The Freeman

Last updated
The Freeman
The Freeman Magazine Spring 2015 Cover.jpg
Categories Classical liberalism
Publisher Foundation for Economic Education
First issueOctober 2, 1950
Final issue
Number

Fall 2016
CountryUnited States
Language English
Website http://fee.org/freeman/issues/
ISSN 1559-1638

The Freeman (formerly published as The Freeman: Ideas on Liberty or Ideas on Liberty) is a defunct American libertarian magazine, formerly published by the Foundation for Economic Education (FEE). [1] It was founded in 1950 by John Chamberlain, Henry Hazlitt, and Suzanne La Follette. The magazine was purchased by a FEE-owned company in 1954, and FEE took over direct control of the magazine in 1956.

Contents

In September 2016, FEE announced it would permanently end publication of The Freeman. [2]

Background

A number of earlier publications had used the Freeman name, some of which were intellectual predecessors to the magazine founded in 1950.

The Freeman (1920–1924)

From 1920 to 1924, Albert Jay Nock, a libertarian author and social critic, edited a weekly magazine called The Freeman. Nock's magazine was funded by co-editor Francis Neilson, a British author and former member of Parliament, and his wife Helen Swift Neilson, who was heir to a meatpacking fortune. The Neilsons had previously provided funding to The Nation when Nock was a writer there. Nock got fellow Nation writer Suzanne La Follette to join his new venture as an assistant editor, with Walter Fuller (the husband of Crystal Eastman) as managing editor. [3] Other contributors included Conrad Aiken, Charles A. Beard, William Henry Chamberlin, John Dos Passos, Thomas Mann, Lewis Mumford, Bertrand Russell, Carl Sandburg, Lincoln Steffans, Louis Untermeyer, and Thorstein Veblen. La Follette revived the periodical as The New Freeman in March 1930, but the revival was discontinued a year later. [4] [5] [6]

The Freeman (1937–1942)

In 1937, Frank Chodorov began another magazine called The Freeman, this time a monthly magazine promoting the philosophy of Henry George and published by the Henry George School of Social Science. It was explicitly not a revival of Nock's magazine, [7] but Nock was an occasional contributor. In 1942, Chodorov was dismissed by the Henry George School over political differences, primarily that Chodorov remained openly critical of the political act of war, and in 1943 the magazine was renamed the Henry George News. [5]

In 1939, Leonard Read, then a manager for the Los Angeles Chamber of Commerce, created a small publishing house called Pamphleteers, Inc., for the purpose of publishing pro-liberty works, starting with Give Me Liberty by Rose Wilder Lane. [8] Pamphleteers used "The Freeman" as the overall name of their book series. [9]

Early years

The new magazine to be called The Freeman was founded in 1950 through the efforts of John Chamberlain, Henry Hazlitt, and Isaac Don Levine. Chamberlain and Hazlitt wrote for the anti-communist magazine Plain Talk , where Levine was editor. All three were dissatisfied with the negative approach of opposing communism and wanted a project that would spread a more positive message. They pulled together $200,000 in funding with help from textile importer Alfred Kohlberg (one of the funders of Plain Talk), DuPont executive Jasper Crane, Sun Oil president J. Howard Pew, and former United States President Herbert Hoover. Levine dropped out before publication began, so Chamberlain and Hazlitt brought in La Follette, who had worked on Nock's Freeman and also at Plain Talk. The board of the new publication included advertising executive Lawrence Fertig, legal scholar Roscoe Pound, and economists Ludwig von Mises and Leo Wolman. Also on the board was Read, who in 1946 had founded the Foundation for Economic Education. [10] [11]

The magazine launched in October 1950 with 6,000 subscribers, mostly brought over from Plain Talk, which had ceased publication that May. It was expected to be a for-profit operation, and by 1952 it had reached 22,000 subscribers and was almost able to sustain itself. However, internal disagreements over politics destabilized the operation. Chamberlain and La Follette had staked out positions in favor of Senator Joseph McCarthy, a strident crusader against communism, and Senator Robert A. Taft, a candidate in the Republican presidential primary that year. These positions led to conflicts with Hazlitt and members of the board. Hazlitt quit the magazine in October 1952, but by February 1953 both Chamberlain and La Follette had left, and Hazlitt returned as sole editor. He resigned again at the start of 1954. [11] [12]

