A reserve study is a long-term capital budget planning tool which identifies the current status of the reserve fund and a stable and equitable funding plan to offset ongoing deterioration, resulting in sufficient funds when those anticipated major common area expenditures actually occur. The reserve study consists of two parts: the physical analysis and the financial analysis. This document is often prepared by an outside independent consultant for the benefit of administrators (Board of Directors or Strata Council Members) of a property with multiple owners, such as a condominium association or homeowners' association (HOA), strata, containing an assessment of the state of the commonly owned property components as determined by the particular association's CC&Rs and bylaws. Reserve studies however are not limited only to condominiums and can be created for other properties such as resort (shared vacation ownership) properties, apartment buildings, worship facilities, private schools, private (golf/social) clubs, and office parks.
Wear is the damaging, gradual removal or deformation of material at solid surfaces. Causes of wear can be mechanical or chemical. The study of wear and related processes is referred to as tribology.
A common area is, in real estate or real property law, the "area which is available for use by more than one person..." The common areas are those that are available for common use by all tenants, (or) groups of tenants and their invitees. In Texas and other parts of the United States, it is "An area inside a housing development that is owned by all residents or by an overall management structure which charges each tenant for maintenance and upkeep."
A condominium, often shortened to condo, in the United States and in most Canadian provinces, is a type of living space similar to an apartment but independently sellable and therefore regarded as real estate. The condominium building structure is divided into several units that are each separately owned, surrounded by common areas that are jointly owned. Similar concepts in other English-speaking countries include strata title in Australia, Malaysia, New Zealand, and the Canadian province of British Columbia; commonhold in the United Kingdom; and sectional title in South Africa.
Reserve studies are in essence planning tools designed to help the board anticipate, and prepare for, the property's major repair and replacement projects. For example, such projects would include: replacement of the roof on the building(s), replacement of the boiler, retrofit of the fire alarm devices, and resurfacing of the roadways.
A roof is the top covering of a building, including all materials and constructions necessary to support it on the walls of the building or on uprights; it provides protection against rain, snow, sunlight, extremes of temperature, and wind. A roof is part of the building envelope.
A boiler is a closed vessel in which fluid is heated. The fluid does not necessarily boil. The heated or vaporized fluid exits the boiler for use in various processes or heating applications, including water heating, central heating, boiler-based power generation, cooking, and sanitation.
In some jurisdictions across Canada, a reserve study is also sometimes referred to as a "reserve fund study", "contingency reserve fund study", or "replacement reserve study" and, in British Columbia, the legislation refers to this type of study as a "Depreciation Report".
The purpose of a reserve study is to give those overseeing the maintenance of the property a better idea of what major expenses to expect and an educated estimate of when these expenses will occur. With this knowledge, the homeowners' association board or manager can create a budget so association members will make their fair share of reserve contributions, designed to offset the slow but steady ongoing reserve component deterioration of the association assets, and avoid being surprised by components that deteriorated often in plain sight and over a number of years. In addition, the reserve study provides important annual disclosures to association members (and prospective buyers) about the condition of common area components, and the level of preparedness (strength) of the reserve fund (typically measured in terms of Percent funded).A reserve study is a roadmap that allows decisions to be made which will be efficient and effective for the long term. The International Capital Budgeting Institute has established standards for calculating percent funded. There are three methods of making this calculation, and differences between reserve practitioners can, unfortunately, result in significant differences in the percent funded amount.
There are three results from a reserve study:
Reserve studies are required by the board or manager for due diligence, disclosure, and budget and planning purposes. An increasing number of U.S. states and Canadian provinces today require some form of reserve planning or disclosures. In addition to requiring a minimum 10% of the total budget be dedicated to reserve contributions, Fannie Mae and the Federal Housing Administration may ask for a current reserve studies (to demonstrate that the association has dedicated sufficient funds to caring for the ongoing needs of the property) to be approved for FHA insured loans and Fannie Mae lending products and services.
The Federal National Mortgage Association (FNMA), commonly known as Fannie Mae, is a United States government-sponsored enterprise (GSE) and, since 1968, a publicly traded company. Founded in 1938 during the Great Depression as part of the New Deal, the corporation's purpose is to expand the secondary mortgage market by securitizing mortgage loans in the form of mortgage-backed securities (MBS), allowing lenders to reinvest their assets into more lending and in effect increasing the number of lenders in the mortgage market by reducing the reliance on locally based savings and loan associations. Its brother organization is the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (FHLMC), better known as Freddie Mac. As of 2018, Fannie Mae is ranked #21 on the Fortune 500 rankings of the largest United States corporations by total revenue.
