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|Odyssey: The Compleat Apventure|
The title screen, showing the intentionally misspelled title.
Odyssey: The Compleat Apventurewas a videogame written by Robert Clardy and released by Synergistic Software in 1980. It was created for the Apple II platform and is considered one of the first microcomputer-based role-playing video games. The title was intentionally misspelled; Apventure is a reference to the Apple computer while "Compleat" is simply an Archaic spelling of the word "complete" meant to match the feel and setting of the game.
Synergistic Software was a video game developer based in Seattle. Founded in 1978, the company published some of the earliest available games and applications for the Apple II family of computers. They continued developing games for various platforms into the late 1990s.
The Apple II is an 8-bit home computer and one of the world's first highly successful mass-produced microcomputer products, designed primarily by Steve Wozniak. It was introduced by Jobs and Wozniak at the 1977 West Coast Computer Faire and was the first consumer product sold by Apple Computer, Inc. It is the first model in a series of computers which were produced until Apple IIe production ceased in November 1993. The Apple II marks Apple's first launch of a personal computer aimed at a consumer market – branded toward American households rather than businessmen or computer hobbyists.
A role-playing video game is a video game genre where the player controls the actions of a character immersed in some well-defined world. Many role-playing video games have origins in tabletop role-playing games and use much of the same terminology, settings and game mechanics. Other major similarities with pen-and-paper games include developed story-telling and narrative elements, player character development, complexity, as well as replayability and immersion. The electronic medium removes the necessity for a gamemaster and increases combat resolution speed. RPGs have evolved from simple text-based console-window games into visually rich 3D experiences.
A forerunner of Akalabeth and Ultima , Odyssey was a multi-part adventure game that placed the player in the role of the leader of an army who sets out to vanquish an evil wizard. Elements of Dungeons & Dragons can be found within the game, which combines elements of two earlier games written by Clardy: Dungeon Campaign and Wilderness Campaign.
Ultima is a series of open world fantasy role-playing video games from Origin Systems, Inc. Ultima was created by Richard Garriott. The series is one of the most significant in computer game history and is considered, alongside Wizardry and Might and Magic, to be one of the establishers of the CRPG genre. Several games of the series are considered seminal entries in their genre, and each installment introduced new innovations which then were widely copied by other games. Electronic Arts own the brand.
Dungeons & Dragons is a fantasy tabletop role-playing game (RPG) originally designed by Gary Gygax and Dave Arneson. It was first published in 1974 by Tactical Studies Rules, Inc. (TSR). The game has been published by Wizards of the Coast since 1997. It was derived from miniature wargames, with a variation of the 1971 game Chainmail serving as the initial rule system. D&D's publication is commonly recognized as the beginning of modern role-playing games and the role-playing game industry.
The game features several major sections. Except for the endgame section, the game play is presented in a top-down map format with limited animation and sound effects.
The game starts on an uncharted island in the Sargalo Sea, where the player and a small group of men have to search the island for castles, ruins and temples, wherein they can find randomly placed treasure and valuable magical items. Along the way, the game generates random encounters with monsters, warriors, rogues, and wizards. Some wizards and warlocks encountered might be kindly disposed towards the player and provide magical items, while others may attack on sight. Similarly, some groups of rogues and warriors encountered might choose to join the player's group rather than fight.
Combat is conducted using a random number generator - the party with the higher number during a round inflicts damage on the enemy, with damage gauged by the number of men/creatures killed. When a group reaches zero members, the team is defeated. The player's "roll" is determined by the number of men, their strength and experience, and the type and quantity of weapons and armor carried.
For the player, maintaining a large army is necessary in order to continue to carry gold, treasure, and necessities such as weapons. The fewer men in a party, the fewer items that can be carried. Men can be added to the team by having groups of warriors and rogues agree to join; a more expensive way of adding men is to purchase contracts that periodically become available for sale. Three randomly scattered towns allow the player to purchase food (which must be replenished) and goods such as lockpicks that allow access to some structures. The type and quantity of goods available for purchase are randomly generated. The player also encounters the occasional caravan from which goods can be purchased - or, the player may choose to attack the caravan; if the caravan is defeated, the team receives the spoils which consists of a number of random items that may or may not be useful.
