The Dewar Trophy was a cup donated in the early years of the twentieth century by Sir Thomas R. Dewar, M.P. a member of parliament of the United Kingdom (UK), to be awarded each year by the Royal Automobile Club (R. A .C.) of the United Kingdom "to the motor car which should successfully complete the most meritorious performance or test furthering the interests and advancement of the [automobile] industry".
Some of the trophy winners include:
On Saturday, 29 February 1908, three Model Ks from the 1907 Cadillac production were released from the stock of the Anglo-American Motor-car Company, the UK agent for Cadillac automobiles, [ citation needed ] There, the cars completed ten laps of the track, or approximately 30 miles, before being locked away until Monday, 2 March 1908, when they were released and disassembled completely, using only wrenches, screwdrivers, hammers, and pliers. Each car was reduced to a pile of 721 component parts, which were then scrambled into one heap by the RAC. Eighty-nine parts requiring extreme accuracy were withdrawn from the heap, locked away at the Brooklands club house[ citation needed ] and replaced with new parts from Anglo-American's showroom stock. The parts were then sorted into three piles, each with all the parts needed to assemble a car. A mechanic - Mr. E. O. Young - reassembled the cars with the help of his assistant - Mr. M. M. Gardner. Sometimes they had to work ankle-deep in water, using only wrenches and screwdrivers.[ citation needed ] The third car was re-assembled by Thursday morning, 12 March. With the painted parts on the original cars not being identical in color or style, the reassembled cars were mismatched in appearance, gaining the nickname "harlequin cars". By 2 p.m. on Friday 13 March[ citation needed ] the three cars had completed the mandatory 500-mile run with singular regularity. Only one point was lost owing to a broken cotter pin in the ignition lever (promptly replaced from stock). During the event, it was reported that one of the sheds where the parts were stored became partly flooded during a heavy storm and some parts became rusted. Only oily rags could be used to remove all traces of the immersion.[ citation needed ] On completion of the test, one of the cars was locked away until the start of the 2000-miles reliability trials in June 1908. It came out the winner of the R.A.C. Trophy for its class. Parts interchangeability had been publicly demonstrated and field tested.at the Heddon Street showroom in London (these were engines Nos. 23391, 24111 and 24118). The three cars, all registered in London under the numbers A2EO, A3EO and A4EO, were driven 25 miles to the Brooklands race track at Weybridge.
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Immediately following the introduction of the sleeve-valve principle into the Daimler engine, the Daimler Company in 1909 asked the Royal Automobile Club to frame conditions of a test that should be of unprecedented severity and would demonstrate in the most public manner possible that the new Daimler engine was in every way reliable.
The two engines selected for this test were a 38 and a 22-h.p., having a bore and stroke, respectively, of 124 by 130 mm. and 96 by 130 mm. They were bolted down to the test bench close together in one of the large engine testing shops at the Daimler Works. The section of the shop in which they were placed was railed off and under the sole charge and observation of the R.A.C. officials from the start of the test to the finish. The observers kept watch day and night just as on board a ship, and periodically tested the revolution counters and spring balances to ensure that the engines were always running under full load. Every possible precaution was taken to keep constant and close observation upon the test, and there were never less than two observers on duty.
Both engines were started up at 6 a.m. on Monday, March 22, 1909, and each completed the 132 hours' bench test on the following Saturday evening. To appreciate more clearly the severity of the test, if the larger engine had been driving a car during the whole time, with the standard Daimler gear ratios, a distance of no less than 8,252 miles (13280 km) would have been covered, at a mean speed of 43.45 m.p.h. (69.92 km/h) while the smaller engine would have covered, similarly, a distance of 8,830 miles (14210 km) at 48.4 m.p.h. (77.9 km/h). The disparity in speed and distance between these results is, of course, attributable to the higher rate of revolutions of the smaller engine.
The speed of the engine was 1200 r.p.m. giving a limit of 50.0 h.p. below which the h.p. was at no time to fall.
The duration of the test was 5 days 14 hours 15 minutes or 134.25 hours.
There were no stops incurring any penalties.
There were five stops totalling 1 hour and 56 minutes which did not incur any penalty under Rule 6 (2)
The load was eased for a total of 19 minutes for brake adjustments, but the engine was not stopped. Average horse-power recorded, 54.3.
Petrol consumed, 614 gallons equal to .679 pints per horse-power hour.
On completion of the first test, the engine was removed from the bench and fitted under observation to the chassis without any vital parts being disturbed. A standard type four-seater body was fitted and the car proceeded from Coventry to Weybridge - 112 miles (180.2 km). The average weight of the car and passengers on the road was 4,085 lbs = 1 ton 16 cwt 1 qr 25 lbs (1852.9 kg).