The Federal Housing Administration (FHA) is a United States government agency created in part by the National Housing Act of 1934. The FHA sets standards for construction and underwriting and insures loans made by banks and other private lenders for home building. The goals of this organization are to improve housing standards and conditions, provide an adequate home financing system through insurance of mortgage loans, and to stabilize the mortgage market. The Commissioner of the FHA is Brian Montgomery.
An FHA insured loan is a US Federal Housing Administration mortgage insurance backed mortgage loan which is provided by an FHA-approved lender. FHA insured loans are a type of federal assistance and have historically allowed lower income Americans to borrow money for the purchase of a home that they would not otherwise be able to afford. Because this type of loan is more geared towards new house owners rather than real-estate investors, FHA loans are different from conventional loan in the sense that the house must be owner occupant for at least a year. Since loans with lower down-payments usually involve more risk to the lender, the home-buyer must pay a two-part mortgage insurance which involves a one-time bulk payment in addition to a monthly payment to compensate for the increased risk.
In addition to being helpful planning tools, reserve studies for Community Associations are legally mandated in 30 states (such as California, Florida, Hawaii, Nevada, Virginia, Washington, etc.), either for budget preparation or homeowner (and prospective homeowner) disclosure purposes.In California, the relevant law is California Civil Code 5300. In California, the law requires an annual reserve study Update, with that update prepared on the basis of a "diligent visual site inspection" at least every third year. With the passing of SB 278 in 2010, the state of Utah also requires condominium and community associations to conduct and review reserve studies on a periodic basis. reserve contributions are often one of an association's largest budget line items (often 15-40% of the total budget), and the reserve fund is typically the association's largest financial asset. This means annual review of reserve contributions and annual disclosure of the status of the reserve fund are prudent.
The State of Nevada has adopted specific statutes related to reserve studies, which are set forth in NRS 116. These statutes also require that reserve preparers in Nevada be registered and background checked by the State Department of Real Estate.
Since Reserve Studies help associations make fiscally responsible decisions, navigating to a successful future, a consistent high quality of Reserve Studies is desired. While foundational Reserve Study industry standards have existed since 1998 (seeand ), a small group has proposed a new set of standards. While intended as progress, as-of this writing, these 2015 standards have yet to be embraced or adopted by the industry as a whole. For more see The International Capital Budgeting Institute (ICBI). According to their web site, a Reserve Study "funding plan should be prepared on the cash flow basis"; however, the purpose of the financial portion of Reserve Studies is to calculate "the current status of the reserve fund and a stable and equitable funding plan to offset ongoing deterioration, resulting in sufficient funds when those anticipated major common area expenditures actually occur" (see above). Because cash flow analysis concerns itself only with actual transactions, it mathematically cannot be used for future planning of any costs that change with time, regardless of whether those changes result from actual changes in costs or inflation, unless it is revised often with updated future costs. In addition, because future cost estimates based on cash flow analysis are linear, while inflation is not; mathematically, using cash flow calculations to determine reserve deposits cannot calculate required deposits that equitably distribute costs among owners in proportion to their ownership, cannot assure that sufficient funds will always be available when they are needed, and cannot accurately determine current status.
On June 30, 2011, the Department of Housing and Urban Development published Mortgagee Letter 2011-22, which made reserve studies mandatory for all new condominium conversions applying for FHA insured loans approval, including gut and non-gut rehabilitation conversions. This new guideline went into effect September 1, 2011. Condominiums must demonstrate that at least 10% of the yearly assessment income be dedicated towards reserve contributions. The FHA enforces the 10% budget line item requirement nationally by prohibiting lending in developments that are non-compliant with this requirement.Additionally, Mortgagee Letter 2011-22 stipulates all other condominiums requesting FHA project approval may be required to submit a current (completed within the last 24 months) reserve study at their discretion or whenever financial documents do not appear to meet sufficient funding requirements of the condominium association.
On December 1, 2010, Fannie Mae published Announcement SEL 2010-16. The new guidelines outlined in the announcement went into effect March 1, 2011. The guidelines made reserve studies mandatory for all newly converted, non-gut rehabilitation condominium developments to be eligible Fannie Mae project approval.All other types of condominiums have the option to submit a compliant reserve study or must add a budget line item for reserves equal to 10% of the yearly assessment income.
