His Master's Voice

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His Master's Voice, 1898 by Francis Barraud His Master's Voice.jpg
His Master's Voice, 1898 by Francis Barraud

His Master's Voice (HMV) was the unofficial name of a major British record label created in 1901 by The Gramophone Co. Ltd. [1] The phrase was first coined in the late 1890s as the title of a painting depicting a terrier-mix dog named Nipper listening to a wind-up disc gramophone. In the original 1898 painting, the dog is listening to a cylinder phonograph. It was a famous trademark and logo of the RCA Victor record label.

Contents

In the 1970s, the statue of the dog and gramophone, His Master's Voice, were cloaked in bronze and was awarded by the record company (EMI) to artists or music producers or composers as a music award and often only after selling more than 100,000 recordings.

His Master's Voice (Music Award EMI-Bovema) Gouden Hond alias His Master's Voice.jpg
His Master's Voice (Music Award EMI-Bovema)

The painting

The trademark image comes from a painting by English artist Francis Barraud and titled His Master's Voice. It was acquired from the artist in 1899 by the newly formed Gramophone Company and adopted as a trademark by the Gramophone Company's United States affiliate, the Victor Talking Machine Company. [2] According to contemporary Gramophone Company publicity material, the dog, a terrier named Nipper, had originally belonged to Barraud's brother, Mark. When Mark Barraud died, Francis inherited Nipper, along with a cylinder phonograph and recordings of Mark's voice. Francis noted the peculiar interest that the dog took in the recorded voice of his late master emanating from the horn, and conceived the idea of committing the scene to canvas. The incident took place at 92 Bold Street, Liverpool.

A coloured vinyl single released by HMV His Master's Voice (red trans m) ubt 24.jpeg
A coloured vinyl single released by HMV
Victor Talking Machine Company trademark VictorTalkingLogo.jpg
Victor Talking Machine Company trademark

In early 1899, Francis Barraud applied for copyright of the original painting using the descriptive working title Dog looking at and listening to a Phonograph. He was unable to sell the work to any cylinder phonograph company, but William Barry Owen, the American founder of the Gramophone Company in England, offered to purchase the painting under the condition that Barraud modify it to show one of their disc machines. Barraud complied and the image was first used on the company's catalogue from December 1899. As the trademark gained in popularity, several additional copies were subsequently commissioned from the artist for various corporate purposes. [3] Emile Berliner, the inventor of the Gramophone, had seen the picture in London and took out a United States copyright on it in July 1900. The painting was adopted as a trademark by Berliner's business partner, Eldridge R. Johnson of the recently formed Consolidated Talking Machine Company, which was reorganized as the Victor Talking Machine Company in 1901.

Johnson first used the dog-and-gramophone image in print advertisements for Consolidated in the autumn of 1900. Beginning in February 1902, most Victor records had a simplified drawing of the image on their labels. The Victor Company used the trademark far more ubiquitously than its UK affiliate, placing it on virtually all Victor products. Magazine and newspaper advertisements urged buyers to "look for the dog." Victor erected a large illuminated advertising sign of Nipper on Broadway, near the Metropolitan Opera House in New York City. In 1915, Victor installed stained glass windows depicting the logo in the tower of Building 17 of its manufacturing complex and headquarters in Camden, New Jersey; the building and windows remain today, and have long been an iconic symbol of both RCA Victor and of Camden's industrial heritage.

In British Commonwealth countries, the Gramophone Company did not use the dog on its record labels until 1909. The following year the Gramophone Company replaced the Recording Angel trademark in the upper half of the record labels with the Nipper logo.

The company was not formally called HMV or His Master's Voice, but rapidly became identified by that phrase due to its prominence on the record labels. Records issued by the company before February 1908 were generally referred to by record collectors as "G&Ts", while those after that date are usually called "HMV" records. During World War I, the Gramophone Company's German branch, Deutsche Grammophon Gesellschaft, severed ties with the British parent company and operated independently; DG retained the Nipper trademark for use in Germany until 1949, when the rights were sold to Electrola, which replaced DG as the EMI affiliate in Germany. The image continued to be used as a trademark by Victor in the US, Canada, and Latin America. In British Commonwealth countries (except for Canada, where Victor held the rights) it was used by various subsidiaries of the Gramophone Company, which ultimately became part of EMI.