The runs on Brooklands track amounted to 1,930.5 miles (3106.8 km)at an average speed of 42.4 mph (68.2 km/h) with an average weight of car and passengers of 3,805 lb (1726 kg). A distance of 5 miles was traversed in running to and from the car-headquarters and the track, and this with the return journey to Coventry made a total mileage of 2,159.5 (3474.5 km).
The petrol consumption on the track was equal to 20.57 m.p.g. and on the road 19.48 m.p.g. The ton-miles per gallon of fuel were 34.94 on the track and 35.97 on the road.
On arrival in Coventry, the engine was replaced on the test bench and run for 5 hours 15 minutes during which there were no stoppages of any description; the load was eased for 15 minutes for brake adjustments.
Average horse-power recorded, 57.25.
Petrol consumed, 22.5 gallons = .599 pints per horse-power hour.
The judges append the following remarks to their certificate: "The engine was completely dismantled, and no perceptible wear was noticeable on any of the fitted surfaces. The cylinders and pistons were found to be notably clean. The only perceptible wear in any part was caused by two joint pins rubbing against adjacent parts. The ports of the valves showed no burning or wear."
The speed of the engine was 1,400 r.p.m. giving a limit of 35.3 h.p. below which the h.p. was at no time to fall.
The duration of the test was 5 days 12 hours 58 minutes or 132 hours 58 minutes. There were no stops incurring any penalty.
There were two stops of 17 minutes total duration, which did not incur any penalty under Rule 6 (2) The load was eased for a total of 41 minutes for brake adjustments, but the engine was not stopped. Average horse-power recorded was 38.83.
Petrol consumed, 476.5 gallons equal to .739 pints per h.p. hour.
The conditions for the running test were the same as for the 38-h.p. car test, but with varying figures as to the results.
Average weight of the car and passengers on the road was 3,512.5 lbs (1638.6 kg); on the track, 3,332.5 lb (1511.6 kg).
Distance covered on Brooklands track, 1,914.1 miles (3080.4 km).
Average speed, 41.88 mph (67.4 km/h).
The petrol consumption on the track was equal to 22.44 m.p.g. and on the road 19.48 m.p.g. The ton-miles per gallon of fuel were 33.37 on the track and 31.19 on the road.
The total mileage of 2,143.1 (3449 km).
Duration, 5 hours 2 minutes. No stoppages of any description; the load was eased for 1 minute. Average horse-power recorded, 38.96. Petrol consumed, 18.25 gallons = .749 pints per h.p. hour. The judges append the following remarks to their certificate: "The engine was completely dismantled, and no perceptible wear was noticeable on any of the fitted surfaces. The cylinders and pistons were found to be notably clean. The ports of the valves showed no burning or wear."
Brooklands was a 2.75-mile (4.43 km) motor racing circuit and aerodrome built near Weybridge in Surrey, England, United Kingdom. It opened in 1907 and was the world's first purpose-built 'banked' motor racing circuit as well as one of Britain's first airfields, which also became Britain's largest aircraft manufacturing centre by 1918, producing military aircraft such as the Wellington and civil airliners like the Viscount and VC-10.
Fuel efficiency is a form of thermal efficiency, meaning the ratio of effort to result of a process that converts chemical potential energy contained in a carrier (fuel) into kinetic energy or work. Overall fuel efficiency may vary per device, which in turn may vary per application, and this spectrum of variance is often illustrated as a continuous energy profile. Non-transportation applications, such as industry, benefit from increased fuel efficiency, especially fossil fuel power plants or industries dealing with combustion, such as ammonia production during the Haber process.
The Mercedes-Benz 450SEL 6.9 is the high-performance top-of-the-line version of the W116 model S-Class luxury saloon. It was built by Daimler-Benz in Stuttgart, Germany and based on the long-wheelbase version of the W116 chassis introduced in 1972. The model was generally referred to in the company's literature as the "6.9", to distinguish it from the regular 450SEL. It featured the largest engine of any non-American production car post WWII.
Brough Superior motorcycles, sidecars, and motor cars were made by George Brough in his Brough Superior works on Haydn Road in Nottingham, England, from 1919 to 1940. The motorcycles were dubbed the "Rolls-Royce of Motorcycles" by H. D. Teague of The Motor Cycle newspaper. Approximately 3048 motorcycles were made in the 21 years of production; around a third of that production still exists. T. E. Lawrence owned eight of these motorcycles and died from injuries sustained when he crashed number seven; the eighth was on order. Moving forward to 2008, vintage motorcycle enthusiast Mark Upham acquired the rights to the Brough Superior name. In 2013 he met motorcycle designer Thierry Henriette and asked him to design a new Brough Superior motorcycle. Three months later a prototype of a new SS100 was shown in Milan.
Sydney Charles Houghton "Sammy" Davis was a British racing motorist, journalist, graphic artist and clubman.
Selwyn Francis Edge (1868–1940) was a British businessman, racing driver, cyclist and record-breaker. He is principally associated with selling and racing De Dion-Bouton, Gladiator; Clemént-Panhard, Napier and AC cars.
