New Britain (Canada)

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New Britain as a historical term of limited usage referred in its day to the poorly mapped lands of North America north of 17th-century New France. The name applied primarily to today's Nunavik and Labrador interiors, though in the 18th century this had grown to include all of the mainland shores of Hudson Bay and James Bay north of the Canadas. British visitors came to sub-divide the district loosely into the territories of New South Wales, New North Wales and Labrador. The name Labrador predates mention of the other names by more than a century. [1]

New France Area colonized by France in North America

New France was the area colonized by France in North America during a period beginning with the exploration of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence by Jacques Cartier in 1534 and ending with the cession of New France to Great Britain and Spain in 1763 under the Treaty of Paris (1763).

Nunavik Proposed autonomous area in Quebec, Canada

Nunavik comprises the northern third of the province of Quebec, Canada in Kativik, part of the Nord-du-Québec region. Covering a land area of 443,684.71 km2 (171,307.62 sq mi) north of the 55th parallel, it is the homeland of the Inuit of Quebec. Almost all of the 12,090 inhabitants of the region, of whom 90% are Inuit, live in fourteen northern villages on the coast of Nunavik and in the Cree reserved land (TC) of Whapmagoostui, near the northern village of Kuujjuarapik.

Labrador Place in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada

Labrador is a geographic and cultural region within the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. It comprises the mainland portion of the province, separated from the island of Newfoundland by the Strait of Belle Isle. It is the largest and northernmost geographical region in Atlantic Canada.

Contents

Early exploration

In 1612 Welsh captain Thomas Button wintered on the shores of Hudson Bay, at the mouth of the river he named the Nelson. He dubbed his encampment Port Nelson, and "the whole of the western shore New Wales." [2] Seven years later, in 1619, Danish captain Jens Munk would winter nearby at the mouth of the Churchill River, naming those environs Nova Dania [3] (Latin for "New Denmark").

Welsh people nation and ethnic group native to Wales

The Welsh are a Celtic nation and ethnic group native to, or otherwise associated with, Wales, Welsh culture, Welsh history and the Welsh language. Wales is a country that is part of the United Kingdom, and the majority of people living in Wales are British citizens.

Thomas Button Royal Navy officer and explorer

Sir Thomas Button was a Welsh officer of the Royal Navy, notable as an explorer who in 1612–1613 commanded an expedition that unsuccessfully attempted to locate explorer Henry Hudson and to navigate the Northwest Passage.

Nelson River river in Canada

The Nelson River is a river of north-central North America, in the Canadian province of Manitoba. The river drains Lake Winnipeg and runs 644 kilometres (400 mi) before it ends in Hudson Bay. Its full length is 2,575 kilometres (1,600 mi), it has mean discharge of 2,370 cubic metres per second (84,000 cu ft/s), and has a drainage basin of 1,072,300 square kilometres (414,000 sq mi), of which 180,000 square kilometres (69,000 sq mi) is in the United States.

The region would again be visited twelve years later in 1631 by Captains Thomas James and Luke Foxe. Supposedly Captain Foxe, upon discovering a cross erected by Button at Port Nelson, christened the shore north of the Nelson River as New North Wales, and all the lands south as New South Wales. [4] Another account attributes the event to Captain James, while crediting Foxe with having bestowed upon the region the since-forgotten label of New Yorkshire. [5]

Thomas James English librarian

Thomas James was an English librarian, first librarian of the Bodleian Library, Oxford.

Luke Foxe was an English explorer, born in Kingston-upon-Hull, Yorkshire, who searched for the Northwest Passage across North America. In 1631, he sailed much of the western Hudson Bay before concluding no such passage was possible. Foxe Basin, Foxe Channel and Foxe Peninsula were named after him.

Kivalliq Region region of Nunavut

The Kivalliq Region is an administrative region of Nunavut, Canada. It consists of the portion of the mainland to the west of Hudson Bay together with Southampton Island and Coats Island. The regional seat is Rankin Inlet. The population was 10,413 in the 2016 Census, an increase of 16.3% from the 2011 Census.

Northern Region, Manitoba Region in Manitoba, Canada

Northern Manitoba is the most northerly region of the Canadian province of Manitoba, added to the province during the last major expansion of its boundaries in 1912. Forestry, mining and hydro-electric development are significant economic drivers with long-term consequences to the environment in the region.

Manitoba Province of Canada

Manitoba is a province at the longitudinal centre of Canada. It is often considered one of the three prairie provinces and is Canada's fifth-most populous province with its estimated 1.3 million people. Manitoba covers 649,950 square kilometres (250,900 sq mi) with a widely varied landscape, stretching from the northern oceanic coastline to the southern border with the United States. The province is bordered by the provinces of Ontario to the east and Saskatchewan to the west, the territories of Nunavut to the north, and Northwest Territories to the northwest, and the U.S. states of North Dakota and Minnesota to the south.

