Askaryan radiation

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The Askaryan radiation [1] [2] also known as Askaryan effect is the phenomenon whereby a particle traveling faster than the phase velocity of light in a dense dielectric (such as salt, ice or the lunar regolith) produces a shower of secondary charged particles which contain a charge anisotropy and thus emits a cone of coherent radiation in the radio or microwave part of the electromagnetic spectrum. It is similar to the Cherenkov radiation. It is named after Gurgen Askaryan, a Soviet-Armenian physicist who postulated it in 1962.

Velocity rate of change of the position of an object as a function of time, and the direction of that change

The velocity of an object is the rate of change of its position with respect to a frame of reference, and is a function of time. Velocity is equivalent to a specification of an object's speed and direction of motion. Velocity is a fundamental concept in kinematics, the branch of classical mechanics that describes the motion of bodies.

Light electromagnetic radiation in or near visible spectrum

Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. The word usually refers to visible light, which is the visible spectrum that is visible to the human eye and is responsible for the sense of sight. Visible light is usually defined as having wavelengths in the range of 400–700 nanometres (nm), or 4.00 × 10−7 to 7.00 × 10−7 m, between the infrared and the ultraviolet. This wavelength means a frequency range of roughly 430–750 terahertz (THz).

Dielectric electrically poorly conducting or non-conducting, non-metallic substance of which charge carriers are generally not free to move

A dielectric is an electrical insulator that can be polarized by an applied electric field. When a dielectric is placed in an electric field, electric charges do not flow through the material as they do in an electrical conductor but only slightly shift from their average equilibrium positions causing dielectric polarization. Because of dielectric polarization, positive charges are displaced in the direction of the field and negative charges shift in the opposite direction. This creates an internal electric field that reduces the overall field within the dielectric itself. If a dielectric is composed of weakly bonded molecules, those molecules not only become polarized, but also reorient so that their symmetry axes align to the field.

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The radiation was first observed experimentally in 2000, 38 years after its theoretical prediction. So far the effect has been observed in silica sand, [3] rock salt, [4] ice, [5] and Earth's atmosphere. [6]

Silicon dioxide chemical compound

Silicon dioxide, also known as silica, silicic acid or silicic acid anydride is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula SiO2, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms. In many parts of the world, silica is the major constituent of sand. Silica is one of the most complex and most abundant families of materials, existing as a compound of several minerals and as synthetic product. Notable examples include fused quartz, fumed silica, silica gel, and aerogels. It is used in structural materials, microelectronics (as an electrical insulator), and as components in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

Sand A granular material composed of finely divided rock and mineral particles, from 0.063 to 2 mm diameter

Sand is a granular material composed of finely divided rock and mineral particles. It is defined by size, being finer than gravel and coarser than silt. Sand can also refer to a textural class of soil or soil type; i.e., a soil containing more than 85 percent sand-sized particles by mass.

The effect is of primary interest in using bulk matter to detect ultra-high energy neutrinos. The Antarctic Impulse Transient Antenna (ANITA) experiment uses antennas attached to a balloon flying over Antarctica to detect the Askaryan radiation produced as cosmic neutrinos travel through the ice. [7] [8] Several experiments have also used the Moon as a neutrino detector based on detection of the Askaryan radiation. [9] [10] [11] [12]

Neutrino Elementary particle with very low mass that interacts only via the weak force and gravity

A neutrino is a fermion that interacts only via the weak subatomic force and gravity. The mass of the neutrino is much smaller than that of the other known elementary particles. Although only differences of squares of the three mass values are known as of 2016, cosmological observations imply that the sum of the three masses must be less than one millionth that of the electron. The neutrino is so named because it is electrically neutral and because its rest mass is so small (-ino) that it was long thought to be zero. The weak force has a very short range, the gravitational interaction is extremely weak, and neutrinos, as leptons, do not participate in the strong interaction. Thus, neutrinos typically pass through normal matter unimpeded and undetected.

Antarctic Impulse Transient Antenna experiment designed to study ultra-high-energy (UHE) cosmic neutrinos by detecting the radio pulses emitted by their interactions with the Antarctic ice sheet

The Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna (ANITA) experiment has been designed to study ultra-high-energy (UHE) cosmic neutrinos by detecting the radio pulses emitted by their interactions with the Antarctic ice sheet. This is to be accomplished using an array of radio antennas suspended from a helium balloon flying at a height of about 37,000 meters.

