Odd Fellows

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The triple links, a recurring symbol among Odd Fellows internationally, connoting the motto of "Amicitia Amor et Veritas"; English: "Friendship, Love and Truth". Three linksOdd Fellows' emblem.jpg
The triple links, a recurring symbol among Odd Fellows internationally, connoting the motto of "Amicitia Amor et Veritas"; English: "Friendship, Love and Truth".

Odd Fellows, or Oddfellows, also Odd Fellowship or Oddfellowship, [1] is an international fraternity consisting of lodges first documented in 1730 in London. [2] [3] The first known lodge was called Loyal Aristarcus Lodge No. 9, suggesting there were earlier ones in the 18th century. Notwithstanding, convivial meetings were held "in much revelry and, often as not, the calling of the Watch to restore order." [2] Names of several British pubs today suggest past Odd Fellows affiliations. In the mid-18th century, following the Jacobite risings, the fraternity split into the rivaling Order of Patriotic Oddfellows in southern England, favouring William III of England, and the Ancient Order of Oddfellows in northern England and Scotland, favouring the House of Stuart. [2]

Contents

Odd Fellows from that time include John Wilkes (1725–1797) and Sir George Savile, 8th Baronet of Thornton (1726–1784), advocating civil liberties and reliefs, including Catholic emancipation. Political repressions such as the Unlawful Oaths Act (1797) and the Unlawful Societies Act (1799), [4] resulted in neutral amalgamation of the Grand United Order of Oddfellows in 1798. Since then the fraternity has remained religiously and politically independent. George IV of the United Kingdom, admitted in 1780, was the first documented of many Odd Fellows to also attend freemasonry, although the societies remain mutually independent.[ citation needed ]

In 1810, further instigations led to the establishment of the Independent Order of Oddfellows Manchester Unity in England. Odd Fellows spread overseas, including formally chartering the fraternity in the United States in 1819. In 1842, due to British authorities intervening in the customs and ceremonies of British Odd Fellows and in light of post-colonial American sovereignty, the American Odd Fellows became independent as the Independent Order of Odd Fellows under British-American Thomas Wildey (1782–1861), soon constituting the largest sovereign grand lodge. Likewise, by the mid-19th century, the Independent Order of Oddfellows Manchester Unity become the largest and richest fraternal organisation in the United Kingdom. [4] [ failed verification ]

Odd Fellows promote philanthropy, the ethic of reciprocity and charity; some grand lodges imply a Judeo-Christian affiliation. The American-based Independent Order of Odd Fellows enrolls some six hundred thousand members divided into approximately ten thousand lodges in thirty countries, [5] [6] and is interfraternally recognised by the British-based Independent Order of Oddfellows Manchester Unity. [7] In total, members of all international branches combined are estimated in the millions worldwide.[ citation needed ]

Name

Several theories aim to explain the etymological background of the name "Odd Fellows", often spelled "Oddfellows" in British English. In the 18th century United Kingdom, major trades were organised in guilds or other forms of syndicates, but smaller trades did not have equivalent social or financial security. One theory has it that "odd fellows", people who exercised unusual, miscellaneous "odd trades", eventually joined together to form a larger group of "odd fellows". [8]

Another theory suggests that in the beginning of odd fellowship in the 18th century, at the time of the early era of industrialisation, it was rather odd to find people who followed noble values such as fraternalism, benevolence and charity. [8] [ need quotation to verify ]

The name was supposedly adopted at a time when the severance into sects and classes was so wide that persons aiming at social union and mutual help were a marked exception to the general rule. [9] Possibly, it met a mixed reaction from the upper classes, who may have seen them as a source of revenue by taxes, but also as a threat to their authority. [10]

Any suggestion of history before the 18th century is considered mere speculation. [11]