139 years later Captain James Cook would more successfully use the name New South Wales for the Colony of New South Wales which would eventually encompass most of New Holland (Australia). [6] By this time the North American name had begun to fall into obscurity.

James Cook 18th-century British explorer

Captain James Cook was a British explorer, navigator, cartographer, and captain in the Royal Navy. He made detailed maps of Newfoundland prior to making three voyages to the Pacific Ocean, during which he achieved the first recorded European contact with the eastern coastline of Australia and the Hawaiian Islands, and the first recorded circumnavigation of New Zealand.

Colony of New South Wales British colony which later became a state of Australia

The Colony of New South Wales was a colony of the British Empire from 1788 to 1900, when it became a State of the Commonwealth of Australia. At its greatest extent, the colony of New South Wales included the present-day Australian states of New South Wales, Queensland, Victoria, Tasmania, and South Australia, the Northern Territory as well as New Zealand. The first "responsible" self-government of New South Wales was formed on 6 June 1856 with Sir Stuart Alexander Donaldson appointed by Governor Sir William Denison as its first Colonial Secretary.

New Holland (Australia) historical name for the island continent of Australia

New Holland is a historical European name for mainland Australia. The name was first applied to Australia in 1644 by the Dutch seafarer Abel Tasman. The name came to be applied to the whole "Southern land" or Terra Australis, though the coastline of the continent had still not been fully explored; but after the British settlement in Sydney in 1788 the territory to the east of the continent claimed by Britain was named New South Wales, leaving the western part as New Holland. New Holland continued to be used semi-officially and in popular usage as the name for the whole continent until at least the mid-1850s.

Related Research Articles

Henry Hudson English sea explorer and navigator

Henry Hudson was an English sea explorer and navigator during the early 17th century, best known for his explorations of present-day Canada and parts of the northeastern United States.

William Baffin British explorer

William Baffin was an English navigator and explorer. He is primarily known for his attempt to discover a Northwest Passage from the Atlantic to the Pacific, during the course of which he was the first European to discover Baffin Bay in present-day Canada. He was also responsible for exceptional surveys of the Red Sea and Persian Gulf on behalf of the East India Company.

Port Stephens (New South Wales) estuarine lake in New South Wales, Australia

Port Stephens, an open youthful tide dominated drowned valley estuary, is a large natural harbour of approximately 134 square kilometres (52 sq mi) located in the Hunter Region of New South Wales, Australia.

Southampton Island island in Canadian Arctic Archipelago

Southampton Island is a large island at the entrance to Hudson Bay at Foxe Basin. One of the larger members of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, Southampton Island is part of the Kivalliq Region in Nunavut, Canada. The area of the island is stated as 41,214 km2 (15,913 sq mi) by Statistics Canada. It is the 34th largest island in the world and Canada's ninth largest island. The only settlement on Southampton Island is Coral Harbour, called in Inuktitut Salliq.

Coats Island island

Coats Island lies at the northern end of Hudson Bay in the Kivalliq Region of Nunavut. At 5,498 km2 (2,123 sq mi) in size, it is the 107th largest island in the world, and Canada's 24th largest island.

Resolution Island (Nunavut) island

Resolution Island is one of the many uninhabited Canadian Arctic islands in Qikiqtaaluk Region, Nunavut. It is a Baffin Island offshore island located in Davis Strait. It has an area of 1,015 km2 (392 sq mi). The Lower Savage Islands lie between Resolution Island and Baffin Island, while Graves Strait separates Resolution Island from the more northern Edgell Island.

Foxe Basin northern part of Hudson Bay, Canada

Foxe Basin is a shallow oceanic basin north of Hudson Bay, in Nunavut, Canada, located between Baffin Island and the Melville Peninsula. For most of the year, it is blocked by sea ice and drift ice made up of multiple ice floes.

Nelson Bay, New South Wales Suburb of Port Stephens Council, New South Wales, Australia

Nelson Bay is a suburb of the Port Stephens local government area in the Hunter Region of New South Wales, Australia. It is located on a bay of the same name on the southern shore of Port Stephens about 60 kilometres (37 mi) by road north-east of Newcastle, its nearest rail link. At the 2016 census, Nelson Bay had a population of 5,820.

Foxe Peninsula peninsula in Nunavut, Canada

Foxe Peninsula is a peninsula found at the southern end of Baffin Island in the Qikiqtaaluk Region of Nunavut, Canada. It juts out from the southerly end of the island in a southwestly direction, dividing Foxe Basin and Hudson Strait. Its western extremity is Cape Queen; to the southeast lies the Inuit hamlet of Cape Dorset. Inuksuk Point at the western coast contains more than 100 inuksuit.

