Cobblestone architecture refers to the use of cobblestones embedded in mortar as method for erecting walls on houses and commercial buildings. It was frequently used in the northeastern United States and upper Midwest in the early 19th century; the greatest concentration of surviving cobblestone buildings is in New York State, generally near the historic Erie Canal or connecting canals.
Evidence of the use of cobblestones in building has been found in the ruins of Hierakonpolis in Egypt. Houses were built of mud brick set on cobblestone foundations. Cobblestone architecture may have been used on a monumental scale to erect public administrative centers or palaces. Those structures have since collapsed into mounds of stone.
Cobbles, mostly flint, became a common building material from the Middle Ages onwards in England and a few parts of Northern Europe where they are easily found; this is usually known as "flint architecture" in England. Flushwork is a term for decorative patterns in flint and stone, usually including split stones for contrasting colour on the outer surface of the wall, while the unseen core consists of unsplit cobbles. Other areas have unsplit cobbles on the outside of the wall, sometimes carefully graded and arranged for a decorative effect.
Cobblestone architecture was used in the northeastern United States, especially antebellum western New York state. Masons who built the Erie Canal during 1817-1825 started building cobblestone structures about the time the canal was finished. The stones used in the construction were typically of a rounded shape; they had been deposited in the area by glaciers, and cleared from the fields by early farmers, or brought from the shores of Lake Ontario. –75 miles of Rochester, New York. The style was prominent between 1835 and about 1860; around 900 cobblestone buildings were constructed in New York state before the American Civil War. After the war, construction slowed; there were only two post-Civil War cobblestone structures known by author Noble. About 700 cobblestone homes remain in the Rochester area.Migrants from New York carried the style west to Ohio, Illinois, Michigan and Wisconsin. Historians estimate that at least 75 percent, and possibly more than 90 percent, of American cobblestone buildings can be found within 70
The Town Hall in Westport, Connecticut, built in 1908, is unusual for including a cobblestone exterior surface within a Classical Revival style design.
Paris, Ontario is referred to as "the cobblestone capital of Canada" due to a significant number of cobblestone buildings.This mode of construction was introduced to the community when Levi Boughton (d.1895), a New York mason, arrived in 1838.
In true cobblestone architecture, the whole wall consists of rows of cobblestones embedded in a lime mortar. The exterior surface may be carefully constructed for decorative effect, with cobbles matched in size and color.In Wisconsin most cobblestone buildings seem to have only the exterior surfaces made of cobblestone, as a decorative finish over a rubble core.
English medieval walls often contain a mixture of cobbles, rubble and re-used brick, though the picture from Thetford shows almost exclusively cobbles. Some cobblestone architecture shows consistent matching in the size of the stones used, shape, and color.This method of construction has been referred to as a form of folk art. Cobblestone architecture is featured in many houses and farmhouses but also in churches, stores and town halls.
Masonry is the building of structures from individual units, which are often laid in and bound together by mortar; the term masonry can also refer to the units themselves. The common materials of masonry construction are brick, building stone such as marble, granite, and limestone, cast stone, concrete block, glass block, and adobe. Masonry is generally a highly durable form of construction. However, the materials used, the quality of the mortar and workmanship, and the pattern in which the units are assembled can substantially affect the durability of the overall masonry construction. A person who constructs masonry is called a mason or bricklayer. These are both classified as construction trades.
Cobblestone is a natural building material based on cobble-sized stones, and is used for pavement roads, streets, and buildings.
Stucco or render is a construction material made of aggregates, a binder, and water. Stucco is applied wet and hardens to a very dense solid. It is used as a decorative coating for walls and ceilings, external building siding, and as a sculptural and artistic material in architecture. Stucco may be used to cover less visually appealing construction materials, such as metal, concrete, cinder block, or clay brick and adobe.
The Adina Mosque is a former mosque in Malda District, West Bengal, India. It was the largest such structure in the Indian subcontinent and was built during the Bengal Sultanate as a royal mosque by Sikandar Shah, who is also buried inside. The mosque is situated in Pandua, a former royal capital.
Barryville is a hamlet in Highland, Sullivan County, New York. Previously known as "The River," the hamlet was renamed for William T. Barry, postmaster general under President Andrew Jackson.
The Cobblestone Historic District is located along state highway NY 104 in Childs, New York, United States. It comprises three buildings that exemplify the cobblestone architecture developed to a high degree in the regions of upstate New York near Lake Ontario and exported to other areas with settlers.