In Canada the legislation governing condominium and strata corporations is provincial. There are no national standards conducting reserve professionals with respect to conduct, reporting, methodology, calculation formula other than those of specific professional organizations. The absence of a national organization of reserve planner professionals has resulted in reserve study reports containing vital financial information being prepared using simplistic spread sheet applications and forecasts which are not compliant with financial reporting requirements of Financial Reporting & Assurance Standards Canada.
A Reserve fund study is a financial document which is likely to be reviewed by an auditor and must meet these standards. The reserve fund study also requires technical expertise with respect to building structure and systems. It is for this reason that these reports are primarily prepared by engineers, architects, appraisers, building inspectors etc. The Capital Budgeting process with respect to reserve management planning has clarified in the International Capital Budgeting Institutes (ICBI) Generally Accepted Reserve Study Standards published April 2015.
The ICBI reserve study standards are very specific with respect to the information to be contained in the report and the calculation methods used in providing financial forecasts. The standards are also specific as to the software used to create the financial forecasts. A reserve professional providing reserve study/depreciation reports which comply with these standards must use the formulas provided by ICBI.
Associated Reserve Planners of Canada Inc. (ARPC)is a national group of reserve study providers of various vocations and professional designations. ARPC members have adopted the ICBI standards and incorporated them into the reserve management planning process. All members use Reserve Fund Analysis software RFA Pro as it has been independently audited by a national accounting firm and meets all the requirements of the ICBI Generally Accepted Reserve Study Standards. Report templates and all financial reports as required by the standards are included in the RFA Pro analysis system.
There are several reserve study funding methods and goals. These methods may be used to develop a funding strategy that corresponds with the risk tolerance of the community. In National Reserve Study Standards terminology,there are two basic ways to calculate contributions: "Cash Flow" or "Component" (also known as "Straight Line"). In the same National reserve study Standard terminology, there are four funding objectives: Full funding, Threshold funding, Baseline funding, and Statutory funding. Due to its greater computational flexibility and its ability to allow the user to focus on and achieve any of the four funding Objectives, the "Cash Flow" Method has seen significant growth in popularity. The four Funding Objectives (excerpted from National Reserve Study Standards )are as follows:
All funding objectives are designed to meet exactly the same expenses outlined in the reserve component list. Thus the expenditures are identical, only the size of the reserve fund through the years is different. This means the size of reserve contributions between different reserve funding objectives is often relatively small (typically only 10–15%).
Reserve studies can be created by volunteer board members, their professional managers, obtained through a variety of professionals specializing in the preparation of reserve studies, or large architectural or engineering firms who complete reserve studies as a small aspect of their larger business. Recently, certification criteria have been created to allow for a more ordered system of identifying those individuals who have been specifically trained in the creation of reserve studies. One such certification, that of Reserve Specialist (RS), is available through the Community Associations Institute (CAI). To obtain this certification, candidates must have prepared at least 30 reserve studies within the past 3 calendar years, hold a bachelor's degree in construction management, architecture, or engineering (or something equivalent based on experience and education), and complied with various other rules and codes of conducts.
Another credential is the Professional Reserve Analyst (PRA), created and promoted by the reserve study industry's own trade organization, the Association of Professional Reserve Analysts (APRA).The PRA was the first accrediting body for Reserve Professionals. The PRA credential is similar in that it takes years, demonstrated experience, and compliance with standardized terminology to obtain although the experience levels are a bit higher than that required for the RS and their efforts include studies both inside and outside of the homeowner association industry. APRA also requires its PRAs to maintain proficiency with continuing education.
In Canada there are several designations and training programs. The Real Estate Institute of Canada (REIC) offers the Certified Reserve Planner (CRP) program, which is the only nationally accepted specialty designation listed in provincial (some provinces) legislation as qualified. Members of the Appraisal Institute of Canada (AIC) must use the methodology and standards of the REIC program if they wish to complete the report. This includes preparing a Benchmark Analysis and rating the reserve fund as a percent funded.