The towns are not explored. Instead, the player is automatically taken to the market where bartering for goods occurs. The player can choose to pay the full price, or can negotiate for a lower fee. Depending on the player's charisma level (set at the start of the game), the merchants may agree to charge less, or they may get upset at a low bid and remove an item from sale completely (which can be hazardous to the player if the item removed for sale happens to be badly needed food). Merchants are replenished after the player leaves the town and has an encounter of some sort. Caravans work the same ways as towns, except as they are randomly encountered one has only a single chance to strike a deal. Occasionally, huts are encountered in the wilderness where the player can gamble a (usually large) amount of gold for an alleged magic item that may or may not be any good.
Gold is accumulated from chests and other sources, including magical scrolls; the higher the party's wisdom score is, the more gold is obtained from a scroll.
Travel around the island can be slow and dangerous, and items purchased by the player may be necessary to pass through obstacles or avoid loss of men. (For example, if the player has a shovel, men can be rescued from avalanches and cave-ins; a machete may be needed to pass through dense jungle; an amulet is needed to cure swamp fever, etc.) If a player is lucky, a magic carpet might be found in a chest or be obtained from a friendly wizard or warlock. This allows quick travel across the island; riding a magic carpet avoids monster battles but also skips over buildings and ruins that may contain treasure. Horses can also be obtained with a similar effect; however, the player must have a sufficient quantity of horses to carry the team, while only one magic carpet is required.
The ultimate goal of the island section of the game is to collect enough gold to purchase a ship (which is usually available at only the one town closest to the northwest corner of the island) and also to collect ample magical objects and other items (mirrors, wooden planks, even a monkey or two) which will be needed later in the game. The game does not indicate how many or what particular objects might be needed (due to the random nature); it's up to the player to determine if a sufficient variety and quantity of items has been obtained before setting sail.
Monkey is a common name that may refer to groups or species of mammals, in part, the simians of infraorder Simiiformes. The term is applied descriptively to groups of primates, such as families of new world monkeys and old world monkeys. Many monkey species are tree-dwelling (arboreal), although there are species that live primarily on the ground, such as baboons. Most species are also active during the day (diurnal). Monkeys are generally considered to be intelligent, especially the old world monkeys of Catarrhini.
The game then becomes a sea expedition, with the player navigating his/her vessel between several islands. Among hazards that must be dealt with: pirate attacks, unpredictable winds, whirlpools, scurvy among the crew, falling off the edge of the world, and rotting sails. How well the player is able to cope with these hazards depends upon how well stocked the player's team became on the main island. (Once Part 2 begins, the island can no longer be accessed.) Merchant vessels may also be encountered - with the player having the same options as with caravans, attack or barter. After leaving the island, this is the only easy way to obtain necessary items such as fruit, spare sails, and weapons (however the player is no longer required to be continually stocked with regular food). The group may also encounter pirates, whirlpools, birds, and other hazards that can kill men and damage the ship.
Scurvy is a disease resulting from a lack of vitamin C. Early symptoms of deficiency include weakness, feeling tired, and sore arms and legs. Without treatment, decreased red blood cells, gum disease, changes to hair, and bleeding from the skin may occur. As scurvy worsens there can be poor wound healing, personality changes, and finally death from infection or bleeding.
The map of islands in the Sargalo Sea in which you navigate your ship consists of a ring of islands around the perimeter of the screen. Your ship starts out next to the island you just left (in the lower right of the screen) while the island of the evil wizard (your goal) is in the upper left. You may land on other islands to stock up on food and resources but for the most part these islands are not fully explorable as the first one was, and serve only as places to stock up on supplies by displaying a few lines of text after you land (with one exception—see below). Navigation is a complex scheme, as you are at the mercy of wind and currents (and whether the vessel has any intact sails left) and you cannot navigate directly as you can in early Ultima titles. You must set the sails in different directions in order to catch the wind, and raise and lower anchor to start and stop your ship. Hazards include running aground if the player weighs anchor too close to shore, being caught in a whirlpool which may destroy the ship or destroy its sails, scurvy among the crew, calm winds (which is harmless to the ship but prevents any progress until the winds start up again) and falling off the edge of the world if the ship gets too close to the edge of the map.