The trademark's ownership is divided among different companies in different countries, reducing its value in the globalised music market. The name HMV was used by a chain of music shops owned by HMV, mainly in the UK, Ireland, Canada, Singapore, Australia, Hong Kong, and Japan.

In 1921, the Gramophone Company opened the first HMV shop in London. In 1929, the Radio Corporation of America purchased the Victor Talking Machine Company and with it a major shareholding in the Gramophone Company, of which Victor had owned 51% since 1920. RCA was instrumental in the creation of EMI in 1931, which continued to control the His Master's Voice name and image in the UK. In 1935, RCA Victor sold its stake in EMI but continued to own the rights to His Master's Voice in the Americas. HMV continued to distribute Victor recordings in the UK and elsewhere until 1957, after EMI purchased Capitol Records as their distributor in the western hemisphere. The hostilities between Japan and the US during World War II led RCA Victor's Japanese subsidiary, the Victor Company of Japan (JVC), to secede from the American parent company and become independent. Today, JVC is still allowed use of the "Victor" brand name and Nipper trademark in Japan only. [4] In 1968, RCA introduced a modern logo and retired the Nipper trademark, removing it from virtually all RCA advertising and products with the exception of Red Seal album covers. In 1976, largely due to public demand, RCA revived the trademark and reinstated Nipper to most RCA record labels in the Western Hemisphere. Throughout the late 1970s and 1980s, Nipper was once again widely used in RCA advertising, and the trademark reappeared for a time on RCA television sets and the ill-fated RCA CED videodisc system. In 1967, EMI converted the HMV label into an exclusive classical music label and dropped its POP series of popular music. HMV's POP series artists' roster was moved to Columbia Graphophone and Parlophone and licensed American POP record deals to Stateside Records. [5]

The globalised market for CDs pushed EMI into abandoning the HMV label in favour of "EMI Classics", a name they could use worldwide; however, it was revived between 1988 and 1992 for Morrissey's recordings. The HMV/Nipper trademark is now owned by the retail chain in the UK. The formal trademark transfer from EMI took place in 2003. [6] The old HMV classical music catalogue is now controlled by the Warner Classics unit of Warner Music Group. [7] Most reissues of HMV pop material that EMI previously controlled are now reissued on Warner's Parlophone label. [8] In the UK, Warner Classics's online presence was launched as 'Dog and Trumpet' on Spotify, Facebook, Twitter and Instagram in January 2017. [9]

The dog-and-gramophone image is now licensed by RCA Records and its parent company, Sony Music Entertainment, from Technicolor SA, which operates RCA's consumer electronics division (still promoted by Nipper the dog). Thomson SA acquired the division from General Electric after GE absorbed the RCA Corporation in 1986. [10] The image of "His Master's Voice" exists in the U.S. as a trademark only on radios and radios combined with phonographs; the trademark is owned by RCA Trademark Management SA, a subsidiary of Technicolor.

With that exception, the "His Master's Voice" dog-and-gramophone image is in the public domain in the U.S., its trademark registrations having expired in 1989 (for sound recordings and phonograph cabinets), 1992 (television sets, television-radio combination sets), and 1994 (sound recording and reproducing machines, needles, and records).

Nipper worldwide

Advertisement for "His Master's Voice" gramophones in the Dutch East Indies, 1930s His Master's Voice Advertisement, Surabaya (c 1930s).jpg
Advertisement for "His Master's Voice" gramophones in the Dutch East Indies, 1930s

The "His Master's Voice" logo was used around the world, and the motto became well known in different languages. In Europe these include "La voix de son maître," (France), "La voz de su amo" (Spain), "A voz do dono" (Portugal), "La voce del padrone" (Italy), "Die Stimme seines Herrn" (Germany), "Husbondens Röst" (Sweden), "Głos Swego Pana" (Poland), "Sin Herres Stemme" (Norway) and "Sahibinin Sesi" (Turkey).

On 1 April 2007, HMV announced that Gromit, the animated dog of Wallace and Gromit , would stand in for Nipper for a three-month period, promoting children's DVDs in its UK stores. [11]

The 1958 LP album cover of Elvis' Golden Records shows pictures of various RCA 45s with Nipper on their labels. On the British version, these images were blacked out for copyright reasons. This type of editing took place with many other foreign versions of US RCA releases. Similarly, the album covers and labels of RCA and EMI imports which were sold in other countries, often had a sticker placed over the Nipper trademark.

In the 1946 Warner Bros. Looney Tunes cartoon Daffy Doodles , Daffy Duck is a "mustache fiend" who draws mustaches on advertising signs, including one of "His Master's Voice".

