Examen artium was the name of the academic certification conferred in Denmark and Norway, qualifying the student for admission to university studies. Examen artium was originally introduced as the entrance exam of the University of Copenhagen in 1630. The University of Copenhagen was the only university of Denmark-Norway until The Royal Frederick University in Christiania was founded in 1811.
In Norway, examen artium was formally discontinued after the 1982 class (but the term is still sometimes used informally to denote the diploma from today's "videregående skole").
Typically after their tenth and final year of compulsory primary school education, students applied for admission to a three-year programs of studies, called "lines" at schools called gymnas within their counties. The curricula for the lines included a core of general studies topics, including Norwegian, mathematics, history, English, physical education, and one natural science subject.
The curricula of the individual lines emphasized particular subjects. Examples include:
Students's final grades were based on the grading of their classroom work and the grades achieved at standardized examinations. Such examinations were either written for core and emphasized subjects, or oral for all subjects. Written examinations were mandatory for bokmål, nynorsk, and English final essay, and at least two other subjects. Oral examinations were given by drawing lot.
In principle, examen artium gave students eligibility to matriculate in Norwegian and foreign universities. However, some programs would limit eligibility to certain lines as well as academic performance within these lines. For example, Norwegian medical and engineering programs would only consider applications from realfag and natural sciences.
Gymnasium is a term in various European languages for a secondary school that prepares students for higher education at a university. It is comparable to the British English terms grammar school and sixth form college and to US English preparatory high school. Before the 20th century, the gymnasium system was a widespread feature of educational systems throughout many European countries.
Abitur, often shortened colloquially to Abi, is a qualification granted at the end of secondary education in Germany. It is conferred on students who pass their final exams at the end of ISCED 3, usually after twelve or thirteen years of schooling. In German, the term Abitur has roots in the archaic word Abiturium, which in turn was derived from the Latin abiturus.
The baccalauréat, often known in France colloquially as the bac, is a French national academic qualification that students can obtain at the completion of their secondary education by meeting certain requirements. It has existed since the middle ages.
The Danish Gymnasium offers a 3-year general academically-oriented upper secondary programme which builds on the 9th-10th form of the Folkeskole and leads to the upper secondary school exit examination. This qualifies a student for admission to higher education Preparatory, subject to the special entrance regulations applying to the individual higher education programmes. Colloquially, gymnasium refers to what is formally called STX.
The Higher Preparatory Examination is a 2-year general upper secondary programme building on to the 10th form of the Folkeskole and leading to the higher preparatory examination, which qualifies for admission to higher education, subject to the special entrance regulations applying to the individual higher education programmes.
In Denmark, the Higher Technical Examination Programme is a 3-year vocationally oriented general upper secondary programme which builds on the 10th-11th form of the Folkeskole. It leads to the higher technical examination, the HTX-examination, which permits a student to qualify for admission to higher education, subject to the special entrance regulations that apply to the individual course. The programme gives special attention to scientific, technical and communicative subjects. HTX graduates may study at any Danish technical, scientific or traditional university as well as technical and technological academy (akademi) or college (professionshøjskole).
Eleventh grade, 11th grade, junior year, or grade 11 is the eleventh, and for some countries final, grade of secondary schools. Students are typically 16–17 years of age, depending on the country and the students' birthdays.
The Hong Kong Certificate of Education Examination was a standardised examination between 1974 and 2011 after most local students' five-year secondary education, conducted by the Hong Kong Examinations and Assessment Authority (HKEAA), awarding the Hong Kong Certificate of Education secondary school leaving qualification. The examination has been discontinued in 2012 and its roles are now replaced by the Hong Kong Diploma of Secondary Education as part of educational reforms in Hong Kong. It was considered as the equivalent of the GCSE in the United Kingdom.
University admission or college admission is the process through which students enter tertiary education at universities and colleges. Systems vary widely from country to country, and sometimes from institution to institution.
Education in Norway is mandatory for all children aged 6–16.
Examen philosophicum is, together with Examen facultatum, one of two academic exams in most undergraduate programmes at Norwegian universities. Whereas Examen facultatum aims at teaching students how to write academic texts, Examen philosophicum trains students in philosophy and structured thinking. Introduced at the University of Copenhagen in Denmark–Norway in 1675, Examen philosophicum was discontinued in Denmark in 1971 and exists in a reduced version in Norway.
Severin Andreas Heyerdahl was a Norwegian was a physician, radiologist and hospital director. He was a pioneer in the use of radiology and radiation therapy in Norway.
Lars Vegard was a Norwegian physicist, especially known as an aurora borealis researcher.
Ida Cecilie Thoresen Krog was a Norwegian women's rights pioneer and Liberal Party politician, and the first female university student in Norway. She became famous when she was allowed to submit to examen artium in 1882, after an Act amendment had taken place. She was the first president of the women's rights association Skuld and a co-founder and vice president of its successor, the Norwegian Association for Women's Rights. She was also a co-founder and board member of the Norwegian Women's Public Health Association. She was active in the Liberal Party and her liberal views also colored her involvement in the women's rights movement. She was elected a deputy representative in Christiania City Council for the Liberal Party in 1901, as one of the first women elected to a political office in Norway.
Lars Aanonsen Havstad was a Norwegian statistician, writer, secretary in the Liberal Party, newspaper editor and activist. He was deaf as well as blind in one eye, and was the first deaf person to pass the examen artium in Norway.
The Regional Science High School for Region IX is a public secondary science school supervised by the Philippine Department of Education, and it is part of the Regional Science High School Union. It is located in Zamboanga City, Mindanao, Philippines. The school offers scholarships to Filipino students who are gifted in the sciences and mathematics. Admission to the school is by competitive examination only, and only Filipino citizens are eligible to attend. Graduates of the school are bound by law to major in the pure and applied sciences, mathematics, or engineering upon entering college.
Rajshahi University School (RUS) is a co-educational Bangladeshi school situated in Rajshahi University. It was established in 1966. Admissions are based on an entrance test and a viva-voce. The school provides education to its students in Bengali medium under the national curriculum. Students are admitted to the institution in First, Second, Third and in Eleventh grade. The school has 3500 students and employs 50 teaching staff and 25 other staff.
Kuben Upper Secondary School is an upper secondary school at Økern in Oslo, Norway. The school is part of Kuben Vocational Arena, and is Oslo's largest Upper secondary school, with approximately 1,850 students. Kuben shares the arena with Oslo Technical School.
Examen facultatum is, together with Examen philosophicum, one of two academic exams in most undergraduate programmes at Norwegian universities. Examen facultatum is a result of theory of science being separated from Examen philosophicum as an independent type of course before 2000. Whereas Examen philosophicum trains students in philosophy and structured thinking, Examen facultatum aims at teaching students how to write academic texts, normally focussing on the scientific branch of each faculty and on the field of study of each undergraduate programme. It is common for universities to have a general course and a course specific part that intertwine with any chosen study as part of Examen philosophicum.