During this segment of the game, the goal is to discover a magical orb and take it to the evil wizard's island in order to defeat him and become the ruler of the land. The orb can be discovered in one of two ways. While sailing, the player may encounter the god Poseidon who will tell the player where a great treasure may be found (the player's ability to find the treasure will depend upon whether he/she was able to obtain a sextant during the island expedition). If you sail to the proper coordinates in the sea and search, you will find the item. The other way is that one of the islands will randomly contain a blocky, lo-res graphical dungeon (somewhat similar to the Clardy's earlier Dungeon Campaign game) whose corridors reveal themselves to you and are added to the map as you wander through them. The team runs into random hazard encounters along the way (such as cave-ins, poison gas, and wandering monsters), as well as the occasional treasure, and eventually finds the magical orb. (In order to access this dungeon, however, you must first tithe a magical item, provided you have any left.)
Poseidon was one of the Twelve Olympians in ancient Greek religion and myth. He was god of the Sea and other waters; of earthquakes; and of horses. In pre-Olympian Bronze Age Greece, he was venerated as a chief deity at Pylos and Thebes. His Roman equivalent is Neptune.
A sextant is a doubly reflecting navigation instrument that measures the angular distance between two visible objects. The primary use of a sextant is to measure the angle between an astronomical object and the horizon for the purposes of celestial navigation. The estimation of this angle, the altitude, is known as sighting or shooting the object, or taking a sight. The angle, and the time when it was measured, can be used to calculate a position line on a nautical or aeronautical chart—for example, sighting the Sun at noon or Polaris at night to estimate latitude. Sighting the height of a landmark can give a measure of distance off and, held horizontally, a sextant can measure angles between objects for a position on a chart. A sextant can also be used to measure the lunar distance between the moon and another celestial object in order to determine Greenwich Mean Time and hence longitude. The principle of the instrument was first implemented around 1731 by John Hadley (1682–1744) and Thomas Godfrey (1704–1749), but it was also found later in the unpublished writings of Isaac Newton (1643–1727). Additional links can be found to Bartholomew Gosnold (1571–1607) indicating that the use of a sextant for nautical navigation predates Hadley's implementation. In 1922, it was modified for aeronautical navigation by Portuguese navigator and naval officer Gago Coutinho.
Regardless how the orb is obtained, the next goal is to travel to the island at the top left corner of the sea map, which is the evil wizard's island.
During the final segment of the game, the screen returns to a view of an island, similar to that in part one except that there is a large castle drawn in the middle of the screen which the player approaches from the bottom. Although it looks similar, gameplay does not consist of free movement as it did on the first island. Instead the player advances upon the evil castle, a series of three overcoming randomized obstacles placed in his/her way such as walls, giant pits, etc. (like most obstacles in the game, these are described in text rather than actually seen). The player's ability to get past these obstacles with minimal damage/loss of men depends upon what items have been kept in inventory. Seemingly innocuous items found on the main island early in the game such as mirrors and monkeys which served no purpose, are often essential to overcoming the obstacles here. (For example, a monkey is needed to unlock a door; mirrors can protect against damage from Medusa). If the team makes it to the castle, a great (off-screen) battle ensues, which the player invariably wins so long as the team has a fair number of men. The game ends with a tally of how many creatures the player's team killed, how large the team became, etc.
There is a sequel to Odyssey: The Compleat Apventure called Apventure to Atlantis whose story picks up with the player as ruler of this island and updates the format of the game to include internal areas displayed in the form of the then-current Mystery House game, and also incorporated a parser that allowed the use of text adventure-style commands.
