25 March 2003). "Fritz Spiegl: Witty musical polymath and broadcaster". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 22 April 2012.
  7. "James Ellis (6) – Johnny Todd". Discogs. Retrieved 27 November 2015.
  8. "Everton's Origins: Z-Cars Theme". ToffeeWeb. Retrieved 22 April 2012.
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  11. Wiping
  12. "Z Cars" via Amazon.
  13. "The BFI TV 100: 1–100". BFI. Archived from the original on 11 September 2011. See also: 100 Greatest British Television Programmes
  14. Alison Graham, "Take the Big TV Challenge!" Radio Times (30 August–5 September 2003), 16–21. Citation on p. 21.