Transfer to FEE

By June 1954 the magazine had lost $400,000 and was on the verge of closure. Rather than let it fold, Read decided to purchase the magazine. He created a new for-profit company, Irvington Press, with FEE as its owner, and Irvington purchased The Freeman. He brought in Chodorov, former editor of the unrelated Georgist Freeman, as the new editor, starting with the July 1954 issue. [11] Chodorov focused the magazine more on economic issues, taking more explicit libertarian stances than the previous editors. He also promoted a non-interventionist foreign policy, which stirred debate with more traditional conservatives. Although the content was different, the magazine continued to lose money, costing $90,000 in 18 months. [12] [13] [14]

Unable to stop the magazine from losing money, Read turned it over to the non-profit FEE. It became the foundation's primary outreach tool. With a new format and a new focus, the magazine became more successful. Within two years it had reached 42,000 subscribers, and FEE's donor base had more than doubled. [15] [16]

Name

In 1955, FEE introduced a quarterly magazine called Ideas on Liberty. When FEE acquired The Freeman, the two were merged and named The Freeman: Ideas on Liberty. In January 2000, the magazine was renamed Ideas on Liberty, although it retained the format and content that it had had since the merger. [17] The dual title was restored with the December 2003 issue. [18] From the October 2012 issue, the magazine was titled just The Freeman, with no subtitle. In fall 2015, FEE removed the Freeman branding from its web articles, and the Freeman referred exclusively to the then-quarterly print magazine.

Influence

The Freeman is widely considered to be an important forerunner to the conservative publication National Review magazine, which was founded in 1955, and which from its inception included many of the same contributing editors. [19]

During its more than half century of publication, The Freeman featured articles by economists, businessmen, professors, teachers, statesmen (domestic and foreign), students, housewives, free-lance writers, and budding libertarian intellectuals. Many of its authors went on to become noted authors, teachers, and founders of libertarian organizations.[ citation needed ]

Staff

The editors of The Freeman have included Hazlitt, Chamberlain, La Follette, Chodorov, Paul L. Poirot, Brian Summers, Charles Hamilton, and John Robbins. Chamberlain became FEE's regular book reviewer and his reviews appeared in The Freeman until his death in 1995. As FEE president, Read was also a regular contributor, as was FEE's economic adviser, Ludwig von Mises. Other contributors in the 1950s included: Barbara Branden, James Burnham, John Dos Passos, Max Eastman, John T. Flynn, F. A. Hayek, Frank Meyer, Raymond Moley, Roscoe Pound, Wilhelm Röpke, Murray Rothbard, Morrie Ryskind and George Sokolsky. [20]

Writers whose work appeared in The Freeman in its final decades included such libertarians as Charles W. Baird, Donald J. Boudreaux, Clarence Carson, [21] Stephen Davies, Richard Epstein, Burton Folsom, Jr., David R. Henderson, Robert Higgs, David Kelley, Tibor Machan, Wendy McElroy, Lawrence W. Reed, George Reisman, Hans Sennholz, Bernard Siegan, John Stossel, George Leef, Thomas Szasz and Walter E. Williams.

On October 15, 2012, FEE announced that Max Borders was taking over as editor, replacing Sheldon Richman, who had been editor since 1997. [22] On September 25, 2015, Borders resigned as editor, and managing editor B.K. Marcus succeeded him as the final editor of TheFreeman. [23] In September 2016, FEE announced that it would cease publication of The Freeman. [2]

Editors

The Freeman had the following editors (some spans overlap due to co-editorship): [24]

Related Research Articles

Murray Rothbard American economist of the Austrian School, libertarian political theorist, and historian

Murray Newton Rothbard was an American heterodox economist of the Austrian School, economic historian and political theorist. Rothbard was the founder and leading theoretician of anarcho-capitalism, a staunch advocate of historical revisionism and a central figure in the 20th-century American libertarian movement. He wrote over twenty books on political theory, revisionist history, economics, and other subjects.

