International Association of Rebekah Assemblies

Last updated
Daughters of Rebekah
FoundedSeptember 20, 1851;168 years ago (1851-09-20)
U.S.
TypeSororal and service organization
ScopeInternational
SymbolThree-link chain, dove, lily, moon and seven stars
Headquarters422 Trade Street,
Winston-Salem , North Carolina
US
Website http://www.ioof.org

The Daughters of Rebekah, also known as the Rebekahs and the International Association of Rebekah Assemblies, is an international service-oriented organization and a branch of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows. It was initially designed as the female auxiliary of the IOOF, [1] but now allows both female and male members. [2]

Contents

It is one of the units of the IOOF, but women need not be related to an Odd Fellow to be a member of the Rebekahs. As long as she meets the moral, ethical and age requirement for admission, any woman may join. In most jurisdictions, women aged 16 or 18 years old and above can join a Rebekah Lodge. [3]

An 1898 print depicting various themes related to the work of the Rebekah Lodges. Rebekah Degree of Odd Fellowship 1898.jpg
An 1898 print depicting various themes related to the work of the Rebekah Lodges.
Schuyler Colfax, U.S. Vice-President from March 4, 1869 - March 4, 1873. Schuyler Colfax portrait.jpg
Schuyler Colfax, U.S. Vice-President from March 4, 1869 – March 4, 1873.

Philosophy and purpose

The general duties of the members of this unit are, “To live peaceably, do good unto all, as we have opportunity and especially to obey the Golden Rule, Whatsoever ye would that others should do unto you, do ye even so unto them.” [3]

History

In 1850, Schuyler Colfax was tasked to write a Degree for women. The Rebekah Lodges were founded on 20 September 1851, when, after considerable debate, the Sovereign Grand Lodge of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows voted to adopt the Rebekah Degree, largely due to the efforts of Odd Fellow Schuyler Colfax, U.S. Vice President from 1869 to 1873. The first Rebekah Degrees were honorary awards only, conferred on wives and daughters of Odd Fellows at special Lodge meetings, and recipients were known as "Daughters of Rebekah". [4] The name is taken from the Biblical character of Rebekah.

The early Daughters of Rebekah had no lodge system of their own, and operated in an informal and local manner. On September 25, 1868, the IOOF voted to establish Degree Lodges of the Daughters of Rebekah, mirroring the existing arrangements for their male counterparts. The Daughters were given the right to elect their own officers, charge initiation fees, collect dues and undertake charitable and benevolent activities. The name was changed to "Degree of Rebekah" in 1874. [5]

Teachings and symbolism

The Rebekah Degree was designed especially for women, and its ceremony and lectures are based upon the characters of notable women in Biblical history. It is named for that woman of early Hebrew history whose kindness and hospitality to a humble and unknown stranger was thought to best portray the nobility and character of women. There are also other notable women of Biblical history whose characters and virtues form the basis for the Rebekah Degree and lessons of life to be followed by the Rebekahs. They were famous for their loyalty, patriotism, for civic and national services, for humanitarianism, and for devotion to God and the cause of righteousness among mankind. [6]

The Rebekah Degree ceremony is illustrated by distinctive symbols employed in the work of the degree, each having a significance and an appropriate application:

Rebekah Creed

"I am a Rebekah. I believe in the Fatherhood of God, the brotherhood of man and the sisterhood of women. I believe in the watch-words of our Order - Friendship, Love, and Truth. Friendship - is like a golden chain that ties our hearts together. Love - is one of our most precious gifts, the more you give, the more you receive. Truth - is the standard by which we value people. It is the foundation of our Society. I believe that my main concern should be my God, my family and my friends. Then I should reach out to my community and the world. For in God's eyes we are all brothers and sisters. I am a Rebekah! [8]

Membership

Originally membership was open to wives and daughter of Odd Fellows who had obtained the Scarlett Degree, as well as Odd Fellows of that degree themselves. In 1894, membership in the United States opened to all women over 18, as well as wives, widows and daughters of Odd Fellows, although non-whites were able to join in other countries such as in Latin America and Australia. The African-American, Grand United Order of Odd Fellows, also have their own women's branch called the Household of Ruth. On January 1, 1898 there were 297,691 members of the Rebekah Degree. [9] By 1923 it had grown to 1,021,297 members. [10] In 1977 there were 331,844 members of the Rebekahs Assemblies, as well as 34,337 Odd Fellows who belonged to both orders. Odd Fellow and Rebekah lodges allow female and male members, but while both females and males may hold an Odd Fellow office, only females may hold the highest Rebekah offices [11]