History

John Wilkes (1725-1797), initially a young radical journalist, then gradually more conservative; one of the first documented odd fellows. John Wilkes after Richard Houston.jpg
John Wilkes (1725–1797), initially a young radical journalist, then gradually more conservative; one of the first documented odd fellows.
Sir George Savile, 8th Baronet (1726-1784), an odd fellow who famously advocated civil liberties and reliefs in the United Kingdom, including Catholic emancipation. Subsequently, the odd fellows became religiously and politically independent. Memorial to Sir George Savile, Bart in York Minster.jpg
Sir George Savile, 8th Baronet (1726–1784), an odd fellow who famously advocated civil liberties and reliefs in the United Kingdom, including Catholic emancipation. Subsequently, the odd fellows became religiously and politically independent.
King George IV of the United Kingdom (1762-1830), admitted in 1780, was the first documented of many odd fellows to also adhere to freemasonry; both societies remained mutually independent. GeorgeIV1785.jpg
King George IV of the United Kingdom (1762–1830), admitted in 1780, was the first documented of many odd fellows to also adhere to freemasonry; both societies remained mutually independent.

Background

The Odd Fellows are one of the earliest and oldest fraternal societies, but their early history is obscure and largely undocumented.

Traditions tracing the fraternity's origins back to Roman emperors Nero and Titus are considered dubious. [12] The evolution of the society from medieval guilds, however, is more reliably documented. [lower-alpha 1]

By the 13th century, tradesmen's guilds had become established and prosperous. During the 14th century, guild masters moved to protect their power and wealth by restricting access to the guilds. In response, the less experienced and less wealthy fellows established their own rival guilds. [lower-alpha 2] [2] [13] [4] [14] [ need quotation to verify ], [15] [ need quotation to verify ], [2] [ need quotation to verify ]

When Henry VIII broke with the Roman Catholic Church, he viewed the guilds as supporting the pope, and in 1545 he confiscated all material property of the guilds. Elizabeth I stripped the guilds of the responsibility for training apprentices, and by the end of her reign, most guilds had been suppressed. [10] [2] [13] [4]

The exact origin of Oddfellowship is involved in obscurity. It must have had a beginning, but just when and where, no historian has ever been able to ascertain. All of its history prior to the introduction of the Order into England is merely conjecture founded upon proofless, and, in most cases, absurd traditions.

Great antiquity has been claimed for the order ... Oddfellows themselves, however, now generally admit that the institution cannot be traced back beyond the first half of the 18th century.

Foundation

There were numerous Oddfellow organizations in England in the 1700s. [17] One Edwardian Oddfellow history argued that in 1710 there was a 'Loyal Lintot of Oddfellows' in London. [18] The first Oddfellows group in South Yorkshire, England, dates from 1730. [19] The earliest surviving documented evidence of an “Oddfellows” lodge is the minutes of Loyal Aristarchus Oddfellow Lodge no. 9 in England, dated 12 March 1748. By it being lodge number 9, this connotes that there were older Oddfellows lodges that existed before this date. [20]

Subsequent to the failure of Bonnie Prince Charlie's uprising, in 1789 these two Orders formed a partial amalgamation as the Grand United Order of Oddfellows. These days they are more commonly known as "The Grand United Order of Oddfellows Friendly Society" (GUOOFS), [21] abandoning all political and religious disputes and committing itself to promoting the harmony and welfare of its members. Some books mention that there was a lodge of a 'Union Order of Oddfellows' in London in 1750, and one in Derby in 1775. [22]

The Oddfellows Magazine of 1888 included a picture of a medal presented to the secretary of a lodge of the Grand Independent Order of Oddfellows in 1796. In a magazine review of a 1798 sermon preached in the Sheffield Parish Church, the "Oddfellows appear to be very numerous with about thirty-nine lodges of them in London and its vicinity, two at Sheffield, and one at each of the following places: Wolverhampton, Birmingham, Shrewsbury, Windsor, Wandsworth, Canterbury, Liverpool, Richmond in Surrey and Lewes". [23] This suggested that the "Original United Order of Oddfellows" consisted of a total of 50 lodges at that time.

