The Army of the Northwest was a U.S. Army unit formed at the outset of the War of 1812 and charged with control of the state of Ohio, the Indiana Territory, Michigan Territory and Illinois Territory.
The first commander, William Hull, was in charge while the regiment was at Detroit, before he surrendered it to the British. James Winchester was appointed to lead the army back up north to retake Detroit, but he turned to defend Fort Defiance instead.Perhaps due to Winchester's unpopularity, President James Madison soon appointed General William Henry Harrison as commander of the army in late 1812. Harrison led the army in the Siege of Fort Meigs and the Battle of the Thames.
Under him, in actions that caused the greatest number of deaths in a battle in the War of 1812, Winchester led a contingent in what is called the Battles of Frenchtown, January 18 and 22, 1813; in the second conflict, US forces were taken by surprise and overwhelmed by allied British and Native American warriors. The Raisin River Massacre of January 23 took place after the Americans had surrendered and the first prisoners were being marched to Fort Malden in British Ontario.
The following men served as commanders of the Army of the Northwest:
The War of 1812 was a conflict fought between the United States and the United Kingdom, with their respective allies, from June 1812 to February 1815. Historians in Britain often see it as a minor theatre of the Napoleonic Wars, while historians in the United States and Canada see it as a war in its own right.
The Battle of the Thames, also known as the Battle of Moraviantown, was a decisive American victory in the War of 1812 against Great Britain and its Indian allies in Tecumseh's Confederacy. It took place on October 5, 1813 in Upper Canada, near Chatham. The British lost control of Southwestern Ontario as a result of the battle; Tecumseh and war chief Roundhead were killed, and Tecumseh's Confederacy largely fell apart.
The Battle of Lake Erie, sometimes called the Battle of Put-in-Bay, was fought on 10 September 1813, on Lake Erie off the coast of Ohio during the War of 1812. Nine vessels of the United States Navy defeated and captured six vessels of the British Royal Navy. This ensured American control of the lake for the rest of the war, which in turn allowed the Americans to recover Detroit and win the Battle of the Thames to break the Indian confederation of Tecumseh. It was one of the biggest naval battles of the War of 1812.
William Hull was an American soldier and politician. He fought in the American Revolutionary War and was appointed as Governor of Michigan Territory (1805–13), gaining large land cessions from several American Indian tribes under the Treaty of Detroit (1807). He is most widely remembered, however, as the general in the War of 1812 who surrendered Fort Detroit to the British on August 16, 1812 following the Siege of Detroit. After the battle, he was court-martialed, convicted, and sentenced to death, but he received a pardon from President James Madison and his reputation somewhat recovered.
Duncan McArthur was a military officer and a Federalist and National Republican politician from Ohio. He served as the 11th Governor of Ohio.
The Siege of Fort Meigs took place during the War of 1812 (1812–1815), in northwestern Ohio in late April-early May, 1813. A small British Army unit with support from Indians attempted to capture the recently constructed fort to forestall an American offensive against Detroit, and its Fort Detroit in the Great Lakes region which the British from the north in Canada had captured the previous year. An American sortie and relief attempt failed with heavy casualties, but the British failed to capture the fort and were forced to raise the siege.
The Siege of Fort Wayne was a battle that took place Sept. 5 - 12, 1812 during the War of 1812, between the United States military garrison at Fort Wayne and Potawatomi and Miami Indians, within what is now the modern city of Fort Wayne, Indiana. The Indians suffered a severe loss and withdrew on Sept. 12. A vast force under Gen. William Henry Harrison arrived later that day to relieve the fort, ending the siege. The victory was one of two which secured Indiana Territory for the United States in the war.
The Battles of Frenchtown, also known as the Battle of the River Raisin and the River Raisin Massacre, was a series of conflicts in Michigan Territory that took place from January 18–23, 1813, during the War of 1812. It was fought between the United States and a British and Native American alliance near the River Raisin in Frenchtown,.
The Siege of Detroit, also known as the Surrender of Detroit or the Battle of Fort Detroit, was an early engagement in the British-U.S. War of 1812. A British force under Major General Isaac Brock with American Indian allies under Shawnee leader Tecumseh used bluff and deception to intimidate U.S. Brigadier General William Hull into surrendering the fort and town of Detroit, Michigan, along with his dispirited army which actually outnumbered the victorious British and Indians.
The Battle of Maguaga was a small battle between British troops, Canadian militia and Tecumseh's natives and a larger force of American troops near the Wyandot village of Maguaga in what is now the city of Riverview, Michigan.
Henry Patrick Procter or Proctor was a British major-general who served in Canada during the War of 1812. He is best known as the commander who was decisively defeated in 1813 by the Americans and left western Upper Canada in American hands. Procter is regarded by many as an inept leader who relied heavily on textbook procedure. His "going by the book" is attributed to his lack of any combat experience before coming to Canada.
George Madison was the sixth Governor of Kentucky. He was the first governor of Kentucky to die in office, serving only a few weeks in 1816. Little is known of Madison's early life. He was a member of the influential Madison family of Virginia, and was a second cousin to President James Madison. He served with distinction in three wars – the Revolutionary War, Northwest Indian War, and War of 1812. He was twice wounded in the Northwest Indian War, and in the War of 1812 he was taken prisoner following the Battle of Frenchtown in Michigan.
The Battle of Mackinac Island was a British victory in the War of 1812. Before the war, Fort Mackinac had been an important American trading post in the straits between Lake Michigan and Lake Huron. It was important for its influence and control over the Native American tribes in the area, which was sometimes referred to in historical documents as "Michilimackinac".
James Winchester was an officer in the Continental Army in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783) and a brigadier general during the War of 1812 (1812–1815). He commanded the American forces at the Battle of Frenchtown, which led to the Massacre of the River Raisin.
The Battle of Malcolm's Mills was the last battle of the War of 1812 fought in the Canadas. A force of American cavalry overran and scattered a force of Canadian militia and British regulars. The battle was fought on November 6, 1814, near the village of Oakland in Brant County, Upper Canada, and was part of a series of battles fought by American Brigadier General Duncan McArthur on an extended raid into Upper Canada, known variously as McArthur's Raid or Dudley's Raid. Marching over 200 miles (320 km) into Canada, American troops arrived back at Detroit on November 17 after 11 days of raiding the Ontario Peninsula.
Fort Shelby was a military fort in Detroit, Michigan that played a significant role in the War of 1812. It was built by the British in 1779 as Fort Lernoult, and was ceded to the United States by the Jay Treaty in 1796. It was renamed Fort Detroit by Secretary of War Henry Dearborn in 1805.
During the War of 1812, Indiana Territory was home to several conflicts between the United States territorial government and partisan Native American forces backed by the British in Canada. The Battle of Tippecanoe, which had occurred just months before the war began, was one of the catalysts that caused the war. The war in the territory is often considered a continuation of Tecumseh's War, and the final struggle of the Sixty Years' War.
During the War of 1812, Ohio was on the front lines in the conflict between the United States, Great Britain, Canadians, and the Native American allies of each side. Fighting raged in the northeastern section of the state and on the adjacent Lake Erie.
Thomas B. Van Horne, served as a federal land register and Ohio State Senator. He is noted for his leadership during the War of 1812.
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