|Siege of Guadeloupe|
|Part of War of the Spanish Succession|
Guadeloupe; British landed on Basse-terre
|Commanders and leaders|
| 4,000 troops and militia |
| 1,000 - 1,800 |
The Siege of Guadeloupe took place from March to May 1703 during the War of the Spanish Succession, when a British expeditionary force led by Christopher Codrington landed on Guadeloupe in the French West Indies, and laid siege to the capital of Basse-Terre.
Although Charles Auger, the French governor, received reinforcements from Martinique led by Nicolas de Gabaret, he was forced to destroy Fort St Charles. However, lack of supplies and heavy losses from disease obliged the British to evacuate in May.
In March 1703, the British landed on the western part of Guadeloupe, in the French West Indies, near the main settlement of Basse-Terre. Codrington laid siege to Fort St Charles, held by a garrison under Charles Auger, while sending out parties of troops to burn and destroy houses, farms, works and plantations. They were also ordered to forage and plunder, because provisions were in short supply.
Reinforcements arrived from Martinique on 3 April, led by its governor Nicolas de Gabaret who took over command, and blew up the fort. He adopted scorched earth tactics, destroying resources before falling back into the interior, then harassing the British while disease and lack supplies reduced their strength. While highly unpopular with French plantation owners, it proved extremely effective.
By the end of April, disease began afflicting the soldiers ashore and Codrington was evacuated when he too fell ill. His deputy Charles Wills took over command and began evacuating the survivors in early May. Basse-Terre town was set ablaze as the fleet, taking captured guns, sailed on to St Christopher's Island.
Guadeloupe is an archipelago and overseas department and region of France in the Caribbean. It consists of six inhabited islands—Basse-Terre, Grande-Terre, Marie-Galante, La Désirade, and the two inhabited Îles des Saintes—as well as many uninhabited islands and outcroppings. It is south of Antigua and Barbuda and Montserrat, and north of Dominica. The region's capital city is Basse-Terre, located on the southern west coast of Basse-Terre Island; however, the most populous city is Les Abymes and the main center of business is neighbouring Pointe-à-Pitre, both located on Grande-Terre Island.
The term French West Indies or French Antilles refers to the eight territories currently under French sovereignty in the Antilles islands of the Caribbean:
Basse-Terre is a commune in the Guadeloupe department of France in the Lesser Antilles. It is also the prefecture of Guadeloupe. The city of Basse-Terre is located on Basse-Terre Island, the western half of Guadeloupe.
The 63rd Regiment of Foot, was a British Army regiment, raised in 1756. Under the Childers Reforms it amalgamated with the 96th Regiment of Foot to form the Manchester Regiment in 1881.
Marie-Galante is one of the islands that form Guadeloupe, an overseas department of France. Marie-Galante has a land area of 170.5 km2. It had 11,528 inhabitants at the start of 2013, with a population density of 67.6/km2 (175/sq mi).
Gourbeyre is a commune in the French overseas region and department of Guadeloupe, in the Lesser Antilles. It is a suburb of the city of Basse-Terre.
The British expedition against Guadeloupe was a military action from January to May 1759, as part of the Seven Years' War. A large British force had arrived in the West Indies, intending to seize French possessions. After a six-month-long battle to capture Guadeloupe they finally received the formal surrender of the island, just days before a large French relief force arrived under Admiral Maximin de Bompart.
The invasion of Martinique of 1809 was a successful British amphibious operation against the French West Indian island of Martinique that took place between 30 January and 24 February 1809 during the West Indies Campaign 1804–1810 of the Napoleonic Wars. Martinique, like nearby Guadeloupe, was a major threat to British trade in the Caribbean, providing a sheltered base from which privateers and French Navy warships could raid British shipping and disrupt the trade routes that maintained the British economy. The islands also provided a focus for larger scale French operations in the region and in the autumn of 1808, following the Spanish alliance with Britain, the Admiralty decided to order a British squadron to neutralise the threat, beginning with Martinique.
Roquebert's expedition to the Caribbean, was an unsuccessful operation by a French naval squadron to transport supplies to Guadeloupe in December 1809 at the height of the Napoleonic Wars. Over the previous year, British Royal Navy squadrons had isolated and defeated the French Caribbean colonies one by one, until by the autumn Guadeloupe was the only colony remaining in French hands. Cut off from the rest of the world by British blockade squadrons that intercepted all ships coming to or from the island, Guadeloupe was in a desperate situation, facing economic collapse, food shortages and social upheaval, as well as the impending threat of British invasion. In an effort to reinforce and resupply the colony, the French government sent four vessels to the West Indies in November 1809 under Commodore François Roquebert. Two of the ships were 20-gun flûtes carrying supplies and troops. The two others were 40-gun frigates, ordered to protect the storeships on their journey from the British forces operating off both the French and Guadeloupe coasts.