The Parsons Memorial Lodge is a small building built in 1915 by the Sierra Club at the northern end of Tuolumne Meadows of Yosemite National Park. It was one of the earliest structures built of stone in a national park.
Cobblestone Farmhouse at 1229 Birdsey Road is a farmhouse in the town of Junius, New York, in Seneca County, New York. It is significant as a well-preserved example of cobblestone architecture, in a vernacular Greek Revival style. North of the house, there is also a large barn believed to date to the late 19th century. This property was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on August 6, 2008. It is the sixth property listed as a featured property of the week in a program of the National Park Service that began in July, 2008.
A sett, also known as a block, Belgian block or sampietrini, is a broadly rectangular quarried stone used in paving roads and walkways. Formerly in widespread use, particularly on steeper streets because setts provided horses' hooves with better grip than a smooth surface, they are now encountered rather as decorative stone paving in landscape architecture. Setts are often wrongly referred to as "cobblestones", although a sett is distinct from a cobblestone in that it is quarried or worked to a regular shape, whereas the latter is generally a small, naturally-rounded rock. Setts are usually made of granite.
White-Pound House is a historic home in Lockport in Niagara County, New York. The 2 1⁄2-story, 3,000+ square-foot stone structure was built in 1835 and remodeled in the Italianate style in the late nineteenth century. Today, the house retains its late nineteenth-century appearance on both its exterior and interior and is distinguished by its sophisticated detailing. The fine stone masonry workmanship, elaborate decorative detail and the high level of architectural integrity make the White-Pound house a prominent local landmark and an important example of Lockport's legacy of stone architecture. It is one of approximately 75 stone residences remaining in the city of Lockport.
The Jackson Blood Cobblestone House is located on South Main Street in Lyndonville, New York, United States. It is a Greek Revival house built in the middle of the 19th century.
William Huffman Cobblestone House is a historic home located at Phelps in Ontario County, New York. It was constructed in 1845 and is a distinct example of the late Federal / early Greek Revival style, cobblestone domestic architecture. The house consists of a two-story, three bay main block with a one-story side ell. The exterior walls are built of evenly shaped and colored field cobbles. It is one of approximately 101 cobblestone buildings in Ontario County and 26 in the village and town of Phelps. Also on the property is a late 19th-century barn.
Harmon Cobblestone Farmhouse and Cobblestone Smokehouse is a historic home located at Phelps in Ontario County, New York. The farmhouse was constructed in 1842 and is an example of vernacular Greek Revival style, cobblestone domestic architecture. The house consists of a 2-story, three-bay side-hall main block with a 1 1⁄2-story north wing and 1-story east wing. The exterior walls are built primarily of small, red, oval, lake washed cobbles. Also on the property is a smokehouse built of both red, lake washed cobbles and irregular field cobbles. They are among the approximately 101 cobblestone buildings in Ontario County and 26 in the village and town of Phelps.
Rippey Cobblestone Farmhouse is a historic home located at Phelps in Ontario County, New York. It was constructed in 1854 and is an example of a Greek Revival / Italianate style, cobblestone domestic architecture. The house consists of a two-story main block with a one-story side wing and is one of the most elaborate, finely crafted cobblestone residences in the Finger Lakes region. The exterior walls are built primarily of small, red, oval, lake washed cobbles. It is among the approximately 101 cobblestone buildings in Ontario County and nine in the town of Seneca.
Tinker Cobblestone Farmstead, also known as the Tinker Homestead and Farm Museum, is a historic home located at Henrietta in Monroe County, New York. It is a Federal style cobblestone farmhouse built between 1828 and 1830. It is constructed of medium-sized field cobbles and is one of 13 surviving cobblestone buildings in Henrietta.
Charles Bullis House is a historic home located at Macedon in Wayne County, New York. The Federal style, cobblestone house consists of a 2-story main block with a 1 1⁄2-story frame wing. It was built about 1839 and is constructed of irregular, rough, moderate sized cobbles. The house is among the approximately 170 surviving cobblestone buildings in Wayne County.
The Franklyn Hazelo House is a Greek Revival-styled house clad in cobblestones that was built in 1858 in Burlington, Wisconsin, United States. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1974.
The Herrick Cobblestone is a historic cobblestone residence in Rockford, Illinois. It may be the oldest house in Rockford.
The Samuel S. Jones Cobblestone House is a large Greek Revival-styled farmhouse built in Clinton, Wisconsin in the late 1840s. The house was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1978 and on the State Register of Historic Places in 1989.