In 1810, various lodges of the Union or United Order in the Manchester area declared themselves as an "Independent Order", and organized the "Manchester Unity of Oddfellows" which chartered the Odd Fellows in North America in 1819. [24] [25]

International evolution

United Kingdom

Other
  • Ancient and Noble Order of United Oddfellows [28] [30]
  • Independent Order of Oddfellows Bolton Unity Friendly Society [28] [30]
  • Independent Order of Oddfellows Kingston Unity Friendly Society [28] [30]

United States

British-American Thomas Wildey (1782-1861) founded the Washington Lodge No 1 in Baltimore in 1819, subsequently the Independent Order of Odd Fellows since 1842. Thomas Wildey.jpg
British-American Thomas Wildey (1782–1861) founded the Washington Lodge No 1 in Baltimore in 1819, subsequently the Independent Order of Odd Fellows since 1842.

Catholic opposition

The Catholic Church in the 19th and early 20th centuries condemned secret societies such as the Freemasons, deemed "pseudo-religious", but also addressed other organisations, including expressing suspicions against the stated religious neutrality and independence of Oddfellows. [33] [ failed verification ]

In 1907, the Apostolic Delegate to the United States, the Most Rev Diomede Falconio, in reply to a query from the Rev Novatus Benzing, OFM, of Phoenix, Arizona, determined that the Daughters of Rebekah, the auxiliary of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, as well as the female auxiliaries of other condemned secret societies, fell under the same category of condemnation.[ citation needed ]

However, permission for "passive membership" in female groups affiliated with societies condemned by the church in 1894 (including such oddfellows as the Knights of Pythias and Sons of Temperance) could be granted individually under certain conditions, viz. that the person in question had joined the group in good faith before the condemnation, that leaving the group would cause financial hardship due to the loss of sick benefits and insurance, that if permission is granted dues would only be paid by mail, the parishioner would not attend any lodge meetings, and the society would not have anything to do with the person's funeral. [34]

Since 1975, however, several Catholic priests have become members of the Odd Fellows. One of them was Father Titian Anthos Miani who joined Scio Lodge No.102 of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows in Linden, California. [35] As soon as the controversy declined and religious leaders began to accept secular organizations, numerous pastors, priests, bishops and rabbis from different religious sects have become members and some even held leadership positions in the Odd Fellows. [35] However, since the new code of Canon Law did not explicitly mention masonic orders and other secret societies and there was unclarity on the attitude of the catholic church towards for example Odd Fellows, the Office of the Sacred Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith issued a declaration on masonic associations in 1983, stating clearly that the opposition of the Catholic Church stated in the earlier version of the Canon Law had not changed. [36]

See also

Notes

  1. Both History of the Oddfellows and The Oddfellows Over the Years describe the evolution of the Guilds, and Oddfellow terminology derived from the guilds. For example, each Guild was headed by a Grand Master, the name that the Odd Fellows use to refer to their annually elected Head.
  2. History of the Oddfellows: The "Master" required that guild members wear expensive uniforms and jewellery to meetings; as the less wealthy "Fellows" could not afford these, they were thus precluded from membership. Lodge "collars" and "jewels" have their origins in this guild-masters' "restrictive trade practice".
  3. The Grand United Order of Oddfellows are now more commonly referred to as The Grand United Order of Oddfellows Friendly Society (GUOOFS)
  4. 1 2 The Grand United Order of Oddfellows, established in England in 1798, should not be confused with the Grand United Order of Odd Fellows, established in the USA in 1843.
  5. 1 2 The Manchester Unity of Oddfellows is also known as The Independent Order of Oddfellows Manchester Unity Friendly Society [2]

Related Research Articles

Independent Order of Odd Fellows Nonprofit organization

The Independent Order of Odd Fellows (IOOF) is a non-political and non-sectarian international fraternal order of Odd Fellowship. It was founded in 1819 by Thomas Wildey in Baltimore, Maryland, United States. Evolving from the Order of Odd Fellows founded in England during the 1700s, the IOOF was originally chartered by the Independent Order of Oddfellows Manchester Unity in England but has operated as an independent organization since 1842, although it maintains an inter-fraternal relationship with the English Order. The order is also known as the Triple Link Fraternity, referring to the order's "Triple Links" symbol, alluding to its motto "Friendship, Love and Truth".

