The Battle of Clausen (or Klausen) was fought on 20 October 1735 near the town of Klausen (usually spelled in histories with 'C' instead of 'K'), which was then in the Electorate of Trier and part of the Holy Roman Empire, and is now in the German state of Rhineland-Palatinate. French forces under the command of Marshal François de Franquetot de Coigny were defeated in an attempt to dislodge imperial troops under the command of Friedrich Heinrich von Seckendorff. The battle was one of the last significant engagements between the combatants in the War of the Polish Succession.
Klausen is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Bernkastel-Wittlich district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.
The Electorate of Trier, traditionally known in English by its French name of Trèves, was an ecclesiastical principality of the Holy Roman Empire that existed from the end of the 9th to the early 19th century. It consisted of the temporal possessions of the prince-archbishop of Trier, also prince-elector of the empire. There were only two other ecclesiastical prince-electors in the Empire: the Electorate of Cologne and the Electorate of Mainz, among which Mainz ranked first.
The Holy Roman Empire was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western and Central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars. The largest territory of the empire after 962 was the Kingdom of Germany, though it also included the neighboring Kingdom of Bohemia and Kingdom of Italy, plus numerous other territories, and soon after the Kingdom of Burgundy was added. Its size gradually diminished over time, particularly from 1648 onward, and by the time of its dissolution, it largely contained only German-speaking territories, plus the Kingdom of Bohemia which was bordered by the German lands on three sides.
The 1734 campaign season in the Rhine valley theater of the War of the Polish Succession closed with France controlling the west bank of the Rhine River as far north as Mainz, and the forces of the Habsburgs in strong defensive positions on the east bank. In November 1734 the belligerents had begun diplomatic overtures at peace, mediated by the neutral British and Dutch to bring an end to the conflict. Despite these talks, hostilities resumed in 1735, principally in northern Italy, where Spain, allied to France, harboured further territorial ambitions. In the Rhine valley, French troops under the command of Marshal Coigny moved from winter quarters to more aggressive stances along the Rhine during the spring and summer, but were unwilling to test the Habsburg defences, which were under the overall command of the aging Prince Eugene of Savoy.
The War of the Polish Succession (1733–35) was a major European war sparked by a Polish civil war over the succession to Augustus II, which the other European powers widened in pursuit of their own national interests. France and Spain, the two Bourbon powers, attempted to check the power of the Austrian Habsburgs in western Europe, as did the Kingdom of Prussia, whilst Saxony and Russia mobilized to support the eventual Polish victor. The slight amount of fighting in Poland resulted in the accession of Augustus III, who in addition to Russia and Saxony, was politically supported by the Habsburgs.
France, officially the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.02 million. France is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
Mainz is the capital and largest city of Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. The city is located on the Rhine river at its confluence with the Main river, opposite Wiesbaden on the border with Hesse. Mainz is an independent city with a population of 217,118 (2018) and forms part of the Frankfurt Rhine-Main Metropolitan Region.
The Germans were reinforced in August 1735 by more than 10,000 Russian troops led by Peter Lascy, the first time Russian troops reached the Rhine. Eugene was summoned to Vienna in September to participate in peace talks, leaving command of the German troops with the Duke of Württemberg. Reichsgraf Friedrich Heinrich von Seckendorff, in command of the German right at Mainz, received permission from Württemberg to move against the French left in an attempt to push them back toward Trier and gain territory between the Maas and Moselle Rivers.
The Russian Empire was an empire that extended across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
Vienna is the national capital, largest city, and one of nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's primate city, with a population of about 1.9 million, and its cultural, economic, and political centre. It is the 7th-largest city by population within city limits in the European Union.
Charles Alexander of Württemberg was a Württemberg noble from 1698 who governed the Kingdom of Serbia as regent from 1720 until 1733, when he assumed the position of Duke of Württemberg, which he held until his death.