The Canadian National Association of Real Estate Appraisers(CNAREA)offers the Designated Reserve Planner (DRP) program to designated appraiser members since 2012. The DRP designation requires demonstrated experience and compliance with standardized terminology and methodology to obtain. All DRP designated planners are required to use the RFA Pro Reserve Fund Analysis software or provide a quality assurance report of their chosen calculation methods. Applied Science Technologists & Technicians of British Columbia (ASTTBC) offers the Registered Reserve Fund Analysts (RRFA) training program to Home inspectors, as home inspectors are restricted from completing Depreciation Reports / Reserve Studies in their bylaws. As of 2013, Sauder School of Business Real Estate Division is offering the first of 2 courses towards a certification called the Reserve Fund Planning Program (RFPP), but yet no trade group has recognized this designation.
There are three types of reserve studies based on standards set by the Association of Professional Reserve Analysts and Community Associations Institute, differing in how exhaustively the Physical Analysis is conducted. These three types of reserve studies allow the association to select the "Level of Service" appropriate to their current budget preparation and disclosure needs. Listed beginning with the most exhaustive, they are:
Note that the International Capital Budgeting Institute's (ICBI) Generally Accepted reserve Study Standards issue in April 2015 provide differing views than those presented above. ICBI agrees with the three TYPES of reserve studies identified above (Full reserve study, Update with On Site Analysis reserve study, and Update without Site Analysis reserve study), but differs in stating that these represent "types of engagements," not levels of service. ICBI has identified three levels of service which are (1) Independent reserve study, (2) Reserve management plan, and (3) Consulting.
Some common area components may have been left out of your reserve study or been included in the component list as an “excluded item” and not been funded for. These components will typically fall into one or more of the categories listed below.
Below Threshold Costs - Component repair and/or replacement costs that are deemed too small to be considered capital expenses and are typically included in the operational or maintenance budget of the association have not been funded for in this study. Minimal threshold costs are determined by the Association or by you Reserve Analysts based on the typical minimal threshold costs for similar sized associations.
Operational Expenses - These occur at least annually and can be effectively budgeted for each year. They are characterized as being reasonably predictable both in terms of frequency and cost. Operational expenses include all minor expenses which would not otherwise adversely affect an operational budget from one year to the next.
Very Long or Unpredictable Useful Life Expectancy - Components which, when properly maintained, have a very long useful life and which cannot be accurately predicted, have been excluded from this reserve report. These components may require maintenance and upkeep which is typically funded from the operational budget of the association.
Unit Improvements - Improvements made to the property that fall within the Governing Documents’ unit description summary (owners responsibility), are not typically considered to be community owned or the responsibility of the association.
Other Non-Association Owned - Improvements installed on the property but which are owned by other parties such as governmental agencies, utility companies, the US Postal Service, etc., are not included in this reserve study. The replacement and maintenance of these improvements are not typically the responsibility of the association.
Additionally, budgeting is normally excluded for repairs or replacements of assets which are deemed to have an estimated useful life equal to or exceeding the estimated useful life of the facility, community as a whole, or exceeding the legal life of the community as defined in an association's governing documents. Examples include the complete replacement of the foundation, elevators, wiring and oftentimes plumbing. Also excluded are insignificant expenses which may be covered either by an operating or reserve contingency, or otherwise in a general maintenance fund. Costs which are caused by acts of God, accidents or other occurrences which are more properly insured for, rather than reserved for, are also excluded.
Finance is a field that is concerned with the allocation (investment) of assets and liabilities over space and time, often under conditions of risk or uncertainty. Finance can also be defined as the art of money management. Participants in the market aim to price assets based on their risk level, fundamental value, and their expected rate of return. Finance can be split into three sub-categories: public finance, corporate finance and personal finance.
Cost accounting is the process of recording, classifying, analyzing, summarizing, and allocating costs associated with a process, and then developing various courses of action to control the costs. Its goal is to advise the management on how to optimize business practices and processes based on cost efficiency and capability. Cost accounting provides the detailed cost information that management needs to control current operations and plan for the future.
In accounting, an economic item's historical cost is the original nominal monetary value of that item. Historical cost accounting involves reporting assets and liabilities at their historical costs, which are not updated for changes in the items' values. Consequently, the amounts reported for these balance sheet items often differ from their current economic or market values.
An income statement or profit and loss account is one of the financial statements of a company and shows the company’s revenues and expenses during a particular period.
Personal finance is the financial management which an individual or a family unit performs to budget, save, and spend monetary resources over time, taking into account various financial risks and future life events. When planning personal finances, the individual would consider the suitability to his or her needs of a range of banking products or investment private equity, and insurance products or participation and monitoring of and- or employer-sponsored retirement plans, social security benefits, and income tax management.
