Patrick Hepburn, 1st Earl of Bothwell

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Patrick Hepburn, 1st Earl of Bothwell (died 18 October 1508) was Lord High Admiral of Scotland. He rose to political prominence after supporting James IV against his father, and was proxy at the King's marriage.

James IV of Scotland King of Scots

James IV was the King of Scotland from 11 June 1488 to his death. He assumed the throne following the death of his father, King James III, at the Battle of Sauchieburn, a rebellion in which the younger James played an indirect role. He is generally regarded as the most successful of the Stewart monarchs of Scotland, but his reign ended in a disastrous defeat at the Battle of Flodden. He was the last monarch from the island of Great Britain to be killed in battle.

A proxy wedding or proxy marriage is a wedding in which one or both of the individuals being united are not physically present, usually being represented instead by other persons. If both partners are absent a double proxy wedding occurs.

Contents

Career

Patrick was the son of Adam Hepburn, Master of Hailes, and succeeded his grandfather also Patrick Hepburn as the 2nd Lord Hailes in (1482/1483). He or his grandfather held Berwick Castle against an English army led by Richard, Duke of Gloucester until the last week of August 1482, after which Berwick upon Tweed became a possession of England.

Adam Hepburn, Master of Hailes was Sheriff of Berwickshire in April 1467, and had a charter of confirmation of Dunsyre in the sheriffdom of Lanarkshire, dated 13 October 1475, being thereafter designated 'of Dunsyre'.

Sir Patrick Hepburn of Dunsyre, 1st Lord Hailes was the feudal lord of Hailes and its castle in East Lothian and a Lord of Parliament.

Berwick Castle castle

Berwick Castle is a ruined castle in Berwick-upon-Tweed, Northumberland, England.

Under his territorial designation of "Patrick Hepburn of Dunsyre," he was made Sheriff of Berwickshire on 15 June 1480. Patrick Hepburn, Lord Hailes, was one of the Conservators of a truce with England on 20 September 1484. He was one of the leaders of the Confederate Lords who rebelled against King James III of Scotland, and he led the vanguard against the Royal array at the battle of Sauchieburn, 11 July 1488. Robert Birrel, a 16th-century writer, believed that he was one of those responsible for the murder of the king after the battle.

A sheriff is a government official, with varying duties, existing in some countries with historical ties to England, where the office originated. There is an analogous although independently developed office in Iceland that is commonly translated to English as sheriff, and this is discussed below.

Berwickshire Historic county in Scotland

Berwickshire is a historic county, registration county and lieutenancy area in the Scottish Borders. It takes its name from Berwick-upon-Tweed, which was part of Scotland at the time of the county's formation, but became part of England in 1482.

James III of Scotland King of Scots

James III was King of Scots from 1460 to 1488. James was an unpopular and ineffective monarch owing to an unwillingness to administer justice fairly, a policy of pursuing alliance with the Kingdom of England, and a disastrous relationship with nearly all his extended family. However, it was through his marriage to Margaret of Denmark that the Orkney and Shetland islands became Scottish.

In the reign of James IV he rose to great power and held many offices including: Master of the King's Household, custodian of Edinburgh Castle, and Sheriff Principal of Edinburgh and Haddington. His son and heir Adam Hepburn, 2nd Earl of Bothwell was made Master of the Royal Stables. Patrick Hepburn was appointed Lord High Admiral of Scotland on 10 September 1488.

Edinburgh Castle castle in Edinburgh, Scotland

Edinburgh Castle is a historic fortress which dominates the skyline of the city of Edinburgh, Scotland from its position on the Castle Rock. Archaeologists have established human occupation of the rock since at least the Iron Age, although the nature of the early settlement is unclear. There has been a royal castle on the rock since at least the reign of David I in the 12th century, and the site continued to be a royal residence until 1633. From the 15th century the castle's residential role declined, and by the 17th century it was principally used as military barracks with a large garrison. Its importance as a part of Scotland's national heritage was recognised increasingly from the early 19th century onwards, and various restoration programmes have been carried out over the past century and a half. As one of the most important strongholds in the Kingdom of Scotland, Edinburgh Castle was involved in many historical conflicts from the Wars of Scottish Independence in the 14th century to the Jacobite rising of 1745. Research undertaken in 2014 identified 26 sieges in its 1100-year-old history, giving it a claim to having been "the most besieged place in Great Britain and one of the most attacked in the world".