On 20 September Seckendorff's chosen forces began crossing the Rhine, moving toward the Moselle. He commanded a total of 41 battalions with an effective strength of about 35,000 men. On the same day, Marshal Belle-Isle, commanding the French left, coincidentally left Kaiserslautern with a sizable detachment that was to be stationed at Trier to forage for provisions. Arriving there on the 27th, Belle-Isle left it under the command of the Comte de Béthune. Upon his return to French headquarters at Bad Dürkheim on the 29th, he learned of Seckendorff's movement. He ordered 12 battalions from the reserve stationed there toward Trier, with an additional nine to follow from the main army at Oggersheim. On 6 October the reserves reached Trier, with the nine arriving the next day. These raised the French force at Trier to 29 battalions of infantry with 66 cavalry squadrons, although the force was hampered somewhat by a shortage of provisions. Belle-Isle immediately began moving troops forward, adopting a defensive line along the Ruwer south of the Moselle. He also sent a detachment under the Marquis de Mouchy northeast toward Lieser on reconnaissance, and on the 10th sent another 1,000 men under Lutteaux to reinforce Mouchy.
Charles Louis Auguste Fouquet, duc de Belle-Isle was a French general and statesman.
Kaiserslautern is a city in southwest Germany, located in the Bundesland (State) of Rhineland-Palatinate (Rheinland-Pfalz) at the edge of the Palatinate Forest (Pfälzerwald). The historic centre dates to the 9th century. It is 459 kilometres from Paris, 117 km from Frankfurt am Main, and 159 km from Luxembourg.
Bad Dürkheim is a spa town in the Rhine-Neckar urban agglomeration, and is the seat of the Bad Dürkheim district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.
Seckendorff reached Stromberg on the 5th, and was marching for Simmern the next day when an advance company of Hungarian cavalry encountered a detachment of French dragoons near Kirchberg. The Germans sent more troops forward, and after a brief skirmish, captured most of the French force. By the 8th the Germans had occupied Trarbach, which they intended as the site of a supply depot. While waiting for supplies, Seckendorff investigated the French position at Liesern, interpreting it as French intent to dispute potential crossings of the Moselle at that point. He ordered troops on his left to advance further west, reaching as far as Gräfendhron and threatening to cut off Mouchy's supply and communications, while the main body advanced toward Monzelfeld, southeast of Liesern. Seckendorff then took a detachment on 15 October to determine if Klausen (west of Trarbach on the north side of the Moselle) was occupied by the French. Finding it unoccupied, he left a company of 40 hussars at the abbey. The next day a French detachment (25 companies of infantry and 800 cavalry) assaulted the abbey, and chose to retreat when German reinforcements from Wittlich arrived. Seckendorff then ordered Baron Stein's entire brigade, including 300 recently arrived Illyrian troops, to Klausen. Delays in the forwarding of provisions from supply depots on the Rhine then forced Seckendorff to halt his advance. However, his advance was sufficient to prompt Mouchy's retreat from Liesern, and Seckendorff was then able to establish a pontoon bridge there.
Stromberg is a town in the district of Bad Kreuznach, in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. It is situated on the eastern edge of the Hunsrück, approximately 10 km west of Bingen.
Simmern is a town of roughly 7,600 inhabitants (2013) in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, the district seat of the Rhein-Hunsrück-Kreis, and the seat of the like-named Verbandsgemeinde. In the Rhineland-Palatinate state development plan, it is set out as a middle centre.
Kirchberg, the Stadt auf dem Berg, called Kerbrich in Moselle Franconian, is a town in the Rhein-Hunsrück-Kreis (district) in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. It is the seat of the like-named Verbandsgemeinde, to which it also belongs.
On 11 October Marshal Coigny decided that he should come to Belle-Isle's support. Leaving his headquarters on the Rhine, he began moving larger parts of his army toward Kaiserslautern and Trier. Advance units of this movement began reaching Trier on the 17th, and Belle-Isle decided to move forward. On 19 October he crossed the Moselle just below Trier and camped on the north bank of the Moselle. Seckendorff, whose army had begun crossing at Liesern on the 18th, was informed of this movement. Although he had planned to establish a camp at Osann, this news prompted him to change his plans. Late on 19 October he issued orders that the infantry of Georg of Hessen, and his left wing's cavalry, should cross the Moselle at 4:00 am and march to Klausen. These troops, crossing at Liesern and Bernkastel, were expected to arrive in Klausen around noon.
Osann-Monzel is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – and a winegrowing centre in the Bernkastel-Wittlich district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.