Independent Order of Rechabites

The Independent Order of Rechabites (IOR), also known as the Sons and Daughters of Rechab, is a fraternal organisation and friendly society founded in England in 1835 as part of the wider temperance movement to promote total abstinence from alcoholic beverages. Always well connected in upper society and involved in financial matters, it gradually transformed into a financial institution which still exists, and still promotes abstinence. The Order has been active in Australia from 1843, promoting temperance and as a benefit society. A branch was established in the United States in 1842, and also flourished for a time. In the United Kingdom, the Order trades under the name of Healthy Investment.

Independent Order of Oddfellows Manchester Unity fraternal order founded in Manchester

The Independent Order of Oddfellows Manchester Unity Friendly Society Limited, also called the Manchester Unity of Oddfellows; trading as The Oddfellows, is a fraternal order founded in Manchester in 1810.

Benefit society an organizational or voluntary association, formed to provide mutual aid, benefit, or insurance for relief from sundry difficulties

A benefit society, fraternal benefit society or fraternal benefit order is a society, an organization or a voluntary association formed to provide mutual aid, benefit, for instance insurance for relief from sundry difficulties. Such organizations may be formally organized with charters and established customs, or may arise ad hoc to meet unique needs of a particular time and place. Many major financial institutions existing today, particularly some insurance companies, mutual savings banks, and credit unions, trace their origins back to benefit societies, as can many modern fraternal organizations and fraternal orders which are now viewed as being primarily social; the modern legal system essentially requires all such organizations of appreciable size to incorporate as one of these forms or another to continue to exist on an ongoing basis.

Thomas Wildey English philanthropist

Thomas Wildey (1782–1861) was the founder of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows (IOOF) in North America.

A fraternal order is a fraternity organised as an order, with traits alluding to religious, chivalric or pseudo-chivalric orders, guilds, or secret societies. Contemporary fraternal orders typically have secular purposes, including social, cultural and mutually beneficial or charitable aims. Many friendly societies, benefit societies and mutual organisations take the form of a fraternal order.

IOOF (company)

IOOF Holdings Limited is an Australian financial services company which offers a range of products and services including financial advice, superannuation, investment management and trustee services.

Odd Fellows Hall, Independent Order of Odd Fellows Building, IOOF Building, Odd Fellows Lodge and variations are buildings for a chapter of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows fraternal organization.

AF and AM Lodge 687 building in Illinois, United States

The Ancient Free and Accepted Masons Lodge 687, also known as the Independent Order of Odd Fellows J.R. Scruggs Lodge 372, is a building constructed in 1876 as a Masonic Hall. It is located in downtown Orangeville, Illinois, a small village in Stephenson County. The building, originally built by the local Masonic Lodge, was bought by the locally more numerous Independent Order of Oddfellows fraternal organization in 1893. The building has served all of Orangeville's fraternal organizations for more than 125 years, from the time it was built. The two-story, front gabled building has Italianate architecture elements. It had a rear wing added to it in 1903. By 2003, the first floor has been returned to use as a community center, holding dinner theatre and other community functions, much as the building had originally served the community until first floor space was rented out for commercial use in the late 19th century. The building was listed on the U.S. National Register of Historic Places in 2003. The building is the home of the Mighty Richmond Players Dinner Theatre (MRPDT) dinner theatre which seats 54 persons and has scheduled four different productions for the 2010 season. A $150,000 renovation of the building was recently completed. The building was listed on the National Register of Historic Places as AF and AM Lodge 687, Orangeville in 2003.

Fraternity brotherhood

A fraternity or fraternal organization is an organization, society, club or fraternal order traditionally of men associated together for various religious or secular aims. Fraternity in the Western concept developed in the Christian context, notably with the religious orders in the Catholic Church during the Middle Ages. The concept was eventually further extended with medieval confraternities and guilds. In the early modern era, these were followed by fraternal orders such as freemasons and odd fellows, along with gentlemen's clubs, student fraternities, and fraternal service organizations. Members are occasionally referred to as a brother or – usually in religious context – Frater or Friar.