Organization

Local units are called "lodges", of which there were 6,700 in 1979 in the United States and Canada. [12]

Lodge officer positions [13]
OfficeElected/
Appointed
Duty
Noble GrandElectedSits as Chair for Meetings, Official Representative of lodge to outside persons and organizations and see that the lodge program is planned in advance
Vice GrandElectedExercise power to assist Noble Grand in Presiding Meetings. Assume the duties and responsibilities of the NG in times of absence or if necessary
Past Noble GrandElectedAssist Noble Grand and lodge officers in every way possible. May act as NG or VG when legally called thereto
SecretaryElectedRecords minutes at meetings, files necessary paper work, sends and receives communications.
Financial SecretaryElectedNotify and collect to members their dues and financial obligations
TreasurerElectedKeeps an accurate file of all finances and receipts of the lodge and writes all checks ordered
WardenElectedResponsible for the general welfare of the applicant, examines all present before the lodge is opened, give charge of office during initiations, in-charge of regalia and lodge room property and will place regalia in the lodge room before and removing it on closing
ConductorAppointedReceives the candidates when they enter the lodge room, perform all duties assigned in conferring the degrees and assist the Warden while in the lodge
ChaplainAppointedLeads the opening the closing ceremonies and performs all functions assigned during conferral of degrees
Right Supporter of Noble GrandAppointedSupports the NG in keeping order, execute commands, open and close the lodge in due form, see that signs are given correctly and occupy chair of NG when vacated temporarily during lodge hours.
Left Supporter of Noble GrandAppointedSee that members who enter the room are in proper regalia and give the signs correctly and to officiate for the Right Supporter when absent
Right Supporter of Vice GrandAppointedObserve that members give the signs correctly, report to the Noble Grand members that do not conduct themselves according to the regulations of the Order.
Left Supporter of Vice GrandAppointedAssist the Right Supporter and officiate for that officer when absent
Color BearerAppointedOversees flags and proper presentation of such
Right Scene supporterAppointedAssist at initiations and perform roles specified in the charge book
Left Scene SupporterAppointedAssist at initiations and perform roles specified in the charge book
Inner GuardianAppointedGuards the inner door
Outer GuardianAppointedGuards the outer door
Musician (Optional)AppointedPlay all required music and accompaniment during meetings and ceremonies.

Theta Rho Girls Clubs

Theta Rho girls Clubs are the junior order of the Rebekahs and are open to females ages 8–18 depending on jurisdiction. [14] The clubs functions under the supervision of the Sovereign Grand Lodge of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, who are superior in organizational authority to both the Rebekahs and the Theta Rhos. Membership was 14,150 in 1969 and 13,577 in 1970. [11]

Rebekah Children's Services

Rebekah Children's Services is a public benefit corporation founded in 1897 by the California Rebekah Lodge as an orphanage. They now provide foster care placement and support services, parent support, prevention and early specific needs of the child and family whenever categorical services do not work. Their services include outpatient therapy, education to the community, and behavioral health care services to children and families living in Santa Clara, Monterey and Santa Cruz counties. [15]

Religious controversy

Secular organizations were not widely acceptable at the time when the Rebekahs started. Because the Rebekahs was open to anyone regardless of religious affiliations, it met opposition from the clergy specially the Roman Catholic church which opposed the separation of the church and state politics. In 1907 the Apostolic Delegate to the United States, Diomede Falconio, in reply to a query from Novatus Benzing , OFM, of Phoenix, Arizona, determined that the Daughters of Rebekah, as well as the female auxiliaries of other condemned secret societies, fell under the same category of condemnation. However, permission for "passive membership" in female groups affiliated with societies condemned by the Church in 1894 (including the Masons, Odd Fellows, Knights of Pythias and Sons of Temperance) could be granted individually under certain conditions, viz. that the person in question had joined the group in good faith before the condemnation, that leaving the group would cause financial hardship due to the loss of sick benefits and insurance, that if permission was granted dues would only be paid by mail, the parishioner would not attend any lodge meetings, and the society would not have anything to do with the person's funeral. [16]

Since 1975, however, several Catholic priests have become members of the Odd Fellows. One of them was Titian Anthos Miani who joined Scio Lodge No.102 of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows in Linden, California. [17] As soon as the controversy declined and religious leaders began to accept secular organizations, numerous pastors, priests, bishops and rabbis from different religious sects have become members and some even held leadership positions in the Odd Fellows. [18] Currently, membership represent various religious denominations from Catholics, Protestants, Muslims and others.