Although primitive by today's standards, Odyssey was considered cutting-edge for its time, making use of the Apple II's two graphics modes (high-resolution and low-resolution), and text. The game was written in Integer BASIC and was one of the first microcomputer games to be created using multiple programs, requiring floppy disc activation and access mid-game. (This feature, however, led to a way in which the player could cheat: by removing the disk when the computer required access, a cursor flashes on screen; typing "goto 770" would fool the computer into thinking that the player had just opened up a treasure box. This is one of the earliest known examples of a cheat code.) Prior to this, most games were self-contained, single programs; Odyssey was split into several different programs and took up an entire disk. The game also made use of rudimentary sound effects.
The game's title screen art, a line-drawing of a dragon, was also used for the title screen of another 1980 adventure game release, Eamon .
BYTE in 1980 called Odyssey "an engrossing game", stating that it had "the best use of color graphics in a game for the Apple that I have seen". The magazine approved of the randomly generated environments and large number of possible encounters and outcomes, and concluded that both new and experienced adventurers would enjoy the game.Scorpia of Computer Gaming World in 1991 described the three games that comprised Odyssey as pioneering computer role-playing games, stating that they offered on a 48K Apple II several wilderness environments; multiple forms of transportation, including sailing by the wind; non-hostile NPCs; a variety of areas to explore; and region-specific monsters. In 1993 she wrote that the Odyssey games were "some of the finest of the early CRPGs", with "an astonishing range of features", especially for a 48K Apple II.
Pool of Radiance is a role-playing video game developed and published by Strategic Simulations, Inc (SSI) in 1988. It was the first adaptation of TSR's Advanced Dungeons & Dragons (AD&D) fantasy role-playing game for home computers, becoming the first episode in a four-part series of D&D computer adventure games. The other games in the "Gold Box" series used the game engine pioneered in Pool of Radiance, as did later D&D titles such as the Neverwinter Nights online game. Pool of Radiance takes place in the Forgotten Realms fantasy setting, with the action centered in and around the port city of Phlan.
Akalabeth: World of Doom is a role-playing video game that had a limited release in 1979 and was then published by California Pacific Computer Company for the Apple II in 1980. Richard Garriott designed the game as a hobbyist project, which is now recognized as one of the earliest known examples of a role-playing video game and as a predecessor of the Ultima series of games that started Garriott's career.
The Dungeon Master's Guide is a book of rules for the fantasy role-playing game Dungeons & Dragons. The Dungeon Master's Guide contains rules concerning the arbitration and administration of a game, and is intended for use primarily or only by the game's Dungeon Master. The original Dungeon Master's Guide was published in 1979, and gave Dungeon Masters everything they needed to run a D&D game campaign.
Beyond Zork is an interactive fiction computer game written by Brian Moriarty and released by Infocom in 1987. It was one of the last games in Infocom's Zork series; or, rather, one of the last Zork games that many Infocom fans consider "official". It signified a notable departure from the standard format of Infocom's earlier games which relied purely on text and puzzle-solving: among other features, Beyond Zork incorporated a crude on-screen map, the use of character statistics and levels, and RPG combat elements.
Ultima, later known as Ultima I: The First Age of Darkness or simply Ultima I, is the first game in the Ultima series of role-playing video games created by Richard Garriott, originally released for the Apple II. It was first published in the United States by California Pacific Computer Company, which registered a copyright for the game on September 2, 1980 and officially released it in June 1981. Since its release, the game has been completely re-coded and ported to many different platforms. The 1986 re-code of Ultima is the most commonly known and available version of the game.
Ultima III: Exodus is the third game in the series of Ultima role-playing video games. Exodus is also the name of the game's principal antagonist. It is the final installment in the "Age of Darkness" trilogy. Released in 1983, it was the first Ultima game published by Origin Systems. Originally developed for the Apple II, Exodus was eventually ported to 13 other platforms, including a NES/Famicom remake.