The icon for Macintosh software SoundEdit is a dog similar to Nipper listening to a Macintosh computer.

The movie Superman Returns (2006) contains a scene early on set in Kansas, in which a "His Master's Voice" radio is clearly shown. His Master's Voice radios have never been sold in the U.S., due to RCA holding the "Nipper" copyright. The movie was made in Australia, and the nearest "prop" was obviously used.

In the 2008 film Valkyrie , a Deutsche Grammophon recording of "Ride of the Valkyries" with Nipper and the "Die Stimme seines Herrn" motto on the label was shown spinning on a 78-rpm wind-up gramophone as the music played in the protagonist's living room.

Homage is paid to the iconic dog-and-gramophone image in the 1999 feature film Wild Wild West in which a dog resembling Nipper runs to the side of a recently departed character and looks into an ear horn. The film, however, is set in 1869, 30 years before Barraud created his work.

Staffers at the US public media organization NPR (National Public Radio) noted the similarity of sound between NPR and 'Nipper', and informally adopted the Nipper dog as a mascot. For several years in the 1990s a larger-than-life-size plastic statue of the dog Nipper graced the main entrance lobby of the network's headquarters building in Washington, DC.

HMV

The former flagship HMV store at 150-154 Oxford Street, London HMV - Oxford Street 1.jpg
The former flagship HMV store at 150-154 Oxford Street, London

EMI continued to expand internationally through the 1990s. The name HMV is still used by the chain of entertainment shops founded by the Gramophone Company in the UK and, until 2017, in Canada.

In 1998 HMV Media was created as a separate company, leaving EMI with a 43% stake. The firm bought the Waterstones chain of bookshops and merged them with Dillons the UK booksellers. In 2002 it floated on the London Stock Exchange as HMV Group plc, leaving EMI with only a token holding.

HMV shops in Australia, Ireland, and the UK also use the Nipper trademark. HMV applied for trademark status in order to use Nipper at HMV stores in Canada but in 2010 abandoned the application, [12] presumably because the rights to Nipper in Canada are part of the RCA brand portfolio now owned by Technicolor SA and licensed to other companies.

As of August 2006, there were over 400 HMV stores worldwide. [13] The website is operated by HMV Guernsey.

On 15 January 2013, HMV Group plc entered receivership; stores in Ireland closed 16 January 2013 and were no longer accepting vouchers. The HMV website posted a receivership notice and no further online sales were made. [14]

According to the HMV website, the organization was restructured by Hilco and, while some stores were closed, it has reopened debt-free and continues to trade.

As of 28 December 2018, HMV has confirmed that it has called in KPMG as administrators and entered administration for the second time in six years. [15]

On 5 February 2019, the Canadian retailer Sunrise Records announced its acquisition of HMV Retail for an undisclosed amount (later reported to be £883,000). [16] Sunrise planned to maintain the HMV chain and five Fopp stores, but immediately closed 27 locations. [17] By late-February, HMV had reopened a number of stores (including 1 Fopp branch). [18] [19]

See also

Related Research Articles

EMI British music recording and publishing company

EMI Group Limited was a British transnational conglomerate founded in March 1931 in London. At the time of its break-up in 2012, it was the fourth largest business group and record label conglomerate in the music industry, and was one of the "Big Four" record companies. Its labels included EMI Records, Parlophone, Virgin Records, and Capitol Records, which are now owned by other companies.

Nipper

Nipper was a dog from Bristol, England, who served as the model for an 1898 painting by Francis Barraud titled His Master's Voice. This image was the basis for one of the world's best known trademarks, the famous dog-and-gramophone that was used by several record companies and their associated company brands, including Berliner Gramophone and its various affiliates and successors, including Berliner's German subsidiary Deutsche Grammophon; Berliner's American successor the Victor Talking Machine Co. ; Zonophone; Berliner's British affiliate the Gramophone Co. Ltd. and its successors EMI and HMV Retail Ltd.; the Gramophone Co.'s German subsidiary Electrola; Zonophone; and onetime Victor subsidiary the Japan Victor Company (JVC).

JVC Japanese international electronics corporation

The Victor Company of Japan, Limited, usually referred to as JVC or the Japan Victor Company, was a Japanese international professional and consumer electronics corporation based in Yokohama. Founded in 1927, the company is best known for introducing Japan's first televisions and for developing the Video Home System (VHS) video recorder.