Roger MacBride American writer, TV producer, and politician; 1976 Libertarian candidate for President

Roger Lea MacBride was an American lawyer, political figure, writer, and television producer. He was the presidential nominee of the Libertarian Party in the 1976 election. MacBride became the first presidential elector in U.S. history to cast a vote for a woman when, in the presidential election of 1972, he voted for the Libertarian Party candidates John Hospers for president and Theodora "Tonie" Nathan for vice president.

Henry Hazlitt American journalist

Henry Stuart Hazlitt was an American journalist who wrote about business and economics for such publications as The Wall Street Journal, The Nation, The American Mercury, Newsweek, and The New York Times. He is widely cited in both libertarian and conservative circles.

John Hospers American philosopher and politician

John Hospers was an American philosopher and political activist. Hospers was interested in Objectivism, and was once a friend of the philosopher Ayn Rand, though she later broke with him. In 1972, Hospers became the first presidential candidate of the Libertarian Party, and was the only minor party candidate to receive an electoral vote in that year's U.S. presidential election.

Bibliography of Ayn Rand and Objectivism Wikipedia bibliography

This is a bibliography for Ayn Rand and Objectivism. Objectivism is a philosophical system initially developed in the 20th century by Rand.

Albert Jay Nock American journalist

Albert Jay Nock was an American libertarian author, editor first of The Freeman and then The Nation, educational theorist, Georgist, and social critic of the early and middle 20th century. He was an outspoken opponent of the New Deal, and served as a fundamental inspiration for the modern libertarian and conservative movements, cited as an influence by William F. Buckley Jr. He was one of the first Americans to self-identify as "libertarian". His best-known books are Memoirs of a Superfluous Man and Our Enemy, the State.

Leonard Read American academic

Leonard Edward Read was the founder of the Foundation for Economic Education (FEE), which was one of the first modern libertarian institutions of its kind in the United States. He wrote 29 books and numerous essays, including the well-known "I, Pencil" (1958).

Foundation for Economic Education Libertarian education organization

The Foundation for Economic Education (FEE) is a libertarian economic think-tank dedicated to the "economic, ethical and legal principles of a free society." FEE publishes books, daily articles, and hosts seminars and lectures.

Isabel Paterson author and editor

Isabel Paterson was a Canadian-American journalist, novelist, political philosopher, and a leading literary and cultural critic of her day. Historian Jim Powell has called Paterson one of the three founding mothers of American libertarianism, along with Rose Wilder Lane and Ayn Rand, who both acknowledged an intellectual debt to Paterson. Paterson's best-known work, The God of the Machine (1943), a treatise on political philosophy, economics, and history, reached conclusions and espoused beliefs that many libertarians credit as a foundation of their philosophy. Her biographer Stephen D. Cox (2004) believes Paterson was the "earliest progenitor of libertarianism as we know it today." In a letter of 1943, Rand wrote that "The God of the Machine is a document that could literally save the world ... The God of the Machine does for capitalism what Das Kapital does for the Reds and what the Bible did for Christianity."

Suzanne Clara La Follette was an American journalist and author who advocated for libertarian feminism in the first half of the 20th century. As an editor she helped found several magazines. She was an early and ardent feminist and a vocal anticommunist.

Jeffrey Tucker American writer

Jeffrey Albert Tucker is an American economics writer of the Austrian School, an advocate of anarcho-capitalism and Bitcoin, a publisher of libertarian books, a conference speaker, and an internet entrepreneur.

Frank Chodorov American libertarian thinker

Frank Chodorov was an American member of the Old Right, a group of libertarian thinkers who were non-interventionist in foreign policy and opposed to both the American entry into World War II and the New Deal. He was called by Ralph Raico "the last of the Old Right greats."

Ralph Raico was an American libertarian historian of European liberalism and a professor of history at Buffalo State College.