Antarctica Polar continent in the Earths southern hemisphere

Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent. It contains the geographic South Pole and is situated in the Antarctic region of the Southern Hemisphere, almost entirely south of the Antarctic Circle, and is surrounded by the Southern Ocean. At 14,000,000 square kilometres, it is the fifth-largest continent. For comparison, Antarctica is nearly twice the size of Australia. About 98% of Antarctica is covered by ice that averages 1.9 km in thickness, which extends to all but the northernmost reaches of the Antarctic Peninsula.

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References

  1. Hanson, Jordan C; Connolly, Amy L (2016). "Complex Analysis of Askaryan Radiation: A Fully Analytic Treatment including the LPM effect and Cascade Form Factor". Astroparticle Physics. 91: 75–89. arXiv: 1605.04975 . Bibcode:2017APh....91...75H. doi:10.1016/j.astropartphys.2017.03.008.
  2. Hanson, Jordan C; Connolly, Amy L; Zas, Enrique (2011). "Practical and accurate calculations of Askaryan radiation". Physical Review D. 84 (10). arXiv: 1106.6283 . Bibcode:2011PhRvD..84j3003A. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.84.103003.
  3. Hanson, Jordan C; Connolly, Amy L; Walz, D; Field, C; Iverson, R; Odian, A; Resch, G; Schoessow, P; Williams, D (2000). "Observation of the Askaryan Effect: Coherent Microwave Cherenkov Emission from Charge Asymmetry in High Energy Particle Cascades". Physical Review Letters. 86 (13): 2802–5. arXiv: hep-ex/0011001 . Bibcode:2001PhRvL..86.2802S. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.86.2802. PMID   11290043.
  4. Hanson, Jordan C; Connolly, Amy L; Field, R. C; Guillian, E; Milinčić, R; Miočinović, P; Walz, D; Williams, D (2004). "Accelerator Measurements of the Askaryan effect in Rock Salt: A Roadmap Toward Teraton Underground Neutrino Detectors" (Submitted manuscript). Physical Review D. 72 (2). arXiv: astro-ph/0412128 . Bibcode:2005PhRvD..72b3002G. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.72.023002.
  5. Hanson, Jordan C; Connolly, Amy L; Beatty, J. J; Besson, D. Z; Binns, W. R; Chen, C; Chen, P; Clem, J. M; Connolly, A; Dowkontt, P. F; Duvernois, M. A; Field, R. C; Goldstein, D; Goodhue, A; Hast, C; Hebert, C. L; Hoover, S; Israel, M. H; Kowalski, J; Learned, J. G; Liewer, K. M; Link, J. T; Lusczek, E; Matsuno, S; Mercurio, B; Miki, C; Miočinović, P; Nam, J; Naudet, C. J; et al. (2007). "Observations of the Askaryan Effect in Ice". Physical Review Letters. 99 (17): 171101. arXiv: hep-ex/0611008 . Bibcode:2007PhRvL..99q1101G. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.99.171101. PMID   17995315.
  6. Buitink, Stijn; Corstanje, A.; Falcke, H; Hörandel, J. R; Huege, T; Nelles, A; Rachen, J. P; Rossetto, L; Schellart, P; Scholten, O; Ter Veen, S; Thoudam, S; Trinh, T. N. G; Anderson, J; Asgekar, A; Avruch, I. M; Bell, M. E; Bentum, M. J; Bernardi, G; Best, P; Bonafede, A; Breitling, F; Broderick, J. W; Brouw, W. N; Brüggen, M; Butcher, H. R; Carbone, D; Ciardi, B; Conway, J. E; et al. (2016). "A large light-mass component of cosmic rays at 1017–1017.5 electronvolts from radio observations". Nature. 531 (7592): 70–3. arXiv: 1603.01594 . Bibcode:2016Natur.531...70B. doi:10.1038/nature16976. PMID   26935696.
  7. ANITA Project Overview
  8. ARIANNA collaboration
  9. GLUE project
  10. NuMoon project
  11. LUNASKA project
  12. RESUN project