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|Names||Stunt double, body double|
|Competencies||Physical fitness, daring, acting skills, weapon skills, martial arts, driving skills|
|Body double, stunt performer, stunt coordinator, actor, movie star, extra|
In filmmaking, a stunt double is a cross between a body double and a stunt performer, specifically a skilled replacement used for dangerous sequences, such as jumping out of a building or from vehicle to vehicle, and for other sophisticated stunts (especially fight scenes). Stunt doubles may be used in cases where an actor's physical condition or age precludes much activity, or when an actor is contractually prohibited from taking certain risks. A dance double performs the dangerous or physically difficult dance parts of a character's role.
Stunt doubles should be distinguished from daredevils, who perform stunts for the sake of the stunt alone, often as a career. Sequences often do not place stunt doubles in the same mortal peril as the characters: for example, harnesses and wires can be digitally edited out of the final film.
Many stunt doubles have long production careers as part of a star actor's contractual "support crew", along with the star's cooks, trainers, dressers, and assistants. Often stunt doubles have to look like their respective actors, in order to maintain the illusion that it is the actor on-screen. Stunt doubles for Eddie Murphy, John Wayne, Harrison Ford, Steve Martin, Salman Khan and Michael Landon have been associated with their lead actors for decades.
Some actors are known to have performed their own stunts. Jackie Chan is well known for this, as are fellow martial arts star and movie partners Yuen Biao and Sammo Hung, and Tony Jaa. Indian actor Jayan performed extremely dangerous stunts and was killed while performing one involving a helicopter. Akshay Kumar does all of his own stunts, including some dangerous ones. Several if not all of the original actors from the debut season of Mighty Morphin Power Rangers performed some action and fight scene stunts themselves, in and out of their Ranger suit. This, however, did result in some injuries to the actors, and is generally not done in later iterations of the franchise. Jason David Frank, a stunt performer himself, starred as a Ranger in the original season.
Some actors started out as stunt doubles. Dyri Kristjansson, the second actor of LazyTown 's Sportacus, started out as original actor Magnús Scheving's stunt double. Voice actress Chantal Strand, best known for voicing Dragon Tales ' Cassie, started off doing stunts on Look Who's Talking Now with her twin sister Michelle.
Stunt doubles are also used when the actor doesn't legally hold the required class of license. For example: All of Andy Lau's motorcycle scenes on Full Throttle were done by the director as he doesn't hold a motorcycle license. This is proven when he performs with a motorcycle in concerts, where the engines were never on.
Non-humans are also known to have stunt doubles. For example, Enzo was the stunt double for his aging sire Moose on the sitcom Frasier . Soccer, the Jack Russell terrier on Wishbone , reportedly hated swimming and therefore had stunt doubles.
A stand-in for film and television is a person who substitutes for the actor before filming, for technical purposes such as lighting and camera setup. Stand-ins are helpful in the initial processes of film and television production.
A stunt is an unusual and difficult physical feat or an act requiring a special skill, performed for artistic purposes usually on television, theaters, or cinema. Stunts are a feature of many action films. Before computer generated imagery special effects, these effects were limited to the use of models, false perspective and other in-camera effects, unless the creator could find someone willing to jump from car to car or hang from the edge of a skyscraper: the stunt performer or stunt double.
Andy Lau Tak-wah, is a Hong Kong actor, singer-songwriter and film producer. He has been one of Hong Kong's most commercially successful film actors since the mid-1980s, performing in more than 160 films while maintaining a successful singing career at the same time. In the 1990s, Lau was branded by the media as one of the Four Heavenly Kings of Cantopop and was named as "Fourth Tiger" among the Five Tiger Generals of TVB during the 1980s.
A stunt performer, often referred to as a stuntman or stuntwoman, is a trained professional who performs daring acts, often as a career. Stunt performers usually appear in films or on television, as opposed to a daredevil, who performs for a live audience. When they take the place of another actor, they are known as stunt doubles.
In filmmaking, a body double is a person who substitutes in a scene for another actor such that the person's face is not shown.