Columbia Records American record label currently owned by Sony Music Entertainment

Columbia Records is an American record label owned by Sony Music Entertainment, a subsidiary of Sony Corporation of America, the North American division of Japanese conglomerate Sony. It was founded on January 15, 1889, evolving from the American Graphophone Company, the successor to the Volta Graphophone Company. Columbia is the oldest surviving brand name in the recorded sound business, and the second major company to produce records. From 1961 to 1991, Columbia recordings were released outside North America under the name CBS Records to avoid confusion with EMI's Columbia Graphophone Company. Columbia is one of Sony Music's four flagship record labels, alongside former longtime rival RCA Records, as well as Arista Records and Epic Records.

Victor Talking Machine Company American record company and phonograph manufacturer headquartered in Camden, New Jersey

The Victor Talking Machine Company was an American record company and phonograph manufacturer headquartered in Camden, New Jersey. It was best known for using "His Master's Voice" as a logo.

RCA Records is an American record label owned by Sony Music Entertainment, a subsidiary of Sony Corporation of America. It is one of Sony Music's four flagship labels, alongside RCA's former long-time rival Columbia Records; also Arista Records, and Epic Records. The label has released multiple genres of music, including pop, classical, rock, hip hop, afrobeat, electronic, R&B, blues, jazz, and country. Its name is derived from the initials of its defunct parent company, the Radio Corporation of America (RCA). It was fully acquired by Bertelsmann in 1986, making it a part of Bertelsmann Music Group (BMG). RCA Records became a part of Sony BMG Music Entertainment after Sony and BMG merged in 2004; it was acquired by the latter in 2008, after the dissolution of Sony BMG and the restructuring of Sony Music. It is the second-oldest record label in American history, after sister label Columbia Records.

Berliner Gramophone

Berliner Gramophone – its discs identified with an etched-in "E. Berliner's Gramophone" as the logo – was the first disc record label in the world. Its records were played on Emile Berliner's invention, the Gramophone, which competed with the wax cylinder–playing phonographs that were more common in the 1890s.

Polydor Records German-British record label and company

Polydor Records Ltd. is a German-British record label and company that operates as part of Universal Music Group. It has a close relationship with Universal's Interscope Geffen A&M Records label, which distributes Polydor's releases in the United States. In turn, Polydor distributes Interscope releases in the United Kingdom. Polydor Records Ltd. was established in London in 1954 as a British subsidiary of German company Deutsche Grammophon GmbH. It was renamed Polydor Ltd. in 1972.

Deutsche Grammophon German classical music record label

Deutsche Grammophon is a German classical music record label that was the precursor of the corporation PolyGram. Headquartered in Berlin Friedrichshain, it is now part of Universal Music Group (UMG) since its merger with the UMG family of labels in 1999. It is the oldest surviving established record company.

Columbia Graphophone Company

Columbia Graphophone Co. Ltd. was one of the earliest gramophone companies in the United Kingdom.

Zonophone

Zonophone was a record label founded in 1899 in Camden, New Jersey, by Frank Seaman. The Zonophone name was not that of the company but was applied to records and machines sold by Seaman's Universal Talking Machine Company from 1899–1903. The name was subsequently acquired by Columbia Records, the Victor Talking Machine Company, and finally the Gramophone Company/EMI Records. It has been used for a number of record publishing labels by these companies.

The Gramophone Company Limited , based in the United Kingdom and founded on behalf of Emil Berliner, was one of the early recording companies, the parent organisation for the His Master's Voice (HMV) label, and the European affiliate of the American Victor Talking Machine Company. Although the company merged with the Columbia Graphophone Company in 1931 to form Electric and Musical Industries Limited (EMI), its name "The Gramophone Company Limited" continued in the UK into the 1970s.

Angel Records was a record label founded by EMI in 1953. It specialised in classical music, but included an occasional operetta or Broadway score. The Angel mark was used by EMI, its predecessors, and affiliated companies from 1898. The label has been inactive since 2006, wnen it dissolved and reassigned its classical artists and catalogues to its parent label EMI Classics and merged its musical theatre artists and catalogues into Capitol Records. EMI Classics was sold to the Warner Music Group in 2013.

EMI Classics

EMI Classics was a record label founded by EMI in 1990 in order to reduce the need to create country-specific packaging and catalogues for internationally distributed classical music releases. Following the European Commission's approval of the takeover of EMI Group by Universal Music in September 2012, EMI Classics was listed for divestment. The label was sold to Warner Music Group, which absorbed EMI Classics into Warner Classics in 2013.

