Osbert de Bayeux
|Archdeacon of Richmond|
|Diocese||Diocese of York|
|Term ended||before 1158|
Osbert de Bayeux ( floruit 1121 to 1184) was a medieval English cleric and archdeacon in the Diocese of York. A relative of Thurstan, the Archbishop of York, Osbert probably owed his ecclesiastical positions to this relative. After Thurstan's death, Osbert was opposed to one of the candidates for the archbishopric, William fitzHerbert, and worked to secure fitzHerbert's deposition and replacement by Henry Murdac. After Murdac's death in 1153, Osbert tried to prevent the return of fitzHerbert, but these attempts were unsuccessful. When fitzHerbert died suddenly in 1154, Osbert was accused of murdering the newly returned archbishop. Although he was never convicted of the murder in either a secular or an ecclesiastical court, he was stripped of his clerical status and became a layman before 1158. He died after 1184, perhaps even after 1194.
Osbert was first mentioned in the historical record between 1121 and 1128 when he appears in a charter, which although likely a forgery, probably contains an authentic witness list. This document lists him as "Osbert archdeacon", which means that he probably held the archdeaconry of Richmond. [lower-alpha 1]  He was the nephew of Thurstan, who was Archbishop of York from 1114 to 1140.  Presumably he owed his position as archdeacon to his uncle and was probably appointed at a young age.  A charter of Thurstan's, dating to around 1138, names Osbert explicitly as Thurstan's nephew. 
Osbert was opposed to the election of William fitzHerbert as Archbishop of York and supported William's rival and successor Henry Murdac. Although he remained a supporter of Murdac after 1147, he did oppose Murdac's interventions in Selby Abbey, where Murdac had deposed one abbot and appointed another. In 1153, Osbert deposed Murdac's choice as abbot of Selby and appointed another abbot.  Originally, Osbert had supported Elias Paynel, Murdac's choice for abbot, but then changed his stance and helped with the deposition. 
After Murdac's death in 1153, Osbert was opposed to William's return as archbishop, but was unsuccessful in his attempts to prevent William's reappointment.  William died a week after his return to York, however, and Osbert, along with Robert of Ghent, the Dean of York, secured the quick election of the new archbishop, Roger de Pont L'Évêque. 
Osbert was accused of murdering William, specifically by poisoning him through the communion chalice. A fellow cleric, Symphorian, who had been a chaplain of the deceased archbishop, brought murder charges against Osbert. Symphorian obtained a hearing on the charges at a royal council presided over by King Stephen of England at Michaelmas in 1154, but Stephen's subsequent death prevented a resolution. Osbert attempted to have the trial switched to an ecclesiastical court and was supported in his efforts by Archbishop Theobald of Canterbury. A trial was finally held in 1156 and Osbert's accuser did not produce any witnesses, but Osbert was unable to prove his innocence, prompting the transfer of the case to a papal court. No record of any judgment exists, but Osbert apparently appeared before two popes, Adrian IV and Alexander III.  A further appeal to the papal court was referred to papal judges-delegate between 1175 and 1180. 
The case attracted commentary by two contemporary writers. John of Salisbury, who was a secretary for Theobald, added information about Osbert in a letter to Alexander III on unrelated business. In the section of the letter, John pointed out to the pope that no matter what others might say about Osbert, he had failed to secure other clergy willing to swear that he was innocent. Another contemporary, Gilbert Foliot, who was Bishop of Hereford, wrote to the pope to remind him that although Osbert's accuser had offered to prove his accusations by undergoing a trial by ordeal, this was essentially meaningless since canon law forbade the clergy from the ordeal. 
Osbert was no longer archdeacon by 1158, as his successor is attested by that point. Osbert, however, continued to call himself "archdeacon" even though he held land as a secular lord, including lands in Lacy and Skipton. He also acted as a steward for Hugh de Tilly. Osbert was still alive in 1184, as he was a witness to a document at York then, and may have been alive as late as 1194, when Hugh Bardulf was responsible for the farm of Osbert's lands, as the record of that transaction in the escheat roll is unclear if Osbert was alive at that time or dead. 
