South Sudan Defence Forces (militia)

Last updated
South Sudan Defence Forces
LeadersMaj. Gen. Paulino Matip Nhial
Riek Machar (1997–2000)
Tito Biel (1997–2000)
Peter Par Jiek (1997–2000)
Group(s)
Active regionsNorthern South Sudan
Ideology Sudanese nationalism
Battles and warsSecond Sudanese Civil War
Preceded by
Deserters from SPLA-Nasir
Succeeded by
Splinter became SPDF
Main faction absorbed into SPLA
Several sub-groups became independent

The South Sudan Defence Forces (SSDF) was a militia in South Sudan during the Second Sudanese Civil War (1983-2005) in uneasy alliance with the Government of Sudan.

Contents

The SSDF provided security for Sudan Armed Forces (SAF) garrisons and for oilfields in the north of South Sudan, and in return was given arms and ammunition, although SSDF political leaders remained deeply suspicious of the Khartoum-based government. The Comprehensive Peace Agreement of 9 January 2005 ended hostilities between the Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA) and the government. A year later, the Juba Declaration of 8 January 2006 provided for integration of SSDF soldiers into the SPLA. [2] The SSDF chief of staff Major General Paulino Matip Nhial signed the Juba Declaration and was appointed deputy Commander in Chief of the SPLA. [3]

Related Research Articles

Riek Machar First vice president of the independent Republic of South Sudan

Riek Machar Teny Dhurgon is a South Sudanese politician who serves as the first Vice President of South Sudan.

Anyanya II is the name taken in 1978 by a group of the 64 tribes of South Sudan dissidents who took up arms in All of Sudan. The name implies continuity with the Anyanya, or Anya-Nya, movement of the First Sudanese Civil War (1955-1972).

South Sudan Peoples Defence Forces

The South Sudan People's Defence Forces (SSPDF), formerly the Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA), is the army of the Republic of South Sudan. The SPLA was founded as a guerrilla movement against the government of Sudan in 1983 and was a key participant of the Second Sudanese Civil War, led by John Garang. After Garang's death in 2005, Salva Kiir was named the SPLA's new Commander-in-Chief. As of 2010, the SPLA was divided into divisions of 10,000–14,000 soldiers.

Gabriel Tang Southern Sudanese rebel leader

Gabriel Gatwech Chan, more commonly known by the nickname Tang-Ginye or Tanginye meaning "long pipe", was a Nuer and a commander in various primarily Nuer rebel militias in South Sudan. General Tanginye led a southern border militia allied to the Khartoum government during Sudan's civil war. Members of the Sudanese armed forces loyal to Gen Tang in Malakal clashed with the Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA) in 2006, killing about 150 people, and in 2009 in breach of the peace deal. In April 2011, clashes between his militia and the SPLA in the state of Jonglei killed at least 57 according to government officials. Shortly thereafter, Tanginye surrendered to SPLA forces and was placed under house arrest in Juba awaiting charges against him. During the South Sudanese Civil War, he allied with the SPLA-IO and later Lam Akol's militia, a Juba linked rebel group called the National Democratic Movement (NDM) and became its chief of staff. In January 2017 he visited a NDM-allied group, the Tiger Faction New Forces, in the Hamra area in the northern Upper Nile. In course of this visit, the Tigers were attacked by SPLM-IO-affiliated fighters belonging to the militia of John Uliny, and Tanginye was killed alongside most of the Tigers.

Leer, South Sudan Place in Unity State, South Sudan

Leer is a town in South Sudan. It is the capital of former Southern Liech State and Leer County.It's the most densely populated county in South Sudan.

Paulino Matip Nhial, or Matiep Nhial, was a military leader and politician in South Sudan.

The Juba Declaration of 8 January 2006, formally the Juba Declaration on Unity and Integration between the Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA) And the South Sudan Defence Forces (SSDF) 8 January 2006, laid out the basis for unifying rival military forces in South Sudan following the end of the Second Sudanese Civil War in January 2005.

Gordon Kong Chuol is a former militia commander in South Sudan, who fought for the Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA) and later for the forces led by Riek Machar during the Second Sudanese Civil War.

Adar oilfield

The Adar oilfield, also known as the Adar Yale, Adar Yeil or Adaril field, is an oilfield situated in the Mabaan in South Sudan estimated to contain about 276 million barrels (43,900,000 m3) of oil. The Chevron Corporation discovered the Adar Yale field in 1981, shortly before the start of the Second Sudanese Civil War (1983–2005). Soon after Chevron had suspended operations in 1984, Sudanese government troops began attacking civilian settlements in the area, burning the houses and driving the people away, and in the late 1990s, Nuer militias from Nasir helped the army in clearing away the people to make way for the roads and infrastructure of the oilfield.