Libertarianism in the United States is a political philosophy and movement promoting individual liberty. According to common meanings of conservatism and liberalism in the United States, libertarianism has been described as conservative on economic issues and liberal on personal freedom, often associated with a foreign policy of non-interventionism. Broadly, there are four principal traditions within libertarianism, namely the libertarianism that developed in the mid-20th century out of the revival tradition of classical liberalism in the United States after liberalism associated to the New Deal; the libertarianism developed in the 1950s by anarcho-capitalist author Murray Rothbard, who based it on the anti-New Deal Old Right and 19th-century libertarianism and American individualist anarchists such as Benjamin Tucker and Lysander Spooner while rejecting the labor theory of value in favor of Austrian School economics and the subjective theory of value; the libertarianism developed in the 1970s by Robert Nozick and founded in American and European classical liberal traditions; and the libertarianism associated to the Libertarian Party which was founded in 1971, including politicians such as David Nolan and Ron Paul.

Right-libertarianism type of libertarianism supporting capitalist property rights and private natural resources

Right-libertarianism, also known as libertarian capitalism or right-wing libertarianism, is a political philosophy and type of libertarianism that supports capitalist property rights and defends market distribution of natural resources and private property. The term "right-libertarianism" is used to distinguish this class of views on the nature of property and capital from left-libertarianism, a type of libertarianism that combines self-ownership with an egalitarian approach to natural resources. In contrast to socialist libertarianism, right-libertarianism supports free-market capitalism. Like most forms of libertarianism, it supports civil liberties, especially natural law, negative rights and a major reversal of the modern welfare state.

<i>Inquiry</i> (magazine)

Inquiry Magazine, sometimes titled Inquiry: A Libertarian Review, was a libertarian magazine published from November 1977 to 1984. It was originally published by the Cato Institute, then later transferred to the Libertarian Review Foundation.

Alternative media (U.S. political right)

The term right-wing alternative media in the United States usually refers to internet, talk radio, print, and television journalism and opinions which present a point of view that counters the perceived liberal bias of mainstream media.

Plain Talk was a monthly, American, anti-Communist magazine that lasted for 44 months (1946–1950). The editor-in-chief was Isaac Don Levine.

Bureaucrash Right-libertarian culture jamming group

Bureaucrash was an international network of libertarian activists whose stated goals were "decreasing the scope of government" and "increasing individual freedom", and which engaged in culture jamming.

John Rensselaer Chamberlain was an American journalist, business and economic historian, syndicated columnist and literary critic. He was dubbed "one of America's most trusted book reviewers" by the libertarian magazine The Freeman.

