|Part of Western Sahara conflict|
|Date||17 June 1970|
|Goals||Independence of the territory|
|Parties to the civil conflict|
|Casualties and losses|
|Part of a series on the|
|Western Sahara conflict|
The Zemla Intifada (or the Zemla Uprising) is the name used to refer to disturbances of June 17, 1970,which culminated in a massacre (between 2 and 11 persons were killed) by Spanish Legion forces in the Zemla district of El Aaiun, Spanish Sahara (nowadays Western Sahara).
Leaders of the previous secret organization Harakat Tahrir called for a demonstration to read out a petition of goals in response against the Spanish occupation of Western Sahara. On June 17, 1970, this petition was read to the Spanish governor-general of the colony, General José María Pérez de Lema y Tejero, peacefully.
After the demonstration was being dispersed by orders from Spain's governor-general, police moved in to arrest the Harakat Tahrir's leaders. Demonstrators responded to the police's actions by throwing stones at the police. The Spanish authorities called in the Spanish Foreign Legion who opened fire on the demonstrators, killing at least eleven people.
In the days following the incident, the Harakat Tahrir's founder Muhammad Bassiri, and other Harakat Tahrir activists, were hunted down by Spanish security forces. Bassiri disappeared in jail after being arrested in 1970.
The Zemla demonstration led to the end of the Harakat Tahrir. Hundreds of their supporters were arrested, while other demonstrators were deported from Spanish Sahara.The suppression of the Zemla demonstration pushed the Spanish Saharan anti-colonial movement into embracing armed struggle. The militant nationalist organization Polisario Front was formed three years later.
An intifada is a rebellion or uprising, or a resistance movement. It is a key concept in contemporary Arabic usage referring to a legitimate uprising against oppression.
The history of Western Sahara can be traced back to the times of Carthaginian explorer Hanno the Navigator in the 5th century BC. Though few historical records are left from that period, Western Sahara's modern history has its roots linked to some nomadic groups such as the Sanhaja group, and the introduction of Islam and the Arabic language at the end of the 8th century AD.
Spanish Sahara, officially the Province of the Sahara between 1958 and 1976, was the name used for the modern territory of Western Sahara when it was occupied and ruled by Spain between 1884 and 1976. It had been one of the most recent acquisitions of the Spanish Empire as well as one of its last remaining holdings, which had once extended from the Americas to the Spanish East Indies.
The term Djema'a can refer to two things in a Western Sahara context.
El-Ouali Mustapha Sayed was a Sahrawi nationalist leader, co-founder and second Secretary-General of the Polisario Front.
The Movement for the Liberation of Saguia el Hamra and Wadi el Dhahab, also referred to as the Liberation Movement, Movement for the Liberation of the Sahara, Advanced Organization of the Sahara or simply the Muslim Party was a Sahrawi movement created in the late 1960s by Muhammad Bassiri, a Sahrawi journalist and quranic teacher.
Muhammad Sidi Brahim Sidi Embarek Basir was a Moroccan nationalist leader, disappeared and presumedly executed by the Spanish Legion in June 1970.
The Independence Intifada or the Second Sahrawi Intifada and also May Intifada is a Sahrawi activist term for a series of disturbances, demonstrations and riots that broke out in May 2005 in the Moroccan-controlled parts of Western Sahara and south of Morocco. This event has also been called The El-Aaiun Intifada by the same sources.
Lemseid is a small oasis town near El-Aaiun in the Saguia el-Hamra part of Western Sahara, close to the Saguia el-Hamra itself. The Sahrawi independence activist and leader of the Harakat Tahrir, Muhammad Bassiri, grew up here in the 1950s. It was one of the first cities to be enclosed by the Moroccan Wall during the fighting between the Polisario Front and the Moroccan Army after the invasion of Western Sahara in 1975.
The Government of Morocco sees Western Sahara as its Southern Provinces. The Moroccan government considers the Polisario Front as a separatist movement given the alleged Moroccan origins of some of its leaders.
The Western Sahara conflict is an ongoing conflict between the Polisario Front and the Kingdom of Morocco. The conflict originated from an insurgency by the Polisario Front against Spanish colonial forces from 1973 to 1975 and the subsequent Western Sahara War against Morocco between 1975 and 1991. Today the conflict is dominated by unarmed civil campaigns of the Polisario Front and their self-proclaimed SADR state to gain fully recognized independence for Western Sahara.