Marshal Coigny ordered his troops out early on 20 October. The troops marched north to Hetzerath, where they turned east and marched through a narrow defile to reach the Salm between Esch and Rivenich, just west of Klausen. Their approach was observed by Seckendorff, who had also risen early and rode west on reconnaissance. As the French forces came out of the defile and into the river valley, Coigny directed his left, 36 companies of grenadiers under Phelippes upstream toward Esch. It was followed by Belle-Isle's troops, 33 infantry battalions and 68 cavalry squadrons, then 17 infantry battalions and 40 cavalry squadrons from Coigny's Rhine army, which bore off to the right to take the heights above Rivenich.
Seckendorff had ordered some of his Hungarian cavalry to engage the French vanguard when he first spotted them. This they did around 11:00 am, but were driven back. As it became clear that the bulk of the French army was coming, he sent 10 companies of grenadiers to hold the bridge at Rivenich, also sending 20 cavalry squadrons from the right to support the left. As these movements were taking place, the support infantry began to arrive on the heights above Klausen.
Around 2:00 pm the French columns arrived on the heights above Esch and Rivenich. Coigny ordered Brigadier Rieux, commanding the right, to secure the bridge at Rivenich, and ordered Phelippes, on his left, to secure Esch. The outnumbered imperial forces holding the bridge at Rivenich gave way, and the French gained control of the bridge but did not immediately begin crossing in force. Seckendorff ordered 5 companies of grenadiers to reinforce those already on his left. The French troops moving toward Esch were slowed by difficult terrain. Seckendorff deployed two cannon to the south of Esch, further complicating the French advance on that front. With most of his forces arrived by 4:00 pm, Seckendorff decided to retake the bridge at Rivenich, while the two army centers engaged in an artillery battle across the Salm.
For the taking of the crossing, Seckendorff sent 6 more grenadier companies, 3 battalions of Danish infantry, 1 Pomeranian battalion, and some Hungarian cavalry down toward Rivenich. Coigny, observing that his right would be outnumbered by this force, withdrew his troops from the bridge and abandoned Rivenich. Seckendorff seized the momentum, and sent his force across the river to attack Coigny's flank, while also sending several companies of cavalry across the river near Esch to attack the French left. The French infantry fired volleys of musket fire against the oncoming cavalry, and then began to fall back toward the center. It soon became dark, and the combatants disengaged.
The imperial infantry suffered 22 killed and 76 wounded, while its cavalry lost 23 men and 40 horses killed, with 17 each wounded, as well as 3 men and 7 horses missing. The French lost 200 men killed or wounded.
Marshal Coigny, after inspecting Seckendorff's position, decided that it was too strong to assault, and retreated the next day to Hetzerath. Seckendorff sent Baron Diemar with the Hungarian and German cavalry to harry the French rear. French discipline, however, was tight, and the imperials garnered only a few supply wagons and horses. Coigny was prompted to retreat further by reports of a movement against his left flank near Föhren; this was only an imperial supply caravan bringing provisions to Seckendorff from Luxembourg. A significant shortage of provisions forced Coigny to divide his troops on either side of the Moselle, a risky move with his enemy close by. Seckendorff's manoeuvres did not capitalise on this, but Coigny had, except for a few pockets, completely withdrawn from the north side of the Moselle by 28 October. On 31 October Coigny learned that a cease fire had been negotiated as part of the ongoing peace talks; this news was delivered to Seckendorff on 12 November.
The Battle of Blenheim, fought on 13 August 1704, was a major battle of the War of the Spanish Succession. The overwhelming Allied victory ensured the safety of Vienna from the Franco-Bavarian army, thus preventing the collapse of the Grand Alliance.
The Battle of Fleurus, fought on 1 July 1690, was a major engagement of the Nine Years' War. In a bold envelopment the Duc de Luxembourg, commanding Louis XIV of France’s army of some 35,000 men, soundly defeated Prince Waldeck’s Allied force of approximately 38,000 men comprising mainly Dutch, German, and Spanish troops. Waldeck suffered heavy losses in prisoners and equipment, and Luxembourg moved ahead to control Flanders. Although the French War Minister, Louvois, wished to press ahead and secure further success, King Louis overruled him and ordered Luxembourg to reinforce the Dauphin’s army on the Rhine and forgo any major siege. The Allies, meanwhile, withdrew to Brussels to recover and rebuild their army.