Invicta is a British automobile manufacturer. The brand has been available intermittently through successive decades. Initially, the manufacturer was based in Cobham, Surrey, England, from 1925 to 1933, then in Chelsea, London, England, from 1933 to 1938 and finally in Virginia Water, Surrey, England, from 1946 to 1950. More recently, the name was revived for the Invicta S1 sports car produced between 2004 and 2012.
The London to Brighton Veteran Car Run is the world's longest-running motoring event, held annually on a course between London and Brighton, England. To qualify, participating automobiles must have been built before 1905. It is also the world's largest gathering of veteran cars. The first edition, "The Emancipation Run" in 1896, celebrated the recently passed Locomotives on Highways Act 1896, which liberalised motor vehicle laws in the United Kingdom.
The Jaguar XK120 is a sports car manufactured by Jaguar between 1948 and 1954. It was Jaguar's first sports car since SS 100 production ended in 1939.
The Knight engine is an internal combustion engine, designed by American Charles Yale Knight (1868-1940), that uses sleeve valves instead of the more common poppet valve construction.
The fuel economy of an automobile relates distance traveled by a vehicle and the amount of fuel consumed. Consumption can be expressed in terms of volume of fuel to travel a distance, or the distance travelled per unit volume of fuel consumed. Since fuel consumption of vehicles is a significant factor in air pollution, and since importation of motor fuel can be a large part of a nation's foreign trade, many countries impose requirements for fuel economy. Different methods are used to approximate the actual performance of the vehicle. The energy in fuel is required to overcome various losses encountered while propelling the vehicle, and in providing power to vehicle systems such as ignition or air conditioning. Various strategies can be employed to reduce losses at each of the conversions between the chemical energy in the fuel and the kinetic energy of the vehicle. Driver behavior can affect fuel economy; maneuvers such as sudden acceleration and heavy braking waste energy.
The Fiat 1400 and Fiat 1900 are passenger cars produced by Italian automotive manufacturer Fiat from 1950 to 1958 and from 1952 to 1959 respectively. The two models shared body and platform, but while the 1.4-litre 1400 was Fiat's intermediate offering, the upmarket 1900 had an enlarged 1.9-litre engine and more luxurious trim and equipment, to serve as flagship in the manufacturer's range.
John Francis Duff was a Canadian racecar driver who won many races and has been inducted in the Canadian Motorsport Hall of Fame. He was one of only two Canadians who raced and won on England’s famous Brooklands Motor Course. The other, Kay Petre, is already an honoured member of the CMHF. Duff was the first Canadian to race in the legendary 24 Hours of Le Mans. To date, he is the only Canadian to win the overall classification at Le Mans.
The energy efficiency in transport is the useful travelled distance, of passengers, goods or any type of load; divided by the total energy put into the transport propulsion means. The energy input might be rendered in several different types depending on the type of propulsion, and normally such energy is presented in liquid fuels, electrical energy or food energy. The energy efficiency is also occasionally known as energy intensity. The inverse of the energy efficiency in transport, is the energy consumption in transport.
Edward Butler (1862–1940) was an English inventor who produced an early three-wheeled petrol automobile called the Butler Petrol Cycle, which is accepted by many as the first British car.
The 1905 International Tourist Trophy was an automobile motor race held on 14 September 1905 on closed public roads along the Highroads Course on the Isle of Man. It was organised by the Automobile Club of Great Britain and Ireland, and was the first time that what became known as the RAC Tourist Trophy was awarded. The race lasted over six hours and was won by John Napier, driving an Arrol-Johnston. Percy Northey finished second in a Rolls-Royce, while the Vinot-Deguingand driver Norman Littlejohn was third.
The Locomotives on Highways Act 1896 removed the strict rules and UK speed limits that were included in the earlier Locomotive Acts which had greatly restricted the adoption of motorised vehicles in the United Kingdom. It came into operation on 14 November 1896.
Violette Cordery, was a British racing driver and long distance record breaker.
An aero-engined car is an automobile powered by an engine designed for aircraft use. Most such cars have been built for racing, and many have attempted to set world land speed records. While the practice of fitting cars with aircraft engines predates World War I by a few years, it was most popular in the interwar period between the world wars when military-surplus aircraft engines were readily available and used to power numerous high-performance racing cars. Initially powered by piston aircraft engines, a number of post-World War II aero-engined cars have been powered by aviation turbine and jet engines instead. Piston-engined, turbine-engined, and jet-engined cars have all set world land speed records. There have also been some non-racing automotive applications for aircraft engines, including production vehicles such as the Tucker 48 and prototypes such as the Chrysler Turbine Car, Fiat Turbina, and General Motors Firebirds. In the late 20th century and into the 21st century, there has also been a revival of interest in piston-powered aero-engined racing cars.
Auto racing began in the mid-19th century. It became an organized sport, which has grown in popularity ever since.