Today

Rebekah Lodges are still active in the United States despite the fact that the Odd Fellows Lodges in the United States and Canada now accept women as full members. In Europe and Latin America, however, the Rebekah Lodges are exclusively for women because the women choose to preserve the heritage while the Odd Fellow Lodges remain for men. In 2012, there were 77,468 active members belonging to 1,849 Rebekah Lodges located in the United States, Canada, Cuba, Chile, Hawaii, Mexico, Puerto Rico, Uruguay, Venezuela, and in Europe such as Estonia, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Norway, Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland. [19]

Together with the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, Rebekahs undertake various community and charitable projects which include:

Notable Rebekahs

Related Research Articles

Ordo Templi Orientis international fraternal and religious organization

Ordo Templi Orientis (O.T.O.) is an occult initiatory organization founded at the beginning of the 20th century. The origins of the O.T.O can be traced back to the German-speaking occultists Carl Kellner, Heinrich Klein, Franz Hartmann and Theodor Reuss. English author and occultist Aleister Crowley is the best-known and most influential member of the order.

Independent Order of Odd Fellows Nonprofit organization

The Independent Order of Odd Fellows (IOOF) is a non-political and non-sectarian international fraternal order of Odd Fellowship. It was founded in 1819 by Thomas Wildey in Baltimore, Maryland, United States. Evolving from the Order of Odd Fellows founded in England during the 1700s, the IOOF was originally chartered by the Independent Order of Oddfellows Manchester Unity in England but has operated as an independent organization since 1842, although it maintains an inter-fraternal relationship with the English Order. The order is also known as the Triple Link Fraternity, referring to the order's "Triple Links" symbol, alluding to its motto "Friendship, Love and Truth".

Odd Fellows Fraternal service movement

Odd Fellows, or Oddfellows, also Odd Fellowship or Oddfellowship, is an international fraternity consisting of lodges first documented in 1730 in London. The first known lodge was called Loyal Aristarcus Lodge No. 9, suggesting there were earlier ones in the 18th century. Notwithstanding, convivial meetings were held "in much revelry and, often as not, the calling of the Watch to restore order." Names of several British pubs today suggest past Odd Fellows affiliations. In the mid-18th century, following the Jacobite risings, the fraternity split into the rivaling Order of Patriotic Oddfellows in southern England, favouring William III of England, and the Ancient Order of Oddfellows in northern England and Scotland, favouring the House of Stuart.

Independent Order of Oddfellows Manchester Unity fraternal order founded in Manchester

The Independent Order of Oddfellows Manchester Unity Friendly Society Limited, also called the Manchester Unity of Oddfellows; trading as The Oddfellows, is a fraternal order founded in Manchester in 1810.

Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks American fraternal order

The Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks is an American fraternal order founded in 1868 originally as a social club in New York City. Until 1973, membership was restricted to white men.

Masonic bodies Auxiliary organizations of Freemasonry.

There are many organisations and Orders which form part of the widespread fraternity of Freemasonry, each having its own structure and terminology. Collectively these may be referred to as Masonic bodies, Masonic orders or appendant bodies of Freemasonry.

IOOF (company)

IOOF Holdings Limited is an Australian financial services company which offers a range of products and services including financial advice, superannuation, investment management and trustee services.

Odd Fellows Hall, Independent Order of Odd Fellows Building, IOOF Building, Odd Fellows Lodge and variations are buildings for a chapter of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows fraternal organization.

IOOF Building may refer to two buildings in the centre of the city of Adelaide, South Australia. The first was built in the late 19th century and was demolished in the early-mid 1960s. As a result of this, the second was built as a "replacement" in the mid 1960s.

Odd Fellows or Oddfellows is an international fraternity and its members.

New Richland Odd Fellows Hall

The New Richland Odd Fellows Hall is a historic Independent Order of Odd Fellows (IOOF) clubhouse in New Richland, Minnesota, United States, built in 1902. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2006 under the name Strangers Refuge Lodge Number 74, IOOF for its local significance in the themes of entertainment/recreation and social history. It was nominated for being the home of a large and important local fraternal organization, and for serving as a venue for a wide range of other groups and events. The building now houses the New Richland Public Library.

Independent Order of Odd Fellows in Sweden

The Independent Order of Odd Fellows in Sweden (IOOF), is a part as a grand lodge of the non-political and non-sectarian Independent Order of Odd Fellows, made up of people of good character who have a desire to promote universal harmony and are ready to exercise works of charity and benevolence, specially to those in need.

Hardman IOOF Lodge Hall United States historic place

The Hardman IOOF Lodge Hall is a meeting hall in the ghost town of Hardman in the U.S. state of Oregon. Completed in 1900, it was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 2012.