Ultima V: Warriors of Destiny (1988) is the fifth entry in the role-playing video game series Ultima. It is the second in the "Age of Enlightement" trilogy. The game's story take a darker turn from its predecessor Ultima IV. Britannia's king Lord British is missing, replaced by a tyrant named Lord Blackthorn. The player must navigate a totalitarian world bent on enforcing its virtues through draconian means.
The Bard's Tale II: The Destiny Knight is a fantasy role-playing video game created by Interplay Productions in 1986. It is the first sequel to The Bard's Tale, and the last game of the series that was designed and programmed by Michael Cranford.
Wizard's Crown is a 1986 top-down role-playing video game published by Strategic Simulations. It was released for the Atari 8-bit, Atari ST, IBM PC, Apple II and Commodore 64. Its sequel, The Eternal Dagger, was released in 1987.
Dungeon Hack is a role-playing video game developed by DreamForge Intertainment and published by Strategic Simulations for MS-DOS and NEC PC-9801 in 1993. The game is based in the Advanced Dungeons and Dragons world of Forgotten Realms.
The Summoning is an isometric-view fantasy role-playing video game developed by Event Horizon and published by Strategic Simulations in 1992.
Wizardry: Proving Grounds of the Mad Overlord is the first game in the Wizardry series of role-playing video games. It was developed by Andrew Greenberg and Robert Woodhead. In 1980, Norman Sirotek formed Sir-Tech Software, Inc. and launched a Beta version of the product at the 1980 Boston Computer Convention. The final version of the game was released in 1981.
Advanced Dungeons & Dragons: Treasure of Tarmin is a video game for the Intellivision video game console and the Mattel Aquarius computer system. This game was a licensed Dungeons & Dragons adaptation.
Legacy of the Ancients is a fantasy role-playing video game published by Electronic Arts in 1987.
Telengard is a 1982 role-playing dungeon crawler video game developed by Daniel Lawrence and published by Avalon Hill. The player explores a dungeon, fights monsters with magic, and avoids traps in real time without any set mission other than surviving. Lawrence first wrote the game as DND, a 1976 version of Dungeons & Dragons for the DECsystem-10 mainframe computer. He continued to develop DND at Purdue University as a hobby, rewrote the game for the Commodore PET 2001 after 1978, and ported it to Apple II+, TRS-80, and Atari 800 platforms before Avalon Hill found the game at a convention and licensed it for distribution. Its Commodore 64 release was the most popular. Reviewers noted Telengard's similarity to Dungeons and Dragons. RPG historian Shannon Appelcline noted the game as one of the first professionally produced computer role-playing games, and Gamasutra's Barton considered Telengard consequential in what he deemed "The Silver Age" of computer role-playing games preceding the golden age of the late 1980s. Some of the game's dungeon features, such as altars, fountains, teleportation cubes, and thrones, were adopted by later games such as Tunnels of Doom.
Shard of Spring is a role-playing video game developed by TX Digital Illusions and published by Strategic Simulations for the Apple II, Commodore 64 and MS-DOS computers in 1986. Shard of Spring tells the story of a group of adventurers hired to retrieve the titular magical item stolen by a power-hungry evil witch. The game was generally well received upon its release and was followed by a sequel titled Demon's Winter in 1988.
Elvira II: The Jaws of Cerberus is the second game in the Elvira series of horror role-playing video games. It was developed by Horror Soft and published by Accolade in 1992. The game is a sequel to 1990's Elvira: Mistress of the Dark. It was followed by Waxworks, which can be considered its spiritual sequel.
Hellfire Warrior is a dungeon crawl video game for the Apple II, Commodore PET, and TRS-80 published by Automated Simulations in 1980. An Atari 8-bit family port was released in 1982. Hellfire Warrior is the direct sequel to 1979's Temple of Apshai.
Questron is a 1984 game from Strategic Simulations, the first fantasy title from a company known for computer wargames. It was written by Charles Dougherty and Gerald Wieczorek and released for the Apple II, Atari 8-bit family, and Commodore 64. A sequel, Questron II, was released in 1988.