Captain Thomas James (1593–1635) was a Welsh sea captain, notable as a navigator and explorer, who set out to discover the Northwest Passage, the hoped for ocean route around the top of North America to Asia.

Ottawa Islands island group

The Ottawa Islands are a group of uninhabited islands situated in the eastern edge of Canada's Hudson Bay. The group comprises 24 small islands, located at approximately 60N 80W. The main islands include Booth Island, Bronson Island, Eddy Island, Gilmour Island, J. Gordon Island, Pattee Island, and Perley Island. The highest point is on Gilmour Island, which rises to over 1,800 ft (550 m). Located a short distance off the northwest coast of Quebec's Ungava Peninsula, they, like the other coastal islands in Hudson Bay, were historically part of the Northwest Territories, and became part of the territory of Nunavut upon its creation in 1999.

Corlette, New South Wales Suburb of Port Stephens Council, New South Wales, Australia

Corlette is a suburb of the Port Stephens local government area in the Hunter Region of New South Wales, Australia. It is located just west of Nelson Bay on the shores of Port Stephens. It was named after Captain James Corlette who skippered the 63 tonnes cutter Lambton which was the first privately owned local vessel. The Corlette was first used to ship timber and wool out of Port Stephens in 1816. While property values throughout the suburb average around A$475,000, in the most affluent areas on the shores of Salamander Bay individual sale prices of $3.7 million have been realised.

Roes Welcome Sound is a long channel at the northwest end of Hudson Bay in Kivalliq Region, Nunavut, Canada between the mainland on the west and Southampton Island on the east. It opens south into Hudson Bay. Its north end joins Repulse Bay which is connected east through Frozen Strait to Foxe Basin, thereby making Southampton Island an island. Wager Bay is a western branch. It is situated 200 km (120 mi) north of Marble Island. Roes Welcome Sound measures 290 km (180 mi) long, and 24 to 113 km wide.

This is a list of Australian places named by James Cook. James Cook was the first navigator to chart most of the Australian east coast, one of the last major coastlines in the world unknown to Europeans at the time. Cook named many bays, capes and other geographic features, nearly all of which are still gazetted, and most of which are still in use today, although in some places the spelling is slightly different. This is a list of the placenames he used in his first voyage listed from south to north as described on his 1773 chart and in his journals.

Dunne Foxe Island is one of the Canadian arctic islands in Nunavut, Canada within western Hudson Bay. The hamlet of Whale Cove is 25 km (16 mi) to the west.

The Foxe Channel is an area of sea in Qikiqtaaluk Region, Nunavut, Canada. It separates the Foxe Basin from Hudson Bay and the Hudson Strait. To the west and south-west is Southampton Island, to the east is Baffin Island, and to the north-west is the Melville Peninsula.

William Goodlad was a 17th-century English whaler. He was admiral of the Muscovy Company's London whaling fleet for nearly two decades, participating in several of the disputes involving the right to catch whales in Spitsbergen. The Arctic explorer Luke Foxe, in writing about the early voyages to Spitsbergen, said of him: "... but this I leave to Capt. Goodlade [sic], whose great experience this way, and to the E.-ward thereof, is the best able to supply or confute, if he be pleased so to shew himselfe".

Hudson Bay Railway (1910)

The Hudson Bay Railway is a historic Canadian railway that built a rail line between Winnipeg, Manitoba in the south and Churchill, Manitoba in the north, on the shore of Hudson Bay.

References

  1. Nelson, D. (1997). Off the Map: The Curious Histories of Place Names. New York: Kodansha International. ISBN   1-56836-174-2.
  2. Miller Christy (ed.), The Voyages of Captain Luke Foxe of Hull and Captain Thomas James of Bristol, in Search of a North-west Passage, in 1631–32 London, Hakluyt Society, 1894:vol.1 p.170
  3. https://sora.unm.edu/sites/default/files/journals/nab/v040n01/p00042-p00044.pdf
  4. Begg, Alexander. History of the North-west. 1894. p127
  5. Miller Christy (ed.), The Voyages of Captain Luke Foxe of Hull and Captain Thomas James of Bristol, in Search of a North-west Passage, in 1631–32 , London, Hakluyt Society, 1894:vol.2, p.485.
  6. G.K. McCallum, "A Date with Cook", Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society, vol.57, pt.1, March 1971, pp.1–9.

Coordinates: 50°06′39″N75°23′30″W / 50.1107°N 75.3918°W / 50.1107; -75.3918