Haddington, East Lothian town in East Lothian, Scotland

The Royal Burgh of Haddington is a town in East Lothian, Scotland. It is the main administrative, cultural and geographical centre for East Lothian, which as a result of late-nineteenth century Scottish local government reforms took the form of the county of Haddingtonshire for the period from 1889-1921. It lies about 17 miles (27 km) east of Edinburgh. The name Haddington is Anglo-Saxon, dating from the sixth or seventh century AD when the area was incorporated into the kingdom of Bernicia. The town, like the rest of the Lothian region, was ceded by King Edgar of England and became part of Scotland in the tenth century. Haddington received burghal status, one of the earliest to do so, during the reign of David I (1124–1153), giving it trading rights which encouraged its growth into a market town.

Adam Hepburn, 2nd Earl of Bothwell Scottish noble

Adam Hepburn, 2nd Earl of Bothwell was a Scottish nobleman, who succeeded his father Patrick Hepburn, 1st Earl of Bothwell in 1508. Prior to that, he was known by one of his territorial designations, Adam Hepburn of Crags, under which he drew up his Testament.

In September 1491, Bothwell went on a diplomatic mission to France to renew the Auld Alliance. He left from North Berwick aboard the Katherine. His fellow ambassadors were Robert Blackadder, Archbishop of Glasgow and the Dean of Glasgow. [1] On 13 October 1488, he had a Crown charter of the feudal lordships of Chrichton and Bothwell, which were in the King's hands following the forfeiture of John Ramsay, Lord Bothwell. On 17 October the lordship of Bothwell was erected into an Earldom in his favour, and he was created the 1st Earl of Bothwell.

Kingdom of France kingdom in Western Europe from 843 to 1791

The Kingdom of France was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Western Europe. It was one of the most powerful states in Europe and a great power since the Late Middle Ages and the Hundred Years' War. It was also an early colonial power, with possessions around the world.

Auld Alliance

The Auld Alliance was an alliance made in 1295 between the kingdoms of Scotland and France. The alliance was formed for the purpose of controlling England's numerous invasions. The Scots word auld, meaning old, has become a partly affectionate term for the long-lasting alliance between the two countries. It remained until the signing of the Treaty of Edinburgh in 1560.

North Berwick town in Scotland

North Berwick is a seaside town and former royal burgh in East Lothian, Scotland. It is situated on the south shore of the Firth of Forth, approximately 20 miles (32 km) east-northeast of Edinburgh. North Berwick became a fashionable holiday resort in the nineteenth century because of its two sandy bays, the East Bay and the West Bay, and continues to attract holidaymakers. Golf courses at the ends of each bay are open to visitors.

On 6 March 1492, he had a charter of the lands and lordship of Liddesdale, with Hermitage Castle, and more, upon the resignation of the same by Archibald Douglas, 5th Earl of Angus, the latter getting the lordship of Bothwell [but not the Earldom] which Patrick in turn resigned.

Charter Grant of authority or rights

A charter is the grant of authority or rights, stating that the granter formally recognizes the prerogative of the recipient to exercise the rights specified. It is implicit that the granter retains superiority, and that the recipient admits a limited status within the relationship, and it is within that sense that charters were historically granted, and that sense is retained in modern usage of the term.

Liddesdale

Liddesdale, the valley of the Liddel Water, in the County of Roxburgh, southern Scotland, extends in a south-westerly direction from the vicinity of Peel Fell to the River Esk, a distance of 21 miles (34 km). The Waverley route of the North British Railway runs down the dale, and the Catrail, or Picts' Dyke, crosses its head.

Hermitage Castle

Hermitage Castle is a semi-ruined castle in the border region of Scotland. It is under the care of Historic Scotland. The castle has a reputation, both from its history and its appearance, as one of the most sinister and atmospheric castles in Scotland.

Patrick was appointed Captain of Dumbarton Castle on 1 April 1495. He was one of the diplomats sent to conclude the treaty for the marriage of James IV with Princess Margaret Tudor of England in October 1501, and he stood proxy for the King at the ceremony of betrothal on 25 January 1502.

Family

He married twice:

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References

  1. Macdougall, Norman, James IV, Tuckwell (1997), 87; Accounts of the Lord High Treasurer of Scotland, vol. 1, 179; Calendar State Papers Milan, vol. 1 (1912), 279-283.
Military offices
Preceded by
Alexander Stewart
Lord High Admiral of Scotland
1502–
Succeeded by
James Hamilton
Peerage of Scotland
New creation Earl of Bothwell
1488–1508
Succeeded by
Adam Hepburn
Preceded by
Patrick Hepburn
Lord Hailes
1483–1508