The 8888 Nationwide Popular Pro-Democracy Protests, also known as the 8-8-88 Uprisings, or the People Power Uprising, the People's Democracy Movement and the 1988 Uprising, were a series of nationwide protests, marches and civil unrest in Burma (Myanmar) that peaked in August 1988. Key events occurred on 8 August 1988 and therefore it is known as the 8888 Uprising. The protests began as a student movement and were organised largely by university students at the Rangoon Arts and Sciences University and the Rangoon Institute of Technology (RIT).
The Western Sahara War was an armed struggle between the Sahrawi indigenous Polisario Front and Morocco from 1975 to 1991, being the most significant phase of the Western Sahara conflict. The conflict erupted after the withdrawal of Spain from the Spanish Sahara in accordance with the Madrid Accords, by which it transferred administrative control of the territory to Morocco and Mauritania, but not sovereignty. In late 1975, the Moroccan government organized the Green March of some 350,000 Moroccan citizens, escorted by around 20,000 troops, who entered Western Sahara, trying to establish a Moroccan presence. While at first met with just minor resistance by the POLISARIO, Morocco later engaged a long period of guerrilla warfare with the Sahrawi nationalists. During the late 1970s, the Polisario Front, desiring to establish an independent state in the territory, attempted to fight both Mauritania and Morocco. In 1979, Mauritania withdrew from the conflict after signing a peace treaty with the POLISARIO. The war continued in low intensity throughout the 1980s, though Morocco made several attempts to take the upper hand in 1989–1991. A cease-fire agreement was finally reached between the Polisario Front and Morocco in September 1991. Some sources put the final death toll between 10,000 and 20,000 people.
The following is a chronological summary of the major events that occurred during the Egyptian Revolution of 2011, after Hosni Mubarak's resignation. Protests and riots led to the deaths of hundreds, injuries of thousands and the arrests of tens of thousands. Millions have mobilised the streets since the revolution.
International demonstrations and protests relating to the Syrian Civil War have taken place outside Syria during the war.
Brahim Ghali is the current president of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR) and former SADR Ambassador to Algeria. Ghali has served as a historic figure and played a key role in the struggle of the Sahrawi people for self-determination and independence from Morocco. He was instrumental in the creation of the Movement for the Liberation of the Saguia el Hamra and Wadi el Dhahab, the 1970 Zemla Intifada against Spanish rule, the foundation of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Saguia el-Hamra and Río de Oro in 1973, and the Sahrawi Republic in 1976. He also played a major role in the Western Sahara War and establishment of MINURSO, the UN peacekeeping mission for the Western Sahara.
Luchaa Mohamed-Lamin, also known as Obeid Luchaa was a Sahrawi politician, diplomat and co-founder of the Polisario Front, a national liberation movement that seeks self-determination for Western Sahara. One of his daughters is Nadhira Mohamed, who was the protagonist of the Spanish film Wilaya.
The civil uprising phase of the Syrian Civil War, or as it was sometimes called by the media, the Syrian Revolution, was an early stage of protests – with subsequent violent reaction by the Syrian Arab Republic – lasting from March to 28 July 2011, as part of the wider spread Arab Spring in the Arab world. The uprising, initially demanding democratic reforms, evolved from initially minor protests, beginning as early as January 2011 and transformed into massive protests in March.
The 30June protests occurred in Egypt on 30 June 2013, marking the one-year anniversary of Mohamed Morsi's inauguration as president. The events ended with the 2013 Egyptian coup d'état after mass protests across Egypt demanding the immediate resignation of the president. The rallies were partly a response to Tamarod, an ostensibly grassroots movement that launched a petition in April earlier that year calling for the government to step down claiming to have collected 22 million signatures, a figure not verified by independent sources with skepticism over the rise in number by millions in a matter of days, with the Freedom and Justice Party putting the figure at 170,000 signatures. A counter campaign was launched in support of Morsi's presidency which claimed to have collected 11 million signatures. According to the Egyptian military, which calculated figured via helicopter scans of demonstration perimeters across the country, this was "the biggest protest in Egypt's history", with 32 million protesters. However, independent observers have raised concerns about wild exaggeration of the number of actual anti-Morsi protestors with one crowd statistical expert study indicating that a total of a little more than 1 million people protested against Morsi across the whole country.
The First Sahrawi Intifada forms part of the wider and ongoing Western Sahara conflict. It began in 1999 and lasted until 2004, transforming into the Independence Intifada in 2005.