Osbert had two sons, William de Bayeux and Turstin de Baius. Osbert was a benefactor to a number of monasteries, including Drax Priory, Pontefract Priory and Gisborough Priory.  He also gave land to a hospital in York and to the Templars and Hospitallers. 
Theobald of Bec was a Norman archbishop of Canterbury from 1139 to 1161. His exact birth date is unknown. Some time in the late 11th or early 12th century Theobald became a monk at the Abbey of Bec, rising to the position of abbot in 1137. King Stephen of England chose him to be Archbishop of Canterbury in 1138. Canterbury's claim to primacy over the Welsh ecclesiastics was resolved during Theobald's term of office when Pope Eugene III decided in 1148 in Canterbury's favour. Theobald faced challenges to his authority from a subordinate bishop, Henry of Blois, Bishop of Winchester and King Stephen's younger brother, and his relationship with King Stephen was turbulent. On one occasion Stephen forbade him from attending a papal council, but Theobald defied the king, which resulted in the confiscation of his property and temporary exile. Theobald's relations with his cathedral clergy and the monastic houses in his archdiocese were also difficult.
Ralph d'Escures was a medieval abbot of Séez, bishop of Rochester and then archbishop of Canterbury. He studied at the school at the Abbey of Bec. In 1079 he entered the abbey of St Martin at Séez, and became abbot there in 1091. He was a friend of both Archbishop Anselm of Canterbury and Bishop Gundulf of Rochester, whose see, or bishopric, he took over on Gundulf's death.
Thurstan or Turstin of Bayeux was a medieval Archbishop of York, the son of a priest. He served kings William II and Henry I of England before his election to the see of York in 1114. Once elected, his consecration was delayed for five years while he fought attempts by the Archbishop of Canterbury to assert primacy over York. Eventually, he was consecrated by the pope instead and allowed to return to England. While archbishop, he secured two new suffragan bishops for his province. When Henry I died, Thurstan supported Henry's nephew Stephen of Blois as king. Thurstan also defended the northern part of England from invasion by the Scots, taking a leading part in organising the English forces at the Battle of the Standard (1138). Shortly before his death, Thurstan resigned from his see and took the habit of a Cluniac monk.
Robert of Ghent or Robert de Gant was Lord Chancellor of England and Dean of York in the 12th century. The younger son of a nobleman, Robert was probably a member of the cathedral chapter of York before his selection as chancellor by King Stephen of England in the mid-1140s. He is not mentioned often in documents from his time as chancellor, but why this is so is unknown. He became dean at York Minster around 1147. Robert was slightly involved in the disputes over who would be Archbishop of York in the late 1140s and 1150s, but it is likely that his chancellorship prevented his deeper involvement in diocesan affairs. He was no longer chancellor after the death of Stephen, but probably continued to hold the office of dean until his death around 1157 or 1158.
William of York was an English priest and twice Archbishop of York, before and after a rival, Henry Murdac. He was thought to be related to King Stephen of England, who helped to secure his election to the province after several candidates had failed to gain papal confirmation. William faced opposition from the Cistercians, who after the election of the Cistercian Pope Eugene III, had William deposed in favour of a Cistercian, Murdac. From 1147 until 1153, William worked to be restored to York, which he achieved after the deaths of Murdac and Eugene III. He did not hold the province long, dying shortly after his return, allegedly from poison in the chalice he used to celebrate Mass. Miracles were reported at his tomb from 1177. He was canonised in 1226.
Hugh de Puiset was a medieval Bishop of Durham and Chief Justiciar of England under King Richard I. He was the nephew of King Stephen of England and Henry of Blois, who both assisted Hugh's ecclesiastical career. He held the office of treasurer of York for a number of years, which led him into conflict with Henry Murdac, Archbishop of York. In 1153, Hugh was elected bishop of Durham despite the opposition of Murdac.
