98th (Prince of Wales's) Regiment of Foot

Last updated

98th (The Prince of Wales's) Regiment of Foot
Active1824–1881
Disbanded1881, amalgamated with 64th Foot to become The Prince of Wales's (North Staffordshire) Regiment
CountryFlag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
AllegianceBritish Crown
BranchFlag of the British Army.svg  British Army
TypeInfantry
RoleLine Infantry
SizeOne battalion
March God Bless the Prince of Wales
Engagements First Opium War
Second Anglo-Sikh War
Commanders
Colonel of
the Regiment
The Prince of Wales
Notable
commanders
Sir Colin Campbell

The 98th (Prince of Wales) Regiment of Foot was an infantry regiment of the British Army. It was originally raised in 1824 as the 98th Regiment of Foot, before assuming the title of the 98th (Prince of Wales) Regiment of Foot in 1876. Later, in 1881, following the Childers Reforms of the British Army, the regiment was amalgamated with the 64th Regiment of Foot to become the Prince of Wales's (North Staffordshire) Regiment. As the 64th Foot was senior to the 98th, the 98th became the 2nd Battalion in the new regiment. Throughout the course of the regiment's existence it served mostly overseas in South Africa, China and India.

Contents

History

General Mildmay Fane, founder of the regiment General Mildmay Fane.jpg
General Mildmay Fane, founder of the regiment

Formation

The 98th Foot was raised in Chichester by Lieutenant Colonel Mildmay Fane in response to the threat posed by the French intervention in Spain in March 1824. [1] It was the sixth regiment to be numbered the 98th Foot. The first Colonel of the regiment was Major General Henry Conran. [2] The first set of colours were presented by the Duchess of Richmond at a ceremony at Chichester on 6 October 1824. [2]

In December 1824 the new regiment was posted to South Africa where for all bar two years of its 13-year tour it was based in Cape Town, the other two years being in Grahamstown. During the entire tour no active service was seen. Returning to England in 1837 the regiment was based for two years in Newcastle upon Tyne where it was frequently called out to support the civil powers during the Chartist unrests. At this point command of the regiment was taken over by its most famous commanding officer, Sir Colin Campbell who commanded the regiment for 12 years between 1835 and 1847. [3]

The Victorian era

The 98th Foot at the Battle of Chinkiang in China, 21 July 1842 98th Foot at Chinkiang.jpg
The 98th Foot at the Battle of Chinkiang in China, 21 July 1842

In 1841 the regiment moved to Ireland but very shortly afterwards was sent to China during the First Opium War. Arriving in Hong Kong in 1842 it formed part of the 1st Brigade, [4] commanded by Major General Lord Saltoun, along with the 26th Foot, the Bengal Volunteer Battalion and the grenadier and light companies of the 41st Madras Native Infantry. The brigade advanced on Chinkiang and after an ineffective pursuit of retreating Chinese forces took part in the final advance on Nanking. During this war very few battle casualties were taken but over 50 died from cholera with another over 200 unfit for duty. [1] As a result of its participation in the war, the regiment was awarded its first battle honour "The DRAGON superscribed CHINA". A move to Hong Kong followed where the appalling death rate from disease continued with over 500 dying and sick. [5] This loss of life affected the 98th's commander, Sir Colin Campbell; his biographer, Adrian Greenwood, argues that Campbell was suffering from manic depression at the time. [6]

The next move was to India in 1846. Initially the regiment was based in Calcutta (Kolkata) and Dinapore, however, in 1848 it moved to the Punjab where, although not directly engaged in the Second Anglo-Sikh War, a second battle honour – PUNJAUB – was awarded. [7] From here the regiment was one of the first British units to serve on the North West Frontier [7] and spent 1849–1851 in and around the Kohat Pass area. The governor-general of India, had instructed Sir Colin Campbell to take the 98th on a series of punitive raids against Pathan tribesmen, in order to force them to pay taxes levied by the East India Company, but Campbell refused and was forced to resign and return to England. [6]

By 1851 the regiment had been abroad for a total of nine years and in that time it had suffered over 1,100 deaths, mostly from sickness, with almost 200 invalided home. [8] The last three years of the posting were spent in Calcutta before the regiment returned to England in 1855. [9]

Following three years on home service the regiment returned to India and the North West Frontier. As a result, it saw no service in the Indian Mutiny. Instead it was employed as part of the Sittana Field Force sent to deal with the so-called Hindustani Fanatics. [10]

The regiment returned home in 1867 and then in 1870 moved to Ireland for three years. [11] During this time it dealt with minor disturbance including a mutiny by the Tipperary Light Infantry Militia. As part of the Cardwell Reforms of the 1870s, where single-battalion regiments were linked together to share a single depot and recruiting district in the United Kingdom, the 98th was linked with the 64th (2nd Staffordshire) Regiment of Foot, and assigned to district no. 20 at Whittington Barracks, Staffordshire. [12] [13]

