The Army of the Northwest was a U.S. Army unit formed at the outset of the War of 1812 and charged with control of the state of Ohio, the Indiana Territory, Michigan Territory and Illinois Territory.
The War of 1812 was a conflict fought between the United States, the United Kingdom, and their respective allies from June 1812 to February 1815. Historians in Britain often see it as a minor theater of the Napoleonic Wars; in the United States and Canada, it is seen as a war in its own right.
Ohio is a Midwestern state in the Great Lakes region of the United States. Of the fifty states, it is the 34th largest by area, the seventh most populous, and the tenth most densely populated. The state's capital and largest city is Columbus.
The Indiana Territory was created by a congressional act that President John Adams signed into law on May 7, 1800, to form an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from July 4, 1800, to December 11, 1816, when the remaining southern portion of the territory was admitted to the Union as the state of Indiana. The territory originally contained approximately 259,824 square miles (672,940 km2) of land, but its size was decreased when it was subdivided to create the Michigan Territory (1805) and the Illinois Territory (1809). The Indiana Territory was the first new territory created from lands of the Northwest Territory, which had been organized under the terms of the Northwest Ordinance of 1787.
The first commander, William Hull, was in charge while the regiment was at Detroit, before he surrendered it to the British. James Winchester was appointed to lead the army back up north to retake Detroit, but he turned to defend Fort Defiance instead.Perhaps due to Winchester's unpopularity, President James Madison soon appointed General William Henry Harrison as commander of the army in late 1812. Harrison led the army in the Siege of Fort Meigs and the Battle of the Thames.
William Hull was an American soldier and politician. He fought in the American Revolutionary War and was appointed as Governor of Michigan Territory (1805–13), gaining large land cessions from several American Indian tribes under the Treaty of Detroit (1807). He is most widely remembered, however, as the general in the War of 1812 who surrendered Fort Detroit to the British on August 16, 1812 following the Siege of Detroit. After the battle, he was court-martialed, convicted, and sentenced to death, but he received a pardon from President James Madison and his reputation somewhat recovered.
Detroit is the largest and most populous city in the U.S. state of Michigan, the largest United States city on the United States–Canada border, and the seat of Wayne County. The municipality of Detroit had a 2017 estimated population of 673,104, making it the 23rd-most populous city in the United States. The metropolitan area, known as Metro Detroit, is home to 4.3 million people, making it the second-largest in the Midwest after the Chicago metropolitan area. Regarded as a major cultural center, Detroit is known for its contributions to music and as a repository for art, architecture and design.
James Winchester was an officer in the Continental Army in the American Revolutionary War (1775-1783) and a brigadier general during the War of 1812 (1812-1815). He commanded the American forces at the Battle of Frenchtown, which led to the Massacre of the River Raisin.
Under him, in actions that caused the greatest number of deaths in a battle in the War of 1812, Winchester led a contingent in what is called the Battles of Frenchtown, January 18 and 22, 1813; in the second conflict, US forces were taken by surprise and overwhelmed by allied British and Native American warriors. The Raisin River Massacre of January 23 took place after the Americans had surrendered and the first prisoners were being marched to Fort Malden in British Ontario.
Fort Malden, formally known as Fort Amherstburg, is a defence fortification located in Amherstburg, Ontario. It was built in 1795 by Britain in order to ensure the security of British North America against any potential threat of American Invasion. Throughout its history, it is most known for its military application during the War of 1812 as Sir Isaac Brock and Tecumseh met here to plan the Siege of Detroit. The Fort also had an important role in securing Upper Canada's border with Detroit during the Upper Canada Rebellion. However, Fort Malden also has rich and diverse history aside from its military applications. For example, it was the setting for the British Pensioner Scheme and would later become an Ontario Provincial Asylum in 1859. After the Asylum was closed, Fort Malden was surveyed and privatized until the mid-nineteenth century. The Historic Designation of the Fort came after several decades of local residents advocating for the preservation of the Fort to the federal government. Officially recognized in 1921, the complex of Fort Malden as it is seen today was brought together in 1946 with the purchase of the Hough House. Today, the Fort remains open and accessible to the public under the supervision of Parks Canada. Visitors are able to see for themselves a wide array of Fort Malden's history as all of the buildings on the complex represent different time periods within that history. For example, an 1819 Brick Barrack restored in the style of one in 1839 is found directly across from the Hough House that represents the Fort's history as an Asylum, a Lumber Mill, and a private residence
The following men served as commanders of the Army of the Northwest:
William Henry Harrison Sr. was a United States military officer and politician who served as the ninth president of the United States in 1841. He died of typhoid fever 31 days into his term, becoming the first U.S. president to die in office. His death sparked a brief constitutional crisis regarding succession to the presidency, as the U.S. Constitution was unclear as to whether Vice President John Tyler should assume the office of President or merely execute the duties of the vacant office. Tyler claimed a constitutional mandate to carry out the full powers and duties of the presidency and took the presidential oath of office, setting an important precedent for an orderly transfer of presidential power when a president leaves office intra-term.
Duncan McArthur was a military officer and a Federalist and National Republican politician from Ohio. He served as the 11th Governor of Ohio.
The Battle of the Thames, also known as the Battle of Moraviantown, was a decisive American victory in the War of 1812 against Great Britain and its Indian allies in Tecumseh's Confederacy. It took place on October 5, 1813 in Upper Canada, near Chatham. The British lost control of Southwestern Ontario as a result of the battle; Tecumseh was killed and his Confederacy largely fell apart.