Roger de Pont L'Évêque was Archbishop of York from 1154 to 1181. Born in Normandy, he preceded Thomas Becket as Archdeacon of Canterbury, and together with Becket served Theobald of Bec while Theobald was Archbishop of Canterbury. While in Theobald's service, Roger was alleged to have committed a crime which Becket helped to cover up. Roger succeeded William FitzHerbert as archbishop in 1154, and while at York rebuilt York Minster, which had been damaged by fire.
Henry Murdac was abbot of Fountains Abbey and Archbishop of York in medieval England.
Henry of Newark was a medieval Archbishop of York.
Reginald fitz Jocelin was a medieval Bishop of Bath and an Archbishop of Canterbury-elect in England. A member of an Anglo-Norman noble family, he was the son of a bishop, and was educated in Italy. He was a household clerk for Thomas Becket, but by 1167 he was serving King Henry II of England. He was also a favourite of King Louis VII of France, who had him appointed abbot of the Abbey of Corbeil. After Reginald angered Becket while attempting to help negotiate a settlement between Becket and the king, Becket called him "that offspring of fornication, that enemy to the peace of the Church, that traitor." When he was elected as a bishop, the election was challenged by King Henry's eldest son, Henry the Young King, and Reginald was forced to go to Rome to be confirmed by Pope Alexander III. He attended the Third Lateran Council in 1179, and spent much of his time administering his diocese. He was elected Archbishop of Canterbury in 1191, but died before he could be installed.
Savaric fitzGeldewin was an Englishman who became Bishop of Bath and Glastonbury in England. Related to his predecessor as well as to Emperor Henry VI, he was elected bishop on the insistence of his predecessor, who urged his election on the cathedral chapter of Bath. While bishop, Savaric spent many years attempting to annexe Glastonbury Abbey as part of his bishopric. Savaric also worked to secure the release of King Richard I of England from captivity, when the king was held by Emperor Henry VI.
Æthelwold was the first Bishop of Carlisle in medieval England.
Robert de Chesney was a medieval English Bishop of Lincoln. He was the brother of an important royal official, William de Chesney, and the uncle of Gilbert Foliot, successively Bishop of Hereford and Bishop of London. Educated at Oxford or Paris, Chesney was Archdeacon of Leicester before his election as bishop in December 1148.
The Archdeacon of the East Riding is a senior ecclesiastical officer of an archdeaconry, or subdivision, of the Church of England Diocese of York in the Province of York. It is named for the East Riding of Yorkshire and consists of the eight rural deaneries of Beverley, Bridlington, Harthill, Howden, Hull, North Holderness, Scarborough and South Holderness.
William Cumin was a bishop of Durham, and Justiciar of Scotland.
Roger fitzReinfrid was a medieval English sheriff and royal justice. Probably born into a knightly family, Roger first was in the household of a nobleman before beginning royal service. His brother, Walter de Coutances, was a bishop and archbishop and likely helped advance Roger's career. Besides holding two sheriffdoms, Roger was entrusted with the control of a number of royal castles.
The Archdeacon of Richmond and Craven is an archdiaconal post in the Church of England. It was created in about 1088 within the See of York and was moved in 1541 to the See of Chester, in 1836 to the See of Ripon and after 2014 to the See of Leeds, in which jurisdiction it remains today. It is divided into seven rural deaneries: Ewecross, Harrogate, Richmond, Ripon, Skipton, and Wensley, all in Yorkshire and Bowland in Lancashire.
Burchard du Puiset was a medieval Anglo-Norman clergyman and treasurer of the diocese of York. Either the nephew or son of Hugh du Puiset, the Bishop of Durham, Burchard held a number of offices in the dioceses of York and Durham before being appointed treasurer by King Richard I of England in 1189. His appointment was opposed by the newly appointed Archbishop Geoffrey, which led to a long dispute between Geoffrey and Burchard that was not resolved until the mid 1190s. After the death of Hugh du Puiset, Burchard was a candidate for the Hugh's old bishopric, but lost out in the end to another candidate. Burchard died in 1196.
Hugh Murdac was an English clergyman and canon of York Minster in the 12th and 13th centuries.
Peter de Ros was a medieval English monk and Archdeacon of Carlisle.