The next posting was to the West Indies from 1873 to 1880 followed by a move to Malta. It was in Malta following the presentation of what transpired to be the last set of regimental colours by The Prince of Wales that the regiment became the 98th (Prince of Wales's) Regiment of Foot on 27 October 1876. [14]

Amalgamation

War broke out in Afghanistan in 1879 and in 1880 in response the regiment moved once more to India being based initially at Karachi. [15] It was here that in 1881 the eventual conclusion of the Childers Reforms took effect and the regiment amalgamated with the 64th Foot and with militia and rifle volunteer units in Northern Staffordshire to form the Prince of Wales's (North Staffordshire) Regiment. As the junior regiment the 98th Foot became the 2nd Battalion of the new regiment. [13]

The regiment was renamed The North Staffordshire (The Prince of Wales's) Regiment in 1920. In 1959 the North Staffordshire and South Staffordshire Regiments amalgamated to form the Staffordshire Regiment (The Prince of Wales's). In September 2007 The Staffordshire Regiment amalgamated with the 22nd (Cheshire) Regiment and the Worcestershire and Sherwood Foresters Regiment to form the Mercian Regiment, in which the Staffords became the 3rd (Staffordshire) Battalion. [16] The Dragon device is still carried on the colours and drums of the Mercian Regiment. [17]

Battle honours

The 98th Foot was granted the following battle honours:

Colonels of the Regiment

Colonels of the Regiment were: [18]

See also

Related Research Articles

Staffordshire Regiment

The Staffordshire Regiment was an infantry regiment of the British Army, part of the Prince of Wales' Division. The regiment was formed in 1959 by the amalgamation of the South Staffordshire Regiment and the North Staffordshire Regiment, and in 2007 was amalgamated with the Cheshire Regiment and the Worcestershire and Sherwood Foresters Regiment to become the 3rd Battalion, Mercian Regiment.

South Staffordshire Regiment

The South Staffordshire Regiment was a line infantry regiment of the British Army in existence for only 68 years. The regiment was created in 1881 under the Childers Reforms by the amalgamation of the 38th Regiment of Foot and the 80th Regiment of Foot. The regiment saw service in the Second Boer War, World War I and World War II.

Somerset Light Infantry

The Somerset Light Infantry was a light infantry infantry regiment of the British Army, which served under various titles from 1685 to 1959. In 1959, the regiment was amalgamated with the Duke of Cornwall's Light Infantry to form the Somerset and Cornwall Light Infantry which was again amalgamated, in 1968, with the King's Own Yorkshire Light Infantry, the King's Shropshire Light Infantry and the Durham Light Infantry to form The Light Infantry. In 2007, however, The Light Infantry was amalgamated further with the Devonshire and Dorset Regiment, the Royal Gloucestershire, Berkshire and Wiltshire Regiment and the Royal Green Jackets to form The Rifles.

South Lancashire Regiment

The South Lancashire Regiment was a line infantry regiment of the British Army in existence from 1881 to 1958.

Cheshire Regiment

The Cheshire Regiment was a line infantry regiment of the British Army, part of the Prince of Wales' Division. The 22nd Regiment of Foot was raised by the Duke of Norfolk in 1689 and was able to boast an independent existence of over 300 years. The regiment was expanded in 1881 as part of the Childers Reforms by the linking of the 22nd (Cheshire) Regiment of Foot and the militia and rifle volunteers of Cheshire. The title 22nd (Cheshire) Regiment continued to be used within the regiment.

Worcestershire and Sherwood Foresters Regiment

The Worcestershire and Sherwood Foresters Regiment was an infantry regiment of the British Army, part of the Prince of Wales' Division. The regiment served as the county regiment for Derbyshire, Nottinghamshire and Worcestershire.

South Wales Borderers

The South Wales Borderers was a line infantry regiment of the British Army in existence for 280 years.

Prince of Waless Division

The Prince of Wales's Division was a British Army command, training and administrative apparatus designated for all land force units in the West of England and Wales. It merged with the Scottish Division, to form the Scottish, Welsh and Irish Division; at the same time the Mercian Regiment joined with the King's Division.

88th Regiment of Foot (Connaught Rangers)

The 88th Regiment of Foot was an infantry Regiment of the British Army, raised in 1793. Under the Childers Reforms it amalgamated with the 94th Regiment of Foot to form the Connaught Rangers in 1881.

55th (Westmorland) Regiment of Foot

The 55th Regiment of Foot was a British Army infantry regiment, raised in 1755. After 1782 it had a county designation added, becoming known as the 55th (Westmorland) Regiment of Foot. Under the Childers Reforms it amalgamated with the 34th (Cumberland) Regiment of Foot to form the Border Regiment in 1881.