The Siege of Fort Meigs took place during the War of 1812 (1812–1815), in northwestern Ohio in late April-early May, 1813. A small British Army unit with support from Indians attempted to capture the recently constructed fort to forestall an American offensive against Detroit, and its Fort Detroit in the Great Lakes region which the British from the north in Canada had captured the previous year. An American sortie and relief attempt failed with heavy casualties, but the British failed to capture the fort and were forced to raise the siege.
The Siege of Fort Wayne was a battle that took place Sept. 5 - 12, 1812 during the War of 1812, between the United States military garrison at Fort Wayne and Potawatomi and Miami Indians, within what is now the modern city of Fort Wayne, Indiana. The Indians suffered a severe loss and withdrew on Sept. 12. A vast force under Gen. William Henry Harrison arrived later that day to relieve the fort, ending the siege. The victory was one of two which secured Indiana Territory for the United States in the war.
Fort Harrison was a War of 1812 era stockade constructed in Oct. 1811 on high ground overlooking the Wabash River on a portion of what is today the modern city of Terre Haute, Indiana by forces under command of Gen. William Henry Harrison. It was a staging point for Harrison to encamp his forces just prior to the Battle of Tippecanoe a month later. The fort was the site of a famous battle in the War of 1812, the siege of Fort Harrison in Sept. 1812 that was the first significant victory for the U.S. in the war. The fort was abandoned in 1818 as the frontier moved westward.
The Battles of Frenchtown, also known as the Battle of the River Raisin and the River Raisin Massacre, was a series of conflicts in Michigan Territory that took place from January 18–23, 1813, during the War of 1812. It was fought between the United States and a British and Native American alliance near the River Raisin in Frenchtown,.
The Siege of Detroit, also known as the Surrender of Detroit or the Battle of Fort Detroit, was an early engagement in the British-U.S. War of 1812. A British force under Major General Isaac Brock with American Indian allies under Shawnee leader Tecumseh used bluff and deception to intimidate U.S. Brigadier General William Hull into surrendering the fort and town of Detroit, Michigan and his dispirited army, which actually outnumbered the victorious British and Indians.
The Battle of Maguaga was a small battle between British troops, Canadian militia and Tecumseh's natives and a larger force of American troops near the Wyandot village of Maguaga in what is now the city of Riverview, Michigan.
Henry Patrick Procter or Proctor was a British major-general who served in Canada during the War of 1812. He is best known as the commander who was decisively defeated in 1813 by the Americans and left western Upper Canada in American hands. Procter is regarded by many as an inept leader who relied heavily on textbook procedure. His "going by the book" is attributed to his lack of any combat experience before coming to Canada.
George Madison was the sixth Governor of Kentucky. He was the first governor of Kentucky to die in office, serving only a few weeks in 1816. Little is known of Madison's early life. He was a member of the influential Madison family of Virginia, and was a second cousin to President James Madison. He served with distinction in three wars – the Revolutionary War, Northwest Indian War, and War of 1812. He was twice wounded in the Northwest Indian War, and in the War of 1812 he was taken prisoner following the Battle of Frenchtown in Michigan.
The Battle of Mackinac Island was a British victory in the War of 1812. Before the war, Fort Mackinac had been an important American trading post in the straits between Lake Michigan and Lake Huron. It was important for its influence and control over the Native American tribes in the area, which was sometimes referred to in historical documents as "Michilimackinac".
The Battle of Malcolm's Mills was the last battle of the War of 1812 fought in the Canadas. A force of American cavalry overran and scattered a force of Canadian militia and British regulars. The battle was fought on November 6, 1814, near the village of Oakland in Brant County, Upper Canada, and was part of a series of battles fought by American Brigadier General Duncan McArthur on an extended raid into Upper Canada, known variously as McArthur's Raid or Dudley's Raid. Marching over 200 miles (320 km) into Canada, American troops arrived back at Detroit on November 17 after 11 days of raiding the Ontario Peninsula.
General Charles Larned was an American lawyer, military officer, and politician. He fought in the War of 1812 and was Attorney General of Michigan Territory.
Fort Shelby was a military fort in Detroit, Michigan that played a significant role in the War of 1812. It was built by the British in 1779 as Fort Lernoult, and was ceded to the United States by the Jay Treaty in 1796. It was renamed Fort Detroit by Secretary of War Henry Dearborn in 1805. The fort was surrendered to the British by William Hull in 1812, and reclaimed by the Americans in 1813. The Americans renamed it Fort Shelby in 1813, but references to "Fort Detroit" relating to the War of 1812 are to this fort, not to the earlier Fort Detroit, which had been abandoned by the British in 1779 in favor of Fort Lernoult. It was given to the city of Detroit in 1826 and dismantled in 1827.
During the War of 1812, Indiana Territory was home to several conflicts between the United States territorial government and partisan Native American forces backed by the British in Canada. The Battle of Tippecanoe, which had occurred just months before the war began, was one of the catalysts that caused the war. The war in the territory is often considered a continuation of Tecumseh's War, and the final struggle of the Sixty Years' War.
During the War of 1812, Ohio was on the front lines in the conflict between the United States, Great Britain, Canadians, and the Native American allies of each side. Fighting raged in the northeastern section of the state and on the adjacent Lake Erie.
Thomas B. Van Horne, served as a federal land register and Ohio State Senator. He is noted for his leadership during the War of 1812.
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