The Battle of Neresheim saw a victory of Republican French army under Jean Victor Marie Moreau over the army of the Habsburg Monarchy of Archduke Charles, Duke of Teschen. Pursued by Moreau's Army of Rhin-et-Moselle, Charles launched an attack against the French. While the Austrian left wing saw some success, the battle degenerated into a stalemate and the archduke withdrew further into the Electorate of Bavaria. Neresheim is located in the state of Baden-Württemberg in Germany a distance of 57 kilometres (35 mi) northeast of Ulm. The action took place during the War of the First Coalition, part of a larger conflict called the French Revolutionary Wars.
The Battle of Hastenbeck was fought as part of the Invasion of Hanover during the Seven Years' War between the allied forces of Hanover, Hesse-Kassel and Brunswick, and the French. The allies were defeated by the French army near Hamelin in the Electorate of Hanover.
The Battle of Gravelotte on 18 August 1870 was the largest battle of the Franco-Prussian War. Named after Gravelotte, a village in Lorraine between Metz and the former French–German frontier, it was fought about 6 miles (9.7 km) west of Metz, where on the previous day, having intercepted the French army's retreat to the west at the Battle of Mars-La-Tour, the Prussians were now closing in to complete the destruction of the French forces.
The Battle of Abensberg took place on 20 April 1809, between a Franco-German force under the command of Emperor Napoleon I of France and a reinforced Austrian corps led by Feldmarschall-Leutnant Archduke Louis of Austria. As the day wore on, Feldmarschall-Leutnant Johann von Hiller arrived with reinforcements to take command of the three corps that formed the Austrian left wing. The action ended in a complete Franco-German victory. The battlefield was southeast of Abensberg and included clashes at Offenstetten, Biburg-Siegenburg, Rohr in Niederbayern, and Rottenburg an der Laaber. On the same day, the French garrison of Regensburg capitulated.
The Battle of Spicheren, also known as the Battle of Forbach, was a battle during the Franco-Prussian War. The German victory compelled the French to withdraw to the defenses of Metz. The Battle of Spicheren, on 6 August, was the second of three critical French defeats. Moltke had originally planned to keep Bazaine's army on the Saar river until he could attack it with the 2nd Army in front and the 1st Army on its left flank, while the 3rd Army closed towards the rear. The aging General von Steinmetz made an overzealous, unplanned move, leading the 1st Army south from his position on the Moselle. He moved straight toward the town of Spicheren, cutting off Prince Frederick Charles from his forward cavalry units in the process.
The Battle of Mars-La-Tour was fought on 16 August 1870, during the Franco-Prussian War, near the village of Mars-La-Tour in northeast France. One Prussian corps, reinforced by two more later in the day, encountered the entire French Army of the Rhine in a meeting engagement and, surprisingly, forced the Army of the Rhine to retreat into the fortress of Metz.
The Battle of Elchingen, fought on 14 October 1805, saw French forces under Michel Ney rout an Austrian corps led by Johann Sigismund Riesch. This defeat led to a large part of the Austrian army being invested in the fortress of Ulm by the army of Emperor Napoleon I of France while other formations fled to the east. Soon afterward, the Austrians trapped in Ulm surrendered and the French mopped up most of the remaining Austrians forces, bringing the Ulm Campaign to a close.
On 1 March 1815 Napoleon Bonaparte escaped from his imprisonment on the isle of Elba, and launched a bid to recover his empire. A confederation of European powers pledged to stop him. During the period known as the Hundred Days Napoleon chose to confront the armies of Prince Blücher and the Duke of Wellington in what has become known as the Waterloo Campaign. He was decisively defeated by the two allied armies at the Battle of Waterloo, which then marched on Paris forcing Napoleon to abdicate for the second time. However Russia, Austria and some of the minor German states also fielded armies against him and all of them also invaded France. Of these other armies the ones engaged in the largest campaigns and saw the most fighting were two Austrian armies: The Army of the Upper Rhine and the Army of Italy.
