South Sudan Defence Forces (militia)

Last updated
South Sudan Defence Forces
LeadersMaj. Gen. Paulino Matip Nhial
Riek Machar (1997–2000)
Tito Biel (1997–2000)
Peter Par Jiek (1997–2000)
Active regionsNorthern South Sudan
Ideology Sudanese nationalism
Battles and warsSecond Sudanese Civil War
Preceded by
Deserters from SPLA-Nasir
Succeeded by
Splinter became SPDF
Main faction absorbed into SPLA
Several sub-groups became independent

The South Sudan Defence Forces (SSDF) was a militia in South Sudan during the Second Sudanese Civil War (1983-2005) in uneasy alliance with the Government of Sudan.


The SSDF provided security for Sudan Armed Forces (SAF) garrisons and for oilfields in the north of South Sudan, and in return was given arms and ammunition, although SSDF political leaders remained deeply suspicious of the Khartoum-based government. The Comprehensive Peace Agreement of 9 January 2005 ended hostilities between the Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA) and the government. A year later, the Juba Declaration of 8 January 2006 provided for integration of SSDF soldiers into the SPLA. [2] The SSDF chief of staff Major General Paulino Matip Nhial signed the Juba Declaration and was appointed deputy Commander in Chief of the SPLA. [3]

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  1. Rone 2003, p. 73.
  2. John Young (November 2006). "The South Sudan Defence Forces in the Wake of the Juba Declaration" (PDF). Small Arms Survey. Retrieved 2011-08-04.
  3. "Gatluak Gai Rebellion, Unity State" (PDF). HSBA. January 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-02-18. Retrieved 2011-08-04.

Works cited

Further reading