IOOF Building may refer to two buildings in the centre of the city of Adelaide, South Australia. The first was built in the late 19th century and was demolished in the early-mid 1960s. As a result of this, the second was built as a "replacement" in the mid 1960s.

Odd Fellows or Oddfellows is an international fraternity and its members.

New Richland Odd Fellows Hall

The New Richland Odd Fellows Hall is a historic Independent Order of Odd Fellows (IOOF) clubhouse in New Richland, Minnesota, United States, built in 1902. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2006 under the name Strangers Refuge Lodge Number 74, IOOF for its local significance in the themes of entertainment/recreation and social history. It was nominated for being the home of a large and important local fraternal organization, and for serving as a venue for a wide range of other groups and events. The building now houses the New Richland Public Library.

Independent Order of Odd Fellows in Sweden

The Independent Order of Odd Fellows in Sweden (IOOF), is a part as a grand lodge of the non-political and non-sectarian Independent Order of Odd Fellows, made up of people of good character who have a desire to promote universal harmony and are ready to exercise works of charity and benevolence, specially to those in need.

The Grand United Order of Odd Fellows, American Jurisdiction is a jurisdiction of the Grand United Order of Oddfellows in the United States, Jamaica, Canada, South America, and other locations. Since its founding in 1843, its membership has principally included African Americans, due to black people being discriminated against, as was the norm in fraternal orders in America during the 1700—1800s.

Grand United Order of Oddfellows Friendly Society (GUOOFS) is an odd fellows grand lodge founded in 1798 and based in Manchester, United Kingdom.

The Golden Age of Fraternalism is a term referring to a period when membership in the fraternal societies in the United States grew at a very rapid pace in the latter third of the 19th century and continuing into the first part of the 20th. At its peak, it was suggested that as much as 40% of the adult population held membership in at least one fraternal order.

Australian Unity is an Australian mutual company having its origins in the friendly societies movement. It was formed as the Manchester Unity Independent Order of Oddfellows (MUIOOF) in Melbourne, Victoria on 7 December 1840 by eight men including Thomas Strode, publisher of the Port Phillip Gazette and Augustus Greeves, inspired by Independent Order of Oddfellows Manchester Unity. In 1993, Manchester Unity merged with the Australian Natives' Association to form Australian Unity. Later mergers occurred with Grand United Friendly Society in 2005, Lifeplan Australia Friendly Society in 2009, and Big Sky Credit Union in 2012. Australian Unity has about 8,500 employees across healthcare, insurance and banking divisions.