The Battle of Speyerbach took place on 15 November 1703 in the War of the Spanish Succession. A French army besieging Landau surprised and defeated a German relief army near Speyer.
The Army of the Rhine and Moselle was one of the field units of the French Revolutionary Army. It was formed on 20 April 1795 by the merger of elements of the Army of the Rhine and the Army of the Moselle.
The Battle of Ettlingen or Battle of Malsch was fought during the French Revolutionary Wars between the armies of the First French Republic and Habsburg Austria near the town of Malsch, 9 kilometres (6 mi) southwest of Ettlingen. The Austrians under Archduke Charles, Duke of Teschen tried to halt the northward advance of Jean Victor Marie Moreau's French Army of Rhin-et-Moselle along the east bank of the Rhine River. After a tough fight, the Austrian commander found that his left flank was turned. He conceded victory to the French and retreated east toward Stuttgart. Ettlingen is located 10 kilometres (6 mi) south of Karlsruhe.
The Battle of Czarnowo on the night of 23–24 December 1806 saw troops of the First French Empire under the eye of Emperor Napoleon I launch an evening assault crossing of the Wkra River against Lieutenant General Alexander Ivanovich Ostermann-Tolstoy's defending Russian Empire forces. The attackers, part of Marshal Louis-Nicolas Davout's III Corps, succeeded in crossing the Wkra at its mouth and pressed eastward to the village of Czarnowo. After an all-night struggle, the Russian commander withdrew his troops to the east, ending this War of the Fourth Coalition action. Czarnowo is located on the north bank of the Narew River 33 kilometres (21 mi) north-northwest of Warsaw, Poland.
The Battle of Neuensund was a smaller battle at Neuensund of the Seven Years' War between Swedish and Prussian forces fought on September 18, 1761. The Swedish force under the command of Jacob Magnus Sprengtporten managed to rout the Prussian forces commanded by Wilhelm Sebastian von Belling.
The Battle of Kaiserslautern saw an army from the Kingdom of Prussia and Electoral Saxony led by Wichard Joachim Heinrich von Möllendorf fall upon a single French Republican division under Jean-Jacques Ambert from the Army of the Moselle. The Prussians tried to surround their outnumbered adversaries but most of the French evaded capture. Nevertheless, Möllendorf's troops inflicted casualties on the French in the ratio of nine-to-one and occupied Kaiserslautern. While the Prussians won this triumph on an unimportant front, the French armies soon began winning decisive victories in Belgium and the Netherlands. The battle occurred during the War of the First Coalition, part of the French Revolutionary Wars. In 1794 Kaiserslautern was part of the Electoral Palatinate but today the city is located in the state of Rhineland-Palatinate in Germany about 67 kilometres (42 mi) west of Mannheim.
The Battle of Haguenau saw a Republican French army commanded by Jean-Charles Pichegru mount a persistent offensive against a Coalition army under Dagobert Sigmund von Wurmser during the War of the First Coalition. In late November, Wurmser pulled back from his defenses behind the Zorn River and assumed a new position along the Moder River at Haguenau. After continuous fighting, Wurmser finally withdrew to the Lauter River after his western flank was turned in the Battle of Froeschwiller on 22 December. Haguenau is a city in Bas-Rhin department of France, located 29 kilometres (18 mi) north of Strasbourg.
During the Battle of Kehl, a Republican French force under the direction of Jean Charles Abbatucci mounted an amphibious crossing of the Rhine River against a defending force of soldiers from the Swabian Circle. In this action of the War of the First Coalition, the French drove the Swabians from their positions in Kehl and subsequently controlled the bridgehead on both sides of the Rhine.
The Second Battle of Kehl occurred on 18 September 1796, when General Franz Petrasch's Austrian and Imperial troops stormed the French-held bridgehead over the Rhine river. The village of Kehl, which is now in the German state of Baden-Württemberg, was then part of Baden-Durlach. Across the river, Strasbourg, an Alsatian city, was a French Revolutionary stronghold. This battle was part of the Rhine Campaign of 1796, in the French Revolutionary War of the First Coalition.
This article includes a list of references, related reading or external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations . (September 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)