Mayom, South Sudan Town in Unity, South Sudan

Mayom is a community in Unity State of South Sudan to the west of Bentiu. It is the headquarters of Mayom County.

Mayom County Place in Unity, South Sudan

Mayom County is an administrative region in Northern Liech of South Sudan to the west of Bentiu. The county headquarters is Mayom town.

Yohannes Yual Both was a leader of the South Sudan Defense Forces whose mobile forces gave the Sudan People's Liberation Army considerable difficulty during the Second Sudanese Civil War (1983–2005).

Tito Biel Chuor was a high-ranking commander in the South Sudan Defense Forces (SSDF) during the Second Sudanese Civil War (1983–2005).

Mankien Town in Unity, South Sudan

Mankien is a community in Unity state in South Sudan. With a key location near the oil fields, the town changed hands more than once during the Second Sudanese Civil War (1983-2005). In April 2011 the town was once again the scene of conflict between militia and government troops.

Block 5A, South Sudan

Block 5A is an oil concession in South Sudan. After oil field development began during the Second Sudanese Civil War, Block 5A was the scene of extensive fighting as rival militias struggled for control. Out of an original population of 240,000, an estimated 12,000 were killed or died of starvation and 160,000 were displaced by force. Production started in 2006. There is evidence that the environmentally sensitive marshlands beside the Nile are becoming polluted. European companies have been accused of complicity in clearance of the population from the oil field.

The Relief Association of Southern Sudan was a humanitarian organization in Sudan, operating during the Second Sudanese Civil War. It was the humanitarian wing of the forces of Riek Machar 1991-2003. SPLA-Nasir set up RASS to function as a local civilian authority, and for liaisons with United Nations agencies and NGOs. As of 1999, Simon Kun served as executive director of RASS.

Peter Par Jiek was a brigadier general of the Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA), and veteran of the Second Sudanese Civil War. In the course of that conflict, Par fought under Riek Machar with several rebel and pro-government groups, and eventually became a powerful militia commander in Unity State. In that region, he established his own fiefdom and gained some notoriety for his rivalry with another rebel leader, Peter Gadet. Even though he had followed Machar during the whole Second Sudanese Civil War until 2005, Par sided with President Salva Kiir Mayardit upon the outbreak of the South Sudanese Civil War in 2013. Leading pro-government counter-insurgency forces in Wau State since 2014, Par was eventually ambushed and killed by SPLM-IO rebels loyal to Machar in 2017.

The Army of Peace was a large alliance of Fertit tribal militias in Western Bahr el Ghazal during the Second Sudanese Civil War. Although initially armed by the Sudanese government in order to fight against South Sudanese separatists, the Army of Peace became especially notorious for massacring Dinka civilians. These mass killings grew so excessive that the group even came into violent conflicts with other pro-government forces. The militia was mostly disbanded in 1988, though a rump faction continued to be active and joined the Popular Defence Forces in 1989, and later the South Sudan Defense Forces (SSDF) in 1997.

The 1st Division, of the Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA) was and is a division of the SPLA, now being renamed as the South Sudan People's Defence Forces. It was established in 2006, and has had its headquarters in Renk, Upper Nile State.

War of the Peters Conflict in Sudan

The War of the Peters was a conflict primarily fought between the forces of Peter Par Jiek and Peter Gadet from June 2000 to August 2001 in Unity State, Sudan. Though both were leaders of local branches of larger rebel groups that were involved in the Second Sudanese Civil War, the confrontation between the two commanders was essentially a private war. As Par and Gadet battled each other, the Sudanese government exploited the inter-rebel conflict as part of a divide and rule-strategy, aimed at weakening the rebellion at large and allowing for the extraction of valuable oil in Unity State. In the end, Gadet and Par reconciled when their respective superiors agreed to merge the SPDF and SPLA.

References

  1. Rone 2003, p. 73.
  2. John Young (November 2006). "The South Sudan Defence Forces in the Wake of the Juba Declaration" (PDF). Small Arms Survey. Retrieved 2011-08-04.
  3. "Gatluak Gai Rebellion, Unity State" (PDF). HSBA. January 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-02-18. Retrieved 2011-08-04.

Works cited

Further reading