The Grand United Order of Odd Fellows, American Jurisdiction is a jurisdiction of the Grand United Order of Oddfellows in the United States, Jamaica, Canada, South America, and other locations. Since its founding in 1843, its membership has principally included African Americans, due to black people being discriminated against, as was the norm in fraternal orders in America during the 1700—1800s.

Ancient Mystic Order of Samaritans

The Ancient Mystic Order of Samaritans (AMOS) is an unofficial appendant body to the Independent Order of Odd Fellows in the United States and Canada. It is recognized as the "playground for Odd Fellowship" by the Sovereign Grand Lodge of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows and is known for engaging in public and private hijinks and spectacle, all in the name of good, clean fun. AMOS is open to male Odd Fellows in good standing over the age of 18 but has a close relationship with Ladies of the Orient ("LOTO"), which is only open to women. The two organizations typically meet at the same time and share in social events with each other. Like many other primarily social appendant bodies to fraternal organizations, the rituals and initiations of AMOS have a Middle-Eastern theme and the official regalia is a fez.

I.O.O.F. Centennial Building United States historic place

The I.O.O.F. Centennial Building is an historic building located at 150 East Chisholm Street in Alpena, Michigan. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2015. It dates back to 1876 and is “an excellent example of late Victorian commercial architecture.”

References

  1. "A Grand Gathering, but One With a Solemn Note". New York Times. August 26, 2007. As with most matters of Odd Fellowship, nearly every aspect of the annual convention of the Sovereign Grand Lodge of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows must adhere to protocol. The dais for the officers’ banquet, for example, must be two-tiered and able to accommodate 50 people, high-ranking on the bottom, even higher-ranking on the top. Seats for the sovereign grand master, the deputy sovereign grand master, the sovereign grand warden, the sovereign grand secretary and the sovereign grand treasurer. Seats for the leaders of the two uniformed branches, the Patriarchs Militant and its Ladies Auxiliaries. A seat for the president of the International Association of Rebekah Assemblies, established when the Odd Fellows long ago recognized “the need for a woman’s touch.”
  2. Grand Lodge I.O.O.F. of Texas. A charitable organization in Corsicana, Texas
  3. 1 2 Membership Product 2
  4. "Our Rebekah History". Official website. Rebekah Assembly of Idaho. Retrieved 11 April 2010.
  5. "The International Association of Rebekah Assemblies". Rebekahs In the San Francisco/San Jose Bay Area - website. Archived from the original on 22 May 2010. Retrieved 11 April 2010.
  6. Philosophy & History Archived 2011-02-19 at the Wayback Machine
  7. Meanings of the symbols are taken from the Manuals of a Rebekah lodge
  8. REBEKAHS
  9. Stevens p.260
  10. Preuss, Arthur A Dictionary of Secret and other Societies St. Louis: B. Herder Book Co. 1924; republished Detroit: Gale Reference Company 1966; p.103
  11. 1 2 Schmidt p.331
  12. Schmidt, Alvin J. Fraternal Organizations Westport, CT; Greenwood Press p.286
  13. Greer, J.M. (1998). Inside a magical lodge: group ritual in western the tradition. St. Paul, MN: Llewellyn Publications.
  14. The Independent Order of Odd Fellow Youth Website Archived 2013-11-06 at the Wayback Machine
  15. Rebekah Children's Services
  16. Preuss p.104
  17. p.122-123 Christy, F. & Smith, D. (1995). Six Links of Fellowship. CA: Linden Publications
  18. Christy, F. & Smith, D. (1995). Six Links of Fellowship. CA: Linden Publications
  19. 2012 Advance Reports of the Officers and Committees of the Sovereign Grand Lodge, Independent Order of Odd Fellows, held, in Cincinnati, Ohio
  20. President Ulysses Grant is a member of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows. His wife, Julia, was initiated in the Rebekah Degree
  21. President Rutherford Hayes became a member in Croghan Odd Fellows Lodge No. 77, Fremont, Ohio, in 1849. Due to frequent residence changes, Hayes also consorted with Eagle Lodge No. 100 of Cincinnati, Capitol Lodge of Columbus, and Metropolitan Lodge. In 1881, he returned to Croghan Lodge, and in 1887, he became its Noble Grand. He and his wife were also members of Lincoln Rebekah Lodge No. 128.
  22. Binheim, Max; Elvin, Charles A (1928). Women of the West; a series of biographical sketches of living eminent women in the eleven western states of the United States of America . Retrieved 8 August 2017.PD-icon.svgThis article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  23. Jim McKee: Lincoln Odd Fellows have been around for more than 140 years
  24. Notable american women: a ... - Google Books