References

  1. "Definition of "Odd-fellow"". Dictionary.reference.com. Retrieved 1 November 2016.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 "History of the Oddfellows". The Oddfellows. Archived from the original on 7 October 2015. Retrieved 1 November 2016.
  3. "The Oddfellows" (PDF). Library and Museum of Freemasonry. Retrieved 11 May 2017.
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 "The Oddfellows Over the Years". The Oddfellows. Archived from the original on 29 April 2016. Retrieved 1 November 2016.
  5. "About". Ioof.org. Retrieved 1 November 2016.
  6. "Deutscher Odd Fellow-Orden: Geschichte des Ordens" (in German). Oddfellows.de. Retrieved 1 November 2016.
  7. IOOF International Network Archived 30 September 2009 at the Wayback Machine , keyinvest.com.au/ioofsa; accessed 1 November 2016.
  8. 1 2 Müller, Stephanie (2008): The name Odd Fellows, from Concept and contents of Odd Fellowship, Chapter 4 of Visit the Sick, Relieve the Distressed, Bury the Dead and Educate the Orphan: The Independent Order of Odd Fellows. A scientific work in the field of cultural studies, vol. 10 of the "Cultural Studies in the Heartland of America" project, Wissenschaftlicher Verlag, Trier, Germany; ISBN   978-3-86821-093-4; retrieved 14 October 2009.
  9. 1 2 Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Oddfellows, Order of"  . Encyclopædia Britannica . 19 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 996.
  10. 1 2 Weinbren, Daniel (2010) The Oddfellows 1810–2010: Two Hundred Years of Making Friends and Helping People Lancaster: Carnegie Publishing; ISBN   978-1-85936207-5
  11. Burkley M. Gray (n.d.) Fraternalism in America (1860–1920), phoenixmasonry.org; accessed 1 November 2016.
  12. 1 2 "History". Grand United Order of Odd Fellows in America. Retrieved 3 January 2015.
  13. 1 2 "History of the Oddfellows". Manchester, UK: The Oddfellows (The Independent Order of Oddfellows Manchester Unity Friendly Society Ltd). Archived from the original on 27 February 2007. Retrieved 2 September 2007.
  14. History and Traditions Archived 9 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine , oddfellows.co.uk; retrieved 11 November 2009.
  15. Beresford, Rachael (8 February 2006). "History of the Oddfellows". Manchester, UK: The Oddfellows (The Independent Order of Oddfellows Manchester Unity Friendly Society Limited). Archived from the original on 6 October 2007. Retrieved 2 September 2007.
  16. "History Of The Order". Guoofamerica.com. 6 January 1943. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
  17. Most statements here can be found in Weinbren, D. (2010). "The Oddfellows: 200 years of making friends and helping people". United Kingdom: Carnegie Publishing
  18. Birdely, G. "The origin, rise and progress of Oddfellowship", Manx Quarterly, 7, 1909.
  19. History: Manchester Unity Archived 21 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine , oddfellows.org.uk; accessed 1 November 2016.
  20. About the Odd Fellows Fraternity, ioofphilippines.yolasite.com; accessed 1 November 2016.
  21. Grand United Order of Oddfellows Friendly Society (U.K.), guoofs.com; accessed 1 November 2016.
  22. Oddfellows Magazine, October 1838, pg. 171
  23. From a review of '"A Sermon, delivered in the Parish Church of Sheffield, to the Original United Order of Oddfellows", on Monday, 9 July 1798, by George Smith MA, curate of the said Church, and late of Trinity College, Cambridge' in Gentleman's Magazine, September 1798, pp. 785–86.
  24. Mark A. Tabbert (2003) The Odd Fellows, Masonic Papers, first published Dec. 2003, "The Northern Light", Scottish Rite Freemasonry, Northern Masonic Jurisdiction, USA.
  25. "The Oddfellows (Manchester Unity), were established in 1810 and celebrated their bicentenary in 2010" Archived 21 October 2010 at the Wayback Machine , oddfellows.co.uk; accessed 1 November 2016.
  26. Solt-Dennis, Victoria (2005). Discovering Friendly and Fraternal Societies: Their Badges and Regalia. Princes Risborough, UK: Shire Publications. p. 90. ISBN   0-74780628-4.
  27. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Wilkinson, JF (1891), The Friendly Society Movement (extracts), Longmans
  28. 1 2 3 4 5 6 The History of the Oddfellows in Scotland, UK: RLS
  29. "Friendly Societies". HistoryShelf.org. Retrieved 1 November 2016.
  30. 1 2 3 4 5 6 "Oddfellows Orders in Scotland", Friendly Societies, History shelf, retrieved 1 November 2016
  31. "The Oddfellows", Friendly Societies, History shelf, retrieved 1 November 2016
  32. The (American) Independent Order of Odd Fellows (IOOF), Ioof.org, retrieved 1 November 2016
  33. "Should Catholics join the Odd Fellows?". Catholic.com. Archived from the original on 28 October 2016. Retrieved 1 November 2016.
  34. Preuss, p. 104
  35. 1 2 Christy, F. & Smith, D. (1995). Six Links of Fellowship. Linden Publications, California, pp. 122–23.
  36. Vatican

Bibliography

The origins and history of the Oddfellows are not easily verified; some of the possible facts are mixed with unverifiable myth, legend, folklore and opinion. The following is a far-from-exhaustive list of "histories" of Oddfellows – unfortunately, few of them quote their sources.