East Lancashire Regiment British Army regiment

The East Lancashire Regiment was, from 1881 to 1958, a line infantry regiment of the British Army. The regiment was formed in 1881 under the Childers Reforms by the amalgamation of the 30th (Cambridgeshire) Regiment of Foot and 59th Regiment of Foot with the militia and rifle volunteer units of eastern Lancashire. In 1958 the regiment was amalgamated with the South Lancashire Regiment to form the Lancashire Regiment which was, in 1970, merged with the Loyal Regiment to form the Queen's Lancashire Regiment. In 2006, the Queen's Lancashire was further amalgamated with the King's Own Royal Border Regiment and the King's Regiment to form the present Duke of Lancaster's Regiment.

The 65th Regiment of Foot was an infantry regiment of the British Army, raised in 1756 as the 2nd Battalion, 12th Regiment of Foot. Under the Childers Reforms it amalgamated with the 84th Regiment of Foot to become the 1st Battalion, York and Lancaster Regiment in 1881.

57th (West Middlesex) Regiment of Foot

The 57th Regiment of Foot was a regiment of line infantry in the British Army, raised in 1755. Under the Childers Reforms it amalgamated with the 77th Regiment of Foot to form the Middlesex Regiment in 1881.

36th (Herefordshire) Regiment of Foot

The 36th (Herefordshire) Regiment of Foot was an infantry regiment of the British Army, raised in 1701. Under the Childers Reforms it amalgamated with the 29th (Worcestershire) Regiment of Foot to form the Worcestershire Regiment in 1881. Its lineage is continued today by the Mercian Regiment.

67th (South Hampshire) Regiment of Foot

The 67th Regiment of Foot was a line infantry regiment of the British Army, raised in 1756. Under the Childers Reforms it amalgamated with the 37th Regiment of Foot to form the Hampshire Regiment in 1881.

The 64th Regiment of Foot was an infantry regiment of the British Army. The regiment was created as the 2nd Battalion, 11th Regiment of Foot in 1756, redesignated as the 64th Regiment of Foot in 1758, and took a county title as the 64th Regiment of Foot in 1782. Following the Cardwell Reforms the regiment amalgamated with the 98th Regiment of Foot to become The Prince of Wales's in 1881. In the new regiment the 64th Foot became the 1st Battalion due to its seniority over the 98th Foot.

The 80th Regiment of Foot was an infantry regiment of the British Army, raised in 1793. Under the Childers Reforms it amalgamated with the 38th Regiment of Foot to form the South Staffordshire Regiment in 1881. Its lineage is continued today by the 3rd Battalion, Mercian Regiment.

The 97th Regiment of Foot was an infantry regiment of the British Army, formed in 1824 and amalgamated into the Queen's Own in 1881.

The 99th (Lanarkshire) Regiment of Foot was an infantry regiment of the British Army, formed in 1824. It amalgamated with the 62nd (Wiltshire) Regiment of Foot to form the Duke of Edinburgh's in 1881.

North Staffordshire Regiment

The North Staffordshire Regiment was a line infantry regiment of the British Army, which was in existence between 1881 and 1959. The 64th Regiment of Foot was created on 21 April 1758 from the 2nd Battalion of the 11th Regiment of Foot. In 1881, under the Childers Reforms, the 64th Regiment of Foot was merged with the 98th Regiment of Foot to form the Prince of Wales's . In 1921 the regimental title was altered to the North Staffordshire Regiment .

References

  1. 1 2 Cook (1970), p. 33.
  2. 1 2 Historical Record (1908), p. 1.
  3. Cook (1970), p. 35.
  4. Historical Record (1908), p. 2.
  5. Cook (1970), p. 38.
  6. 1 2 Greenwood (2015), pp. 232–233.
  7. 1 2 Cook (1970), p. 58.
  8. Cook (1970), p. 59.
  9. "98th (Prince of Wales's) Regiment of Foot: Locations". Regiments.org. Archived from the original on 16 June 2006. Retrieved 21 March 2017.
  10. Cook (1970), p. 60.
  11. Historical Record (1908), p. 3.
  12. "Training Depots". Regiments.org. Archived from the original on 10 February 2006. Retrieved 16 October 2016.
  13. 1 2 "Cardwell Reforms" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 August 2009. Retrieved 30 July 2009.
  14. Historical Record (1908), p. 13.
  15. Cook (1970), p. 62.
  16. "House of Commons - Hansard Debates for 16 Dec 2004 (pt 6)". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard) . House of Commons. 16 December 2004. col. 1796.
  17. 1 2 "The Mercian Regiment: Regimental Devices and Badges" (PDF). Retrieved 9 April 2009.
  18. "98th (The Prince of Wales's) Regiment of Foot". Regiments.org. Archived from the original on 20 June 2006. Retrieved 16 August 2016.

Sources