Annales Ecclesiastici (full title Annales ecclesiastici a Christo nato ad annum 1198; "Ecclesiastical annals from Christ's nativity to 1198"), consisting of twelve folio volumes, is a history of the first 12 centuries of the Christian Church, written by Caesar Baronius.
The Annales were first published between 1588 and 1607. This work functioned as an official response to the Lutheran Historia Ecclesiae Christi (History of the Church of Christ). In that work the Magdeburg theologians surveyed the history of the Christian church in order to demonstrate how the Catholic Church represented the Antichrist and had deviated from the beliefs and practices of the early church. In turn, the Annales fully supported the claims of the papacy to lead the unique true church.
Before Baronius was appointed Librarian of the Vatican in 1597, he had access to material and sources in its archives that were previously unpublished or unused. He used these in the development of his work. Accordingly, the documentation in Annales Ecclesiastici is considered by most as extremely useful and complete. Lord Acton called it "the greatest history of the Church ever written."
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The details of the first edition are as follows:
|I||1588||To 100 AD|
|II||1590||100 to 306|
|IV||1593||361 to 395|
|V||1594||395 to 440|
|VI||1595||440 to 518|
|VII||1596||518 to 590|
|VIII||1599||590 to 714|
|IX||1600||714 to 842|
|X||1602||843 to 1000|
|XI||1605||1000 to 1099|
|XII||1607||1100 to 1193|
The first volume dealt with Gentile prophets, among whom were Hermes Trismegistus, the supposed author of the Corpus Hermeticum , and the Sibylline Oracles of Rome. Some, it was claimed, had foreseen Christ's birth. This was disputed by post-Protestant Reformation scholars, including Isaac Casaubon in his De rebus sacris et ecclesiasticis exercitationes, XVI.
Antoine Pagi and his nephew François Pagi made corrections to the Annales in the late 17th century. Continuators of Baronius of the Early Modern period were Odorico Rainaldi,Giacomo Laderchi, Henri Spondanus, and Abraham Bzovius. In the 19th century the Annales were continued by August Theiner.
Christianity is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth. Its adherents, known as Christians, believe that Jesus is the Christ, whose coming as the Messiah was prophesied in the Hebrew Bible, called the Old Testament in Christianity, and chronicled in the New Testament. It is the world's largest religion, with about 2.4 billion followers as of 2020. Christians make up a majority of the population in 157 countries and territories.
The Reformation was a major movement within Western Christianity in 16th-century Europe that posed a religious and political challenge to the Catholic Church and in particular to papal authority, arising from what were perceived to be errors, abuses, and discrepancies by the Catholic Church. The Reformation was the start of Protestantism and the split of Protestantism from the Roman Catholic Church.
Monophysitism or Monophysism is a Christological term derived from μόνος monos, "alone, solitary" and φύσις physis, a word that has many meanings but in this context means "nature". It is defined as "a doctrine that in the person of the incarnated Word there was only one nature—the divine".
Anglo-Catholicism, Anglican Catholicism, or Catholic Anglicanism comprises people, beliefs and practices within Anglicanism that emphasise the Catholic heritage and identity of the various Anglican churches.
The "Dark Ages" is a historical periodization traditionally referring to the Early Middle Ages or Middle Ages, that asserts that a demographic, cultural, and economic deterioration occurred in Western Europe following the decline of the Roman Empire.
Cesare Baronio was an Italian cardinal and ecclesiastical historian of the Roman Catholic Church. His best-known works are his Annales Ecclesiastici, which appeared in 12 folio volumes (1588–1607). Pope Benedict XIV conferred upon him the title of Venerable.
Caspar Schoppe was a German controversialist and scholar.
Saeculum obscurum was a period in the history of the Papacy during the first two-thirds of the 10th century, beginning with the installation of Pope Sergius III in 904 and lasting for sixty years until the death of Pope John XII in 964. During this period, the popes were influenced strongly by a powerful and allegedly corrupt aristocratic family, the Theophylacti, and their relatives.
Claudia Rufina was a woman of British descent who lived in Rome c. 90 AD and was known to the poet Martial. Martial refers to her in Epigrams XI:53, describing her as "caeruleis [...] Britannis edita". He praises her for her beauty, education and fertility.
Aulus Pudens was a native of Umbria and a centurion in the Roman army in the late 1st century. He was a friend of the poet Martial, who addressed several of his Epigrams to him. He has been identified by some with Saint Pudens, an early Roman Christian.
Catholicity is a concept pertaining to beliefs and practices widely accepted across numerous Christian denominations, most notably those that describe themselves as Catholic in accordance with the Four Marks of the Church, as expressed in the Nicene Creed of the First Council of Constantinople in 381: "[I believe] in one, holy, catholic, and apostolic Church."
Abraham Bzowski (Bzovius) (1567–1637) was a Polish Dominican historian. He carried on the work of Baronius. The Catholic Encyclopedia calls his contributions for 1198 to 1571 "less notable" than some of other continuators, namely Raynaldus, Laderchi, and August Theiner.
Henri Spondanus was a French Catholic jurist, historian and continuator of the Annales Ecclesiastici compiled by Cardinal Baronius, and Bishop of Pamiers. He was a convert from Calvinism.
Christian libertarianism is the synthesis of Christian beliefs concerning free will, human nature and God-given inalienable rights with libertarian political philosophy.
The Four Marks of the Church, also known as the Attributes of the Church, is a term describing four distinctive adjectives—"One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic"—of traditional Christian ecclesiology as expressed in the Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed completed at the First Council of Constantinople in AD 381: "[We believe] in one, holy, catholic, and apostolic Church." This ecumenical creed is today recited in the liturgies of the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Oriental Orthodox Churches, the Church of the East, the Moravian Church, the Lutheran Churches, the Methodist Churches, the Presbyterian Churches, the Anglican Communion and by members of many Reformed churches.
Antoine Pagi was a French ecclesiastical historian.
François Pagi was a French Franciscan historian of the Catholic Church.
The March–April 1605 papal conclave was convened on the death of Pope Clement VIII and ended with the election of Alessandro Ottaviano de' Medici as Pope Leo XI. It was the first of two papal conclaves in 1605; Leo died on 27 April 1605, twenty-six days after he was elected. The conclave was dominated by conflict over whether Cesare Baronius should be elected pope, and Philip III of Spain excluded both Baronius and the eventually successful candidate, Medici.
The May 1605 papal conclave was convened on the death of Pope Leo XI and ended with the election of Camillo Borghese as Pope Paul V. This was the second conclave of 1605, with the one that had elected Leo XI having concluded just 37 days earlier. It is significant for having the only recorded case of an injury at a papal conclave, which was the result of a physical fight amongst the cardinals over who should be elected pope.
The term Barque of St. Peter or Ship/Boat of St. Peter or Barque of the Church, symbolises the Roman Catholic Church as a barque. The symbolism refers to St. Peter, the first Pope, a fisherman who became one of the 12 Apostles of Jesus. The Roman Catholic Church believes the role of St. Peter and his Successors is steering the Barque of the Church.