A company's earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation, and amortization is an accounting measure calculated using a company's net earnings, before interest expenses, taxes, depreciation, and amortization are subtracted, as a proxy for a company's current operating profitability.
Financial accounting is the field of accounting concerned with the summary, analysis and reporting of financial transactions related to a business. This involves the preparation of financial statements available for public use. Stockholders, suppliers, banks, employees, government agencies, business owners, and other stakeholders are examples of people interested in receiving such information for decision making purposes.
Total cost of ownership (TCO) is a financial estimate intended to help buyers and owners determine the direct and indirect costs of a product or system. It is a management accounting concept that can be used in full cost accounting or even ecological economics where it includes social costs.
Feasibility Study is an assessment of the practicality of a proposed project or system.
The revenue recognition principle is a cornerstone of accrual accounting together with the matching principle. They both determine the accounting period in which revenues and expenses are recognized. According to the principle, revenues are recognized when they are realized or realizable, and are earned, no matter when cash is received. In cash accounting – in contrast – revenues are recognized when cash is received no matter when goods or services are sold.
The debt service coverage ratio (DSCR), also known as "debt coverage ratio" (DCR), is the ratio of cash available to debt servicing for interest, principal and lease payments. It is a popular benchmark used in the measurement of an entity's ability to produce enough cash to cover its debt payments. The higher this ratio is, the easier it is to obtain a loan. The phrase is also used in commercial banking and may be expressed as a minimum ratio that is acceptable to a lender; it may be a loan condition. Breaching a DSCR covenant can, in some circumstances, be an act of default.
Under United States tax laws and accounting rules, cost segregation is the process of identifying personal property assets that are grouped with real property assets, and separating out personal assets for tax reporting purposes. According to the American Society of Cost Segregation Professionals, a cost segregation is "the process of identifying property components that are considered "personal property" or "land improvements" under the federal tax code."
For the application of engineering economics in the practice of civil engineering see Engineering economics.
In business, overhead or overhead expense refers to an ongoing expense of operating a business. Overheads are the expenditure which cannot be conveniently traced to or identified with any particular cost unit, unlike operating expenses such as raw material and labor. Therefore, overheads cannot be immediately associated with the products or services being offered, thus do not directly generate profits. However, overheads are still vital to business operations as they provide critical support for the business to carry out profit making activities. For example, overhead costs such as the rent for a factory allows workers to manufacture products which can then be sold for a profit. Such expenses are incurred for output generally and not for particular work order; e.g., wages paid to watch and ward staff, heating and lighting expenses of factory, etc. Overheads are also very important cost element along with direct materials and direct labor.
Financial management focuses on ratios, equities and debts. It is useful for portfolio management,distribution of dividend,capital raising,hedging and looking after fluctuations in foreign currency and product cycles.Financial managers are the people who will do research and based on the research, decide what sort of capital to obtain in order to fund the company's assets as well as maximizing the value of the firm for all the stakeholders. It also refers to the efficient and effective management of money (funds) in such a manner as to accomplish the objectives of the organization. It is the specialized function directly associated with the top management. The significance of this function is not seen in the 'Line' but also in the capacity of the 'Staff' in overall of a company. It has been defined differently by different experts in the field.
Reserves are funds collected for the long-term maintenance or replacements of the common areas in a common-interest development (CID). The funds accumulate until they are needed for such.
Whole-life cost, or Life-cycle cost (LCC), refers to the total cost of ownership over the life of an asset. Also commonly referred to as "cradle to grave" or "womb to tomb" costs. Costs considered include the financial cost which is relatively simple to calculate and also the environmental and social costs which are more difficult to quantify and assign numerical values. Typical areas of expenditure which are included in calculating the whole-life cost include planning, design, construction and acquisition, operations, maintenance, renewal and rehabilitation, depreciation and cost of finance and replacement or disposal.
This article lists some of the important requirements of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS).
Conditional budgeting is a budgeting approach designed for companies with fluctuating income, high fixed costs, or income depending on sunk costs, as well as NPOs and NGOs. The approach builds on the strengths of proven budgeting approaches, leverages the respective advantages for situations of fluctuating incomes, and at the same time reduces possible negative impacts.
International Accounting Standard 16 Property, Plant and Equipment or IAS 16 is an international financial reporting standard adopted by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB). It concerns accounting for property, plant and equipment, including recognition, determination of their carrying amounts, and the depreciation charges and impairment losses to be recognised in relation to them.