EMI Records Record label founded by the EMI company

EMI Records Ltd. is a British record label owned by Universal Music Group (UMG). The original EMI Records was founded by the music company of the same name in 1972 as its flagship label, and launched in January 1973 as the successor to its Columbia and Parlophone record labels. The label was later launched worldwide. It has a branch in India called "EMI Records India", run by director Mohit Suri. UMG revived the label in June 2020, as the successor to Virgin EMI, with Virgin Records now operating as an imprint of EMI Records.

HMV Public entertainment retailing company

HMV is a UK-based music and film retailer. The first HMV-branded store was opened by the Gramophone Company on Oxford Street in 1921, and the HMV name was also used for television and radio sets manufactured from the 1930s onwards. The retail side of the business began to expand in the 1960s, and in 1998 was divested from EMI, the successor to the Gramophone Company, to form what would become HMV Group.

Electrola

Electrola is a German record label and subsidiary of Universal Music Group. Based in Munich, its roster has included Chumbawamba, Matthias Reim, Helene Fischer, Brings, Höhner and Santiano.

Francis Barraud

Francis James Barraud was an English painter – the son of portrait painter Henry Barraud. After one of his works popularized the then-new field of sound recording, he became best known as a commercial illustrator.

Nipper Building United States historic place

The Nipper Building is a colloquial name for The Victor condominiums, and formerly, Building 17, RCA Victor Company, Camden Plant. The structure is a historical building located in Cooper Grant neighborhood of Camden, Camden County, New Jersey, United States. Since 1901, Camden was the headquarters of the Victor Talking Machine Company, later RCA Victor. Originally a Victrola cabinet factory, the building was converted into luxury apartments and retail space in 2004.

References

  1. "His Master's Voice (Multinational label)". discogs.com. Retrieved 31 January 2020.
  2. Rye, Howard (2002). Kernfeld, Barry (ed.). The New Grove Dictionary of Jazz. 2 (2nd ed.). New York: Grove's Dictionaries Inc. p. 249. ISBN   1-56159-284-6.
  3. "The Nipper Saga". Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 27 May 2006.
  4. HMV shops in Canada and Japan were not allowed use of Nipper for these reasons; nor did the shops HMV operated in the United States in the late 1990s and early 2000s.
  5. Billboard. 1967. Retrieved 28 February 2013 via Google Books.
  6. "Trade Mark Details as at 28 February 2013: HMV Group plc". Patent.gov.uk. Retrieved 28 February 2013.
  7. "Claude Debussy – Vladimir Horowitz: Complete HMV Recordings 1930–1951". Warner Classics. Archived from the original on 11 May 2018.
  8. "At Abbey Road" via Amazon.
  9. "Gramophone". reader.exacteditions.com. May 2017. Archived from the original on 30 July 2017.
  10. Thomson SA (now Technicolor SA) bought the RCA trademarks, including Nipper in the Americas, from GE in 2003.
  11. "Gromit steps into HMV logo role". BBC News. 1 April 2007. Archived from the original on 9 October 2007. Retrieved 4 May 2010.
  12. "Canadian Trade-mark Data: 1396181 – Canadian Trade-marks Database". Ic.gc.ca. Canadian Intellectual Property Office. Archived from the original on 5 December 2013. Retrieved 28 November 2013.
  13. "HMV Adds Gaming". marketnews.ca. 28 August 2006. Archived from the original on 23 September 2006. Retrieved 13 September 2006.
  14. "More Uncertainty for HMV". thedailyshift.com. 18 January 2013. Archived from the original on 28 March 2013. Retrieved 22 January 2013.
  15. "Music retailer HMV calls in administrators". 28 December 2018 via www.bbc.co.uk.
  16. "Sunrise Records paid £883000 for HMV". Financial Times. Retrieved 28 February 2019.(subscription required)
  17. Monaghan, Angela; Butler, Sarah (5 February 2019). "HMV reveals which 27 stores have closed after sale to Canadian music boss". The Guardian. ISSN   0261-3077 . Retrieved 5 February 2019.
  18. Hope, Fiona. "HMV brings back nine shuttered stores". PSNEurope. Retrieved 28 February 2019.
  19. "hmv stores: Details of Re-Openings..." HMV.

Further reading