References

  1. "About the Freeman". Foundation for Economic Education. Retrieved January 14, 2016.
  2. 1 2 3 "Passing the Torch: from the Freeman to FEE.org". us13.campaign-archive2.com. Retrieved 2016-09-22.
  3. Winnington, G. Peter (2014). "Re-Write Man". Walter Fuller: the man who had ideas. The Letterworth Press. pp. 284–299. ISBN   978-2-9700654-3-2.
  4. Doherty, Brian (2007). Radicals for Capitalism: A Freewheeling History of the Modern American Libertarian Movement . New York: Public Affairs. pp. 54–55. ISBN   978-1-58648-572-6. OCLC   76141517.
  5. 1 2 Powell, Jim (March 1997). "Albert Jay Nock: A Gifted Pen for Radical Individualism". The Freeman: Ideas on Liberty. 47 (3): 160–169.
  6. Hamilton, Charles H. (1999). "Freeman, 1920-1924". In Lora, Ronald; Henry, William Longton (eds.). The Conservative Press in Twentieth-Century America. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 310–311. ISBN   0-313-21390-9. OCLC   40481045.
  7. Hamilton, Charles H. (1999). "analysis, 1949-1951". In Lora, Ronald; Henry, William Longton (eds.). The Conservative Press in Twentieth-Century America. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 337. ISBN   0-313-21390-9. OCLC   40481045.
  8. Powell, Jim (May 1996). "Rose Wilder Lane, Isabel Paterson, and Ayn Rand: Three Women Who Inspired the Modern Libertarian Movement". The Freeman: Ideas on Liberty. 46 (5): 322. Archived from the original on 2011-05-11.
  9. Doherty, Brian (2007). Radicals for Capitalism: A Freewheeling History of the Modern American Libertarian Movement . New York: Public Affairs. p. 655. ISBN   978-1-58648-572-6. OCLC   76141517.
  10. Hamilton, Charles H. (1999). "Freeman, 1950-". In Lora, Ronald; Henry, William Longton (eds.). The Conservative Press in Twentieth-Century America. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 321–322. ISBN   0-313-21390-9. OCLC   40481045.
  11. 1 2 3 Doherty, Brian (2007). Radicals for Capitalism: A Freewheeling History of the Modern American Libertarian Movement. New York: Public Affairs. pp. 198–199. ISBN   978-1-58648-572-6. OCLC   76141517.
  12. 1 2 Hamilton, Charles H. (1999). "Freeman, 1950-". In Lora, Ronald; Henry, William Longton (eds.). The Conservative Press in Twentieth-Century America. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 325–326. ISBN   0-313-21390-9. OCLC   40481045.
  13. Doherty, Brian (2007). Radicals for Capitalism: A Freewheeling History of the Modern American Libertarian Movement . New York: Public Affairs. pp. 203–204. ISBN   978-1-58648-572-6. OCLC   76141517.
  14. Nash, George H. (2014). The Conservative Intellectual Movement in America Since 1945 (Kindle ed.). Intercollegiate Studies Institute. Locations 682-686.
  15. Hamilton, Charles H. (1999). "Freeman, 1950-". In Lora, Ronald; Henry, William Longton (eds.). The Conservative Press in Twentieth-Century America. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 327. ISBN   0-313-21390-9. OCLC   40481045.
  16. Doherty, Brian (2007). Radicals for Capitalism: A Freewheeling History of the Modern American Libertarian Movement . New York: Public Affairs. pp. 204–205. ISBN   978-1-58648-572-6. OCLC   76141517.
  17. Richman, Sheldon (January 2000). "Perspective: Double Take". Ideas on Liberty. 50 (1): 2.
  18. Ebeling, Richard M. (December 2003). "{no title}". The Freeman: Ideas on Liberty. 53 (11): 5.
  19. Chamberlain, John, A Life with the Printed Word, 1982, Regnery, pp.141, 145-146.
  20. Branden, Barbara, "The Moral Antagonism Of Capitalism and Socialism," The Freeman, Nov., 1959, vol. 9, iss. 11; Kelly, Daniel, James Burnham and the Struggle for the World: a Life, ISI Books, 2002, and Independent Institute, review; Chamberlain, John, A Life With the Printed Word, Regnery, 1982, p.138; Rothbard, Murray, "Why the Business Cycle Happens," The Freeman, Dec., 1959, pp.52-54; Agnew, Jean-Christophe, and Rosenzweig, Roy, A Companion to Post-1945 America, Blackwell, 2002, p.309; Hamilton, Charles H., "The Freeman: the Early Years," The Freeman, Dec., 1984, vol.34, iss. 12; and, Liggio, Leonard P., "The Freeman: An Eyewitness View: How Today's Freeman Came To Be," Jan./Feb. 2006, vol. 56, iss. 1.
  21. Cleveland, Paul A. (July 2003). "Clarence B. Carson, R.I.P.: Carson Lived a Life Full of Significance". The Freeman. 53 (7).
  22. 1 2 "Max Borders to Take the Reins at The Freeman". Foundation for Economic Education. October 15, 2012. Archived from the original on October 18, 2012. Retrieved January 4, 2015.
  23. 1 2 Borders, Max (September 24, 2015). "Editorial Bias | Max Borders" . Retrieved September 22, 2016.
  24. Hamilton, Charles H. (1999). "Freeman, 1920-1924". In Lora, Ronald; Henry, William Longton (eds.). The Conservative Press in Twentieth-Century America. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 329. ISBN   0-313-21390-9. OCLC   40481045.