The Invasion of Guadeloupe was a British amphibious operation fought between 28 January and 6 February 1810 over control of the Caribbean island of Guadeloupe during the Napoleonic Wars. The island was the final remaining French colony in the Americas, following the systematic invasion and capture of the others during 1809 by British forces. During the Napoleonic Wars, the French colonies had provided protected harbours for French privateers and warships, which could prey on the numerous British trade routes in the Caribbean and then return to the colonies before British warships could react. In response, the British instituted a blockade of the islands, stationing ships off every port and seizing any vessel that tried to enter or leave. With trade and communication made dangerous by the British blockade squadrons, the economies and morale of the French colonies began to collapse, and in the summer of 1808 desperate messages were sent to France requesting help.
General Sir Charles Wills was a professional soldier from Cornwall, who was Lieutenant-General of the Ordnance and Member of Parliament for Totnes from 1718 to 1741.
The Invasion of Guadeloupe was a British attempt in 1794 to take and hold the island of Guadeloupe in the West Indies during the 1789-1799 French Revolutionary Wars. The British had negotiated with the French planters, Ignace-Joseph-Philippe de Perpignan and Louis de Curt, who wished to gain British protection, as the French Constitutional Assembly was passing a law abolishing slavery on 4 February, 1794. The Whitehall Accord was signed on 19 February 1794 while the British were securing Martinique in the Battle of Martinique (1794). Troops led by General Charles Grey landed on 11 April 1794, assisted by a fleet led by Admiral Sir John Jervis. On 24 April French General Collot surrendered the last stronghold at Basse-Terre, leaving the island in the hands of the British and their French Royalist supporters. On 4 June a French fleet landed troops under the command of Victor Hugues who, with the assistance of French Republican locals, helped by the effect of yellow fever and other tropical diseases on the British forces, regained full control of the island by 10 December 1794.
The Invasion of Guadeloupe was the last conflict between French and British forces during the Napoleonic Wars, and took place after Napoleon's defeat at Waterloo.
Charles de Courbon, comte de Blénac was governor general of the French Antilles three times in the 17th century. He was an experienced soldier and fought for the king during the Fronde before becoming a naval captain. Towards the end of the Franco-Dutch War he led the land forces that took Tobago from the Dutch before taking command of the French Antilles. During the Nine Years' War he was active in the struggle with the English and Dutch in the Windward Islands. He captured Sint Eustatius and Saint Kitts, and defended Martinique against a large English expedition in 1693.
Gabriel-Jean Nicolas Gabaret de Saint-Sornin was a French colonial official who was governor of Grenada in the French West Indies, and then for over twenty years was governor of Martinique. He was deputy to the governor general of the French Antilles, and was twice acting governor general of the French Antilles. In his last year he was governor of Saint-Domingue
Charles-François de Machault de Belmont (1640–1709) was a French naval officer who was governor general of the French Antilles from 1703 to 1709. He held office during the War of the Spanish Succession, when the French colony on Saint Kitts was lost to the English and the other islands were under constant threat.
Charles Auger de La Motte was a French colonial administrator. He was governor in turn of Marie-Galante, Guadeloupe and Saint-Domingue.
Bonnaventure-François de Boisfermé was a French soldier and colonial administrator. He was commander or acting governor in Marie-Galante, Guadeloupe and Martinique. He was appointed governor of Grenada but died before taking office.
Georges Robert Cloche de Mont-Saint-Rémy de La Malmaison was a French soldier and colonial administrator who was governor of Guadeloupe from 1705 until his death in 1717. In 1713–15 he was acting governor general of the French Antilles
Pierre Hincelin was a French soldier who was the kings lieutenant on Guadeloupe. He fought on Antigua in 1666 during the Second Anglo-Dutch War. He was governor of Guadeloupe from 1677 to 1694. The Nine Years' War broke out in 1688 and Guadeloupe was invaded by the English in 1691. The French defenders were outnumbered and retreated, but the effect of disease, heavy rain and the arrival of French reinforcements led to the English leaving after a few weeks.
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