Master Chief Petty Officer Krishnan Nair, better known by his stage name Jayan, was an Indian film actor, naval officer, stunt performer and cultural icon of the 1970s and 1980s. He starred in over 150 Malayalam films. During his film career, he was primarily an action star and was particularly famous for his macho image and unique style. He was reputed for his chauvinistic appeal and well known for performing stunts of a dangerous nature on his own. By the late 1970s, he became the most popular superstar, lead actor and bankable star of Malayalam cinema and has been acclaimed as the first action hero of Malayalam cinema. Jayan is widely regarded as one of the most influential superstars in the history of Malayalam cinema.
Second unit is a discrete team of filmmakers tasked with filming shots or sequences of a production, separate from the main or "first" unit. The second unit will often shoot simultaneously with the other unit or units, allowing the filming stage of production to be completed faster.
The Lights, Motors, Action!: Extreme Stunt Show, was a stunt show performed at Walt Disney Studios Park in Disneyland Paris and at Disney's Hollywood Studios theme park in Lake Buena Vista, Florida. The show was designed to be and look like a movie set, and the show is dedicated to show the process of how action movies are created. The Moteurs... Action! show originally premiered with the Walt Disney Studios Park when it opened in March 2002. The Lights, Motors, Action! version of the show debuted three years later at Disney's Hollywood Studios as part of the Happiest Celebration on Earth festival, in which each of the four Walt Disney World theme parks opened a new attraction that been copied from another Disney resort.
A fake Shemp is someone who appears in a film as a replacement for another actor or person. Their appearance is disguised using methods such as heavy make-up, filming from the back, dubbing in audio and splicing in past footage from the original actor's previous work, using a sound-alike voice actor, or using partial shots of the actor. Coined by film director Sam Raimi, the term is named after Shemp Howard of the Three Stooges, whose sudden death in 1955 necessitated the use of these techniques to finish the films to which he was already committed. Once somewhat commonplace throughout the 20th century, the use of fake Shemps to emulate living people is now forbidden under Screen Actors Guild contracts, largely because of a lawsuit filed by Crispin Glover — following his replacement by Jeffrey Weissman in Back to the Future Part II — that determined that the method violates the original actor's personality rights. The method continues to be used in cases, such as Shemp's, where the original actor is deceased and permission from the deceased actor's estate is granted.
William Hickman was an American professional stunt driver, stunt coordinator and actor in the U.S. film industry. His film career spanned from the 1950s through to the late 1970s, and included films such as Bullitt, The French Connection and The Seven-Ups.
Super Dave is a Canadian/American variety show starring and hosted by the fictional character Super Dave Osborne. It ran from 1987 to 1991 on Showtime in the United States and the Global Television Network in Canada.
Buddy Joe Hooker is a Hollywood actor, second unit director, stunt man and stunt coordinator. He is most famous for his expertise in designing and performing vehicle stunts for movies and television.
Motorcycle stunt riding, often referred to as stunting, is a motorcycle sport characterized by stunts involving acrobatic maneuvering of the motorcycle and sometimes the rider. Common maneuvers in stunt riding include wheelies, stoppies, and burnouts. Sport bikes have become a common vehicle for stunts.
A stunt cock is the term for a substitute penis that is used during the shooting of pornographic films.
Motorcycle hooliganism includes street racing, street stunting, and games of tag on public roads, or simply cruising, often in very large numbers, against local ordinances.
Adrenaline Crew is an American stunt team that started in Los Angeles, California. The team was originally formed to do film stunts but also created their own series of stunt, skit and prank DVDs featuring riders performing various dangerous motorcycle stunt riding and automobile stunts on public roadways.
Kim Kahana, Sr. is an American actor, stunt performer and action choreographer of Hawaiian and Japanese descent. He has done stunts for over 300 movies and television programs and runs a stunt school in Groveland, Florida that has trained over 15,000 students.
Gary McLarty was an American stunt performer and stunt coordinator for film and television. His abilities earned him the nickname "Whiz Kid" in Hollywood.
Spinning is a South African motorsport that involves driving cars at speed in circles and performing stunts in and out of the car. It originated in Soweto in the late 1980s, and was performed as a funeral ritual in which a stolen car was spun around